Pertaining to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; relating to any one of the chromosomes save the sex chromosomes. People normally have 22 pairs of autosomes (44 autosomes) ...
A gene on one of the autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) that, if present, will almost always produce a specific trait or disease. An autosomal dominant disorder can be inherited when ...
A genetic condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of an autosomal gene, one copy from each parent. The gene is on an autosome, a nonsex ...
The sensation that an amputated portion of the body is still present. See phantom limb. [auto- + G. soma, body, + gnosis, recognition]
A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. In other words, any one of the chromosomes save the sex chromosomes. People normally have 22 pairs of autosomes in every cell (together ...
1. Constant dwelling upon an idea or concept, thereby inducing some change in the mental or bodily functions. SEE ALSO: autohypnosis. 2. Reproduction in the brain of impressions ...
A mental disorder in which one never has a thought not connected with oneself. SYN: self-centeredness. [auto- + G. synnoia, deep thought, fr. syn, with + noeo, to think]
Denoting those traits closely associated with the central purposes of an individual. [auto- + G. telos, end, completeness, purpose]
Denoting a cell that propagates itself by fission without previous conjugation. [auto- + G. temno, to cut]
The act of casting off a body part as a means of escape; e.g., the limb of a crab or the tail of a lizard. [auto- + G. tome, a cutting]
Inability to recognize or to orient any part of one's own body; caused by a parietal lobe lesion. Cf.:somatotopagnosis. [auto- + G. topos, place, + G. a- priv. + gnosis]
Autointoxicants present in the blood, usually resulting in autointoxication.
Relating to autointoxication. SYN: autopoisonous.
Withdrawal and reinjection/transfusion of the patient's own blood; commonly the patient's own blood is collected on several occasions over time to be reinfused during an ...
A microorganism that uses only inorganic materials as its source of nutrients; carbon dioxide serves as the sole carbon source. [auto- + G. trophe, nourishment]
1. Self-nourishing. The ability of an organism to produce food from inorganic compounds. 2. Pertaining to an autotroph.
The state of being self-sustaining and able to produce food from inorganic compounds, with carbon dioxide serving as the sole source of carbon.
- carbon a. ability to assimilate ...
A second vaccination with virus from a vaccine sore or liberation of antigenic products from invading microorganisms on the same individual.
Denoting genes in a homozygote that are copies of the identical ancestral gene as a result of a consanguineous mating. [auto- + G. zygotos, yoked]
A plate culture of bacteria in which variable conditions are provided in order to determine the effect of these conditions on the growth of the bacteria. [auxano- + G. gramma, ...
The study, using auxanograms, of the effects of different conditions on the growth of bacteria.
The study of growth. [auxano- + G. logos, study]
Increase in size, especially as in hypertrophy. [G. increase]
1. Functioning in an augmenting capacity; supplementary. 2. Functioning as a subordinate; secondary.
Increasing the destructive power of a lysin, or favoring lysis. [G. auxo, to increase, + lysis, dissolution]
1. Enlargement of the heart, either by hypertrophy or dilation. 2. Diastole of the heart. [ auxo- + G. kardia, heart]
The chemical group within a dye molecule by which the dye is bound to reactive end groups in tissues. The a. enhances the intensity of absorption. [ auxo- + G. chroma, color]
A course of growth as plotted on a Wetzel grid. [ auxo- + G. dromos, course]
An atom or group of atoms that, by its presence in a molecule, shifts the latter's fluorescent radiation in the direction of the shorter wavelength, or increases the ...
An atomic grouping that, when present in a molecule, intensifies its sweetness. [G. auxano, to increase, + glykys, sweet]
Denoting the condition in which a contracting muscle shortens against an increasing load. Cf.:isometric (2), isotonic (3).
An atomic grouping that, when present in a molecule, intensifies its poisonous characteristics. [G. auxano, to increase, + toxikon, poison]
A mutant microorganism that requires some nutrient that is not required by the organism ( prototroph) from which the mutant was derived. Cf.:polyauxotroph, monoauxotroph. [ ...
Abbreviation for arteriovenous; atrioventricular.
AV is the standard medical abbreviation for atrioventricular, a combination that means pertaining to the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) and the ventricles (the lower ...
The AV node (AV stands for atrioventricular) is an electrical relay station between the atria (the upper) and the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). Electrical signals ...
Abbreviation for arteriovenous anastomosis.
Without blood or lymphatic vessels; may be a normal state as in certain forms of cartilage, or the result of disease. SYN: nonvascular.
Condition in which poor blood supply to an area of bone leads to bone death. Also called avascular necrosis and osteonecrosis.
1. Expulsion of blood from a part, as by means of a tourniquet or other means of arterial compression. 2. Loss of vascularity, as by scarring.
Abbreviation for atrioventricular conduction.
Abbreviation for atrioventricular dissociation.
Georg, German laryngologist, 1864–1916. See A. syndrome.
A prolamine, containing about 25% glutamyl residues, found in oats (Avena) and in various legumes; considered highly nutritious. SYN: legumin, plant casein.
A value that represents or summarizes the relevant features of a set of values; it is usually computed by a mathematical manipulation of the individual values in a set. [M.E. ...
A group of endectocidal drugs that includes ivermectin.
aVF, aVL, aVR
Abbreviation for augmented electrocardiographic leads from the foot (left), left arm, and right arm, respectively.
A genus of viruses (family Adenoviridae) that includes types of viruses found in birds. [L. avis, bird, + G. aden, gland, + virus]
Pertaining to birds. [L. avis, bird]
A glycoprotein, obtained from egg whites, which possesses a high affinity for biotin. Labeled a. is allowed to bind to biotin-tagged antibodies in order to amplify ...
The binding strength of an antibody for an antigen. [L. avidus, greedy, eager fr. aveo, to crave]
The genus of viruses (family Poxviridae) that includes the poxviruses of birds, including canarypox and fowlpox viruses. [L. avis, bird, + pox + virus]
- conditioned a. a. caused by any number of pathologic states or dysfunctions in which the supply of a vitamin absorbed by the body is inadequate for ...
Obsolete term for the excision of the edges of a wound to assist the healing process. [Fr. aviver, to quicken, revive]
An AVM (arteriovenous malformation) is a congenital disorder (one present at birth) of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is characterized by a complex, ...
AVM (arteriovenous malformation)
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder (one present at birth) of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is characterized by a complex, ...
Amadeo, Italian physicist, 1776–1856. See A. constant, A. hypothesis, A. law, A. number, A. postulate.
A system of weights in which 16 ounces make a pound, equivalent to 453.59237 g. See Weights and Measures appendix. [Fr. to have weight, corrupted fr. O. Fr. avoir, property, + de, ...
Abbreviation for antiviral protein; arginine vasopressin.
Tearing away. A nerve can be avulsed by an injury, as can part of a bone.
* * *
A tearing away or forcible separation. Cf.:evulsion. [L. a-vello, pp. -vulsus, to tear away]
Abbreviation for atomic weight.
Abbreviation for axis.
Sterile, denoting especially a pure culture. Also used to denote “germ-free” animals born and raised in a sterile environment. SEE ALSO: gnotobiote. [G. a- priv. + xenos, ...
1. [TA] Relating to an axis. SYN: axialis [TA], axile. 2. Relating to or situated in the central part of the body, in the head and trunk as distinguished from the limbs, e.g., ...
Axial tomography, computerized
Pictures of structures within the body created by a computer that takes the data from multiple X-ray images and turns them in pictures. The CAT (computerized axial tomography) ...
Extending away from an axis or axon. SYN: axofugal. [L. axis + fugio, to flee from]
The cavity beneath the junction of the arm and the body, better known as the armpit. The word "axilla" was borrowed directly from the Latin. To the Romans, as to us, the axilla ...
Pertaining to the cavity beneath the junction of the arm and the body, better known as the armpit. The word "axilla" was borrowed directly from the Latin. To the Romans, as to ...
An axis. SEE ALSO: axo-. [L. axis]
Pertaining to the line angle formed by the junction of the axial and occlusal walls of a tooth.
Referring to the junction of the axial and buccal planes of a tooth, usually a line.
Referring to the junction of the axial, buccal and gingival planes of teeth; usually a point.
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of the incisal edge and axial walls of a tooth.
Referring to the line angle of a cavity formed by the junction of the axial and the labial walls of a tooth.
Referring to a section from labial to lingual along the longitudinal axis of a tooth.
Referring to the line angle of a cavity formed by the junction of an axial and a lingual wall of a tooth.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of an axial, lingual, and cervical (gingival) wall of a tooth cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of an axial, lingual, and occlusal wall of a tooth cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of an axial, lingual, and gingival (cervical) wall of a tooth cavity.
Referring to the line angle of a tooth cavity formed by the junction of an axial and a mesial wall.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of an axial, mesial, and cervical (gingival) wall of a tooth cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by an axial, mesial, and gingival (cervical) wall of a tooth cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of an axial, mesial, and incisal wall of a tooth cavity.
The brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal axis).
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of an axial and pulpal wall of a tooth cavity.
Abnormal inclination of the long axis of a tooth.
SYN: centripetal (2). [L. axis + peto, to seek]
Denoting a nerve cell whose axon, usually short, breaks up into many branches, e.g., Golgi type II cells. [G. axon, axis + grapho, to write]
The axis is the second cervical vertebra (symbol: C2). It is called the "axis" because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of ...
Axis; axion. [G. axon, axis]
Relating to synaptic contact between the axon of one nerve cell and that of another. See synapse.
Pertaining to the synaptic relationship of an axon with a dendrite of another neuron. See synapse.
SYN: axifugal. [ axo- + L. fugio, to flee]
A device for recording scales or axes of predetermined magnitude on kymographic records. [ axo- + G. grapho, to write]
The plasma membrane of the axon. SYN: Mauthner sheath. [ axo- + G. lemma, husk]
Destruction or dissolution of a nerve axon. [ axo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
A long fiber of a nerve cell (a neuron) that acts somewhat like a fiber-optic cable carrying outgoing (efferent) messages. The neuron sends electrical impulses from its cell body ...
1. The central thread running in the axis of the chromosome. 2. SYN: axial filament. 3. The distinctive array of microtubules in the core of eukaryotic cilia and flagella ...
The recording of electrical changes in axons. SYN: electroaxonography.
A disorder affecting primarily the axons of peripheral nerve fibers (although secondary demyelination occurs), in contrast to one that affects only myelin (myelinopathy).
Interruption of the axons of a nerve followed by complete degeneration of the peripheral segment, without severance of the supporting structures of the nerve; such a lesion may ...
Extending in a direction toward an axon. [ axo- + L. peto, to seek]
Neuroplasm of the axon. SYN: axioplasm.
A permanent pseudopodium containing a stiff axial filament of differentiated protoplasm. SYN: axiopodium. [Mod. L., fr. L. axis + G. podion, dim. of pous (pod-), foot]
Relating to the synaptic relationship of an axon with a nerve cell body. See synapse. [ axo- + G. soma, body]
Incision or transection of an axon. [ axo- + G. tome, to cut]
G., Italian neurologist, 1878–1943. See A. index, A. quotient.
L., Argentinian physician, 1861–1918. See A. disease, A. syndrome.
James Ernest, U.S. gynecologist, *1910. See A. brush.
India’s traditional, natural system of medicine that has been practiced for more than 5,000 years. Ayurveda provides an integrated approach to preventing and treating illness ...
An antimalarial; an effective schizontocide in acute falciparum infection.
A structural isomer of pipradol hydrochloride partially antagonistic to its actions, used with varying results in the treatment of hallucinations and confusion.
A potent adrenergic (α-receptor) blocking agent similar in action and uses to those of tolazoline; used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases.
Anxiolytics acting through agonist action at serotonin 1-A receptors.
An antipsoriatic agent no longer used because of a high incidence of severe adverse reactions.
O-Diazoacetyl-lserine; an antibiotic inhibitor of purine synthesis; a glutamine analog; mutagenic and antitumorogenic. It retards the growth of transplantable animal neoplasms.
A class of antianxiety agents not chemically or pharmacologically related to other classes of sedative and anxiolytic drugs; e.g., buspirone hydrochloride.
An antihistamine with anticholinergic and antiserotonin properties.
A derivative of 6-mercaptopurine, used as a cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as hemolytic ...
A mixture of two or more liquids that boils without a change in proportion of the substances either in the liquid or the vapor phase; e.g., 95% ethanol (actually 94.9% by volume, ...
Denoting or characteristic of an azeotrope.
A compound that contains the monovalent —N3 group.
An extended spectrum penicillin used in treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae.
Prefix denoting the presence in a molecule of the group ΞC–N=N–CΞ. Cf.:diazo-. [Fr. azote, name for nitrogen proposed by AL Lavoisier (1743–1794)]
The red-violet pigment formed by the condensation of diazotized sulfanilic acid with bilirubin in the van den Bergh reaction.
A series of azo dyes used in preparing tissue stains.
Containing no living things; without organic life. [G. a- priv. + zoikos, relating to an animal]
A purplish red coloring matter obtained from natural litmus or synthesized by oxidizing orcinol in the presence of ammonia, lime, and potash; used as a broad indicator of pH ...
No sperm at all. The ejaculate is completely devoid of sperm. By contrast, in oligospermia (literally, few sperm) there are some sperm, but fewer than normal.
* * *
Absence of ...
Any of the modified proteins produced by treatment with diazonium derivatives of various aromatic amines; used to elicit antibody formation and demonstrate antibody specificity. ...
A reddish derivative, soluble in water, less toxic but less effective than sulfanilamide; it owes its antibacterial activity to the sulfanilamide released.
A higher than normal blood level of urea or other nitrogen containing compounds in the blood. The hallmark test is the serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level. Usually caused by the ...
Rarely used term for fever resulting from uremia. [azote + G. therme, heat]
An increased elimination of urea in the urine. [ azo- (azote) + G. ouron, urine]
Abbreviation for azidothymidine.
A synthetic bactericidal monolactam antibiotic with a wide spectrum of activity against Gram-negative aerobic pathogens.
SYN: pinta. [Sp. blue]
Abbreviation for 6-azauridine.
A term for a group of metachromatic basic blue methylthionine or phenothiazine dyes; used as biologic stains, especially in blood and nuclear stains.
- a. A [C.I. 52005] ...
A complex of azure A and carbacrylic resin; used as an indicator for the detection of gastric achlorhydria without intubation. SYN: quinine carbacrylic resin.
Staining readily with an azure dye, denoting especially the hyperchromatin and reddish purple granules of certain blood cells. [ azure + G. philos, fond]
A condition in which the blood contains cells having azurophil granulations.
Radiographic demonstration of the azygos venous system after injection of contrast medium. [ azygos + G. gramma, a writing]
Radiography of the azygos venous system after injection of contrast medium.
1. An unpaired ( azygous) anatomical structure. 2. SYN: a. vein. [G. a- priv. + zygon, a yoke]
- a. continuation (of the inferior vena cava) a congenital anomaly in which the ...
Unpaired; single. [G. azygos]
1. Symbol for boron; for aspartic acid or asparagine when it is unclear which of the two amino acid s is present; for bromouridine; second substrate in a multisubstrate ...
1. As a subscript, refers to blood. 2. Abbreviation for bis [L.], twice; barn.
: A type of white blood cell and, specifically, a type of lymphocyte. Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cells that produce antibodies (proteins) necessary to fight ...
B variant GM2-gangliosidosis
This disorder known as Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is concisely defined by OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) as “an autosomal recessive, progressive neurodegenerative ...
A two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound presentation of echo-producing interfaces; the intensity of the echo is represented by modulation of the brightness of the spot, and the ...
Also called Rochalimaea quintana), Bartonella quintana is an unusual rickettsial organism that can multiply within the gut of the body louse and then can be transmitted to ...
Abbreviation for Bachelor of Dental Surgery.
Abbreviation for Bachelor of Dental Science.
Abbreviation for L. bis in die, twice a day.
b.i.d. (on prescription)
Seen on a prescription, b.i.d. means twice (two times) a day. It is an abbreviation for " bis in die" which in Latin means twice a day. The abbreviation b.i.d. is sometimes ...
Abbreviation for boiling point; base pair.
Isaac, U.S. inventor, 1799–1862. See B. metal.
Stephen M., U.S. chemist, 1843–1931. See B. tube.
Victor, Roumanian bacteriologist, 1854–1926. See Babesia, B. nodes, under node.
The economically most important genus of the protozoan family Babesiidae; characterized by multiplication in host red blood cells to form pairs and tetrads; it causes babesiosis ...
A family of protozoan parasites (class Sporozoea, order Piroplasmida) occurring in the red blood cells of various mammals. The organisms are piriform, round, or oval and ...
An illness caused by the parasite Babesia which is transmitted from animals to humans by ticks. In the US, it is typically contracted in the Northeast or Midwest — in southern ...
Joseph F., French neurologist, 1857–1932. See B. phenomenon, B. sign, B. reflex, B. syndrome.
A neurologic reflex that constitutes an important medical examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stroked. If the big toe goes up, that may mean ...
An important neurologic test based, believe it or not, upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stimulated. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble. The ...
An important neurologic examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stroked. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble. The Babinski response is ...
An important neurologic examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stimulated. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble. The Babinski sign is ...
An infant; a newborn child.
- blue b. a child born cyanotic because of a congenital cardiac or pulmonary defect causing incomplete oxygenation of the blood.
- blueberry muffin ...
A device that allows a baby to move about in a half-seated, half-upright position. A " walker" may paradoxically delay a baby in development. The baby using a walker tends to be ...
Baby, fetal alcohol syndrome
Alcohol is capable of causing birth defects. FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome) always involves brain damage. and impaired growth. FAS also always involves head and face abnormalities. ...
Abbreviation for bacterial artificial chromosome. An artificially created chromosome in which medium-sized segments of foreign DNA (pieces of DNA 100,000 to 300,000 bases in ...
A semisynthetic penicillin with the same activity and uses as ampicillin, but better absorbed on oral administration.
Berrylike. [L. bacca, berry]
Guido, Italian physician, 1832–1916. See B. sign.
George W., U.S. parasitologist, *1890. See B.- Pettit test.
Jean George, U.S. physiologist, 1877–1959. See B. bundle.
A family of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, sporeforming, ordinarily motile bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing Gram-positive rods. These organisms are ...
A bacterial infection due to a cat scratch most often seen today in people with HIV. The disease characteristically presents with swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), sore throat, ...
Bacille Calmette Guérin
An effective immunization against tuberculosis. Commonly abbreviated BCG, it is an attenuated (weakened) version of a bacterium called Mycobacterium bovis which is closely ...
An attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis used in the preparation of BCG vaccine that is used for immunization against tuberculosis and in cancer chemotherapy. SYN: ...
The presence of bacilli in the circulating blood. [bacillus + G. haima, blood]
Rod-shaped. [L. bacillus, a rod, + forma, form]
An antibiotic substance produced by Bacillus subtilis.
An antibiotic active against certain pathogenic fungi obtained from cultures of Bacillus subtilis. [Bacillus + G. mykes, fungus, + -in]
An abnormal and persistent fear of bacilli (bacteria). A phobia is an unreasonable sort of fear that can cause avoidance and panic. Phobias are a relatively common type of ...
The presence of bacilli in the urine. [bacillus + G. ouron, urine]
A large family of bacteria that have a rod-like shape. They include the bacteria that cause food to spoil, and also those responsible for some types of diseases. Helpful members ...
An antibacterial antibiotic polypeptide of known chemical structure isolated from cultures of an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-bearing bacillus (member of the Bacillus subtilis ...
1. Posterior aspect of trunk, below neck and above buttocks; 2. Vertebral column with associated muscles ( erector spinae and transversospinalis) and overlying integument. See ...
Nonspecific term used to describe back pain; generally refers to pain below the cervical level.
The spine. A flexible row of bones stretching from the base of the skull to the tailbone.
* * *
SYN: vertebral column.
1. Mating of an individual heterozygous at one or more loci to an individual homozygous at the same loci. 2. SYN: testcross.
The reversal of the normal flow of a fluid or current. SEE ALSO: regurgitation.
- pyelovenous b. retrograde movement of fluid (urine or injected contrast materials) from renal ...
Instrument response in the absence of a sample.
In dentistry, a metal support which serves to attach a facing to a prosthesis.
In computed tomography or other imaging techniques requiring reconstruction from multiple projections, an algorithm for calculating the contribution of each voxel of the ...
Secondary radiation deflected more than 90° from the primary beam. See scattered radiation.
The backwards movement of RNA polymerase along the DNA template to a state more stable than that encountered when some base pairs disrupt the attachment of the 3′ end from the ...
A muscle relaxant used in the symptomatic treatment of spinal cord injuries and multiple sclerosis; an agonist at GABAb receptors.
Harry E., U.S. proctologist, *1900. See B. anoscope.
The presence of live bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia is analogous to viremia (the presence of a virus in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the ...
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life). Examples of bacteria ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome
A laboratory creation involving an artificially constructed chromosome in which medium-sized segments of DNA (100,000 to 300,000 bases in length) that come from another species ...
Bacterial prostatitis, acute
Inflammation of the prostate gland of sudden (acute) onset due to bacterial infection. The symptoms include chills, fever, pain in the lower back and genital area, body aches, ...
Bacterial prostatitis, chronic
Longstanding bacterial infection of the prostate gland superimposed on a defect in the prostate. (The prostate is a small organ below the bladder which surrounds the urethra, the ...
A vaginal condition characterized by an abnormal vaginal discharge due to an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. Women with bacterial vaginosis have fewer of the usual ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of germs. Sufferers from bacteriaphobia experience undue anxiety even though they realize that most germs are not pathogens (disease-causing ...
Causing the death of bacteria. Cf.:bacteriostatic. SYN: bacteriocidal.
An agent that destroys bacteria. Cf.:bacteriostat. SYN: bacteriocide. [bacteria + L. caedo, to kill]
- specific b. a bacteriolytic substance i.e., immune serum destructive to ...
1. A recurrent or persistent eruption of discrete sterile pustules of the palms and soles, thought to be an allergic response to bacterial infection at a remote site. 2. A ...
7,8,17,18-Tetrahydroporphyrin; the basic structure of the bacteriochlorophylls.
Any form of chlorophyll in photosynthetic bacteria : 1) b. a, —CH=CH2 replaced by —CO—CH3 in the chlorophyll α structure, two hydrogens also being added; the ...