Jean, French physician, *1907. See B.- Soulier disease, B.- Soulier syndrome.
Claude, French physiologist, 1813–1878. See B. canal, B. duct, B. puncture, B.-Cannon ...
A complex of abnormal findings, namely sinking in of one eyeball, ipsilateral ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid on the same side) and miosis (constriction of the pupil of ...
South African surgeon (1922-2001) who pioneered cardiac transplantation. Dr. Bernard did the world’s first heart transplant on December 3, 1967. The heart donor was Denise ...
Augustus C., U.S. surgeon, 1854–1907. See B. sponge.
Martin, German neurologist, 1844–1915. See B. disease, B.-Roth syndrome.
P., early 20th century French physician. See B. syndrome.
Daniel, Swiss mathematician, 1700–1782. See B. effect, B. law, B. principle, B. theorem.
A single random event for which there are two and only two possible outcomes that are mutually exclusive and have a priori fixed (and complementary) probabilities of resulting. ...
Lionel M., U.S. internist, *1923. See B. test.
Sir James, Canadian surgeon, 1860–1946. See B. ligaments, under ligament.
A berry aneurysm is a small outpouching (an aneurysm) that looks like a berry and classically occurs at the point at which a cerebral artery departs from the circular artery ...
Solomon A., U.S. internist, 1918–1972.. See B. test.
Pierre Eugene Marcellin, French chemist, 1827–1907. See B. reaction.
Claude L., French chemist, 1748–1822. See B. law.
Common tapeworm found in primates; incidental zoonotic infections in humans in the tropics have been reported.
Infection of primates, including humans, with cestodes of the genus Bertiella.
Exupère Joseph, French anatomist, 1712–1781. See B. bones, under bone, B. columns, under column, B. ligament, B. ossicles, under ossicle.
Ivan Georges, 20th century French neurologist. See Canavan-van Bogaert-B. disease.
Beryllium poisoning characterized by the occurrence of acute pneumonia or chronic interstitial granulomatous fibrosis, especially of the lungs, from inhalation of beryllium.
A white metal element belonging to the alkaline earths; atomic no. 4., atomic wt. 9.012182. [G. beryllos, beryl]
Ernest H., French dermatologist, 1831–1909. See B. prurigo, B.-Boeck- Schaumann syndrome.
A family of protozoan parasites, similar to those of the family Toxoplasmatidae, to which the genus Besnoitia belong.
Franz, German pathologist, 1878–1920. See B. disease, B. carmine stain.
USAN-approved contraction for benzenesulfonate.
Second letter of the Greek alphabet, β (see entry at start of letter “B's.” [G.]
Beta adrenergic blocking drugs
A class of drugs, also called beta blockers, that block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), a key agent in the "sympathetic" portion of the autonomic ...
A class of drugs that block beta-adrenergic substances such as adrenaline (epinephrine), a key agent in the "sympathetic" portion of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. ...
An antioxidant that protects cells against oxidation damage. Beta carotene is converted to vitamin A. Food sources of beta carotene include vegetables such as carrots, sweet ...
The statistical error (said to be "of the second kind" or type II) made in testing when it is concluded that something is negative when it really is positive. Beta error ...
A structure of proteins where the peptide is extended and stabilized by hydrogen bonding between NH and CO groups of different polypeptide chain backbones or separate regions of ...
An enzyme that appears to be directly involved in the early development of Alzheimer's disease. Beta-secretase is a protease (an enzyme that catalyses the splitting of interior ...
A defect in speech in which the sound of b is given to other consonants. [G. beta, the second letter of the alphabet]
One of several red plant pigments; a betalain. An example is betanin. Elevated in urine of individuals with beeturia. [L. beta, beet, + G. kyanos, dark blue substance, + -in]
A subfamily of Herpesviridae containing Cytomegalovirus and Roseolovirus.
1. An oxidation product of choline and a transmethylating intermediate in metabolism. 2. A class of compounds related to b.. (1) ( i.e., R3N=—CHR′—COO−), e.g., glycine ...
An oxidizing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betaine aldehyde with NAD+ and water to betaine and NADH; part of the choline oxidase system and of choline metabolism.
A group of plant pigments found almost exclusively in the family Centrospermae, e.g., betanin. There are two groups: betacyanines (in plants with a red-violet color) and ...
A semisynthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory effects and toxicity similar to those of cortisol; not useful in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency because it causes ...
The red pigment in beets (Beta vulgaris); elevated in urine of individuals with beeturia. [fr. betacyanin]
A circular electron accelerator that is a source of either high energy electrons or x-rays.
A β-adrenergic blocking agent used primarily in the treatment of ocular hypertension and chronic open-angle glaucoma.
An analogue of histamine that stimulates gastric secretion by an action on H2 receptors with less tendency to produce the side effect s seen with histamine; used, in place of ...
The dried leaves of Piper betle (family Piperaceae), a climbing East Indian plant; used as a stimulant and narcotic. [Pg. b., betle, fr. Malayalam or Tamil vetilla]
Areca nut, the nut of the areca palm, Areca catechu (family Palmae), of the East Indies, chewed by the natives; contains arecoline; produces central nervous system ...
A parasympathomimetic agent, used to relieve constipation, paralytic ileus, and urinary retention.
An adrenergic blocking agent used for palliative treatment of hypertension. SYN: betanidine sulfate.
A group of citrate-utilizing, slow lactose-fermenting bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) which share a similar series of antigens with the lactose-fermenting citrobacters; ...
Anton J., German chemist, 1839–1902. See B. test.
European white birch, bark and leaves of B. alba (family Betulaceae); native to Europe, northern Asia, and North America, north of Pennsylvania. It contains betulin (b. ...
Vladimir A., Russian anatomist, 1834–1894. See B. cells, under cell.
Alois J., 20th century German cardiologist. See B. syndrome.
William, English physician and physiologist, 1847–1929. See Bevan- Lewis cells, under cell.
1. A surface having a sloped or slanting edge. 2. The incline that one surface or line makes with another when not at right angles. 3. The edge of a cutting instrument. 4. To ...
A clump or wad of swallowed food and/or hair. Bezoars can sometimes be found to cause blockage of the digestive system, especially at the exit of the stomach. When a bezoar is ...
Friedrich, German otologist, 1842–1908. See B. abscess.
Albert von, German physiologist, 1836–1868. See B. ganglion, B.- Jarisch reflex.
Abbreviation for "black female" used by doctors as shorthand when jotting down the results of their physical examination. For example, a WDWNBF = well developed, well nourished ...
Abbreviation for bone Gla protein.
Abbreviation for butylated hydroxyanisole.
Name given in the East to powdered preparation of Cannabis sativa that is chewed or smoked by the local residents. SEE ALSO: cannabis. [Hind.]
Abbreviation for Brinell hardness number.
Abbreviation for butylated hydroxytoluene.
Prefix meaning two, as in biceps or bicuspid.
* * *
1. Prefix meaning twice or double, referring to double structures or dual actions. 2. In chemistry, used to denote a ...
Manfred, German physician, 1869–1908. See B. test.
Giovanni B., Italian anatomist, 1681–1761. See B. nodule.
In a clinical trial, bias refers to effects that a conclusion that may be incorrect as, for example, when a researcher or patient knows what treatment is being given. To avoid ...
Relating to both asterions, especially the b. diameter, or b. width, the shortest distance from one asterion to the other.
Abbreviation for L. b., drink.
Morbidly intense desire to collect and possess books, especially rare books. [G. biblion, book, + mania, frenzy]
SYN: absorbent (1). [L. bibulus, drinking freely, absorbent]
Having two chambers; denoting especially an abscess divided by a more or less complete septum. [bi- + L. camera, chamber]
In medicine, bicarbonate usually refers to bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate, baking soda) white powder that is common ingredient in antacids. Also, the bicarbonate level ...
The composite curve of an electrocardiogram representing the combined effects of the right and left ventricles.
The biceps is a muscle that has two heads or origins. In Latin, biceps means two-headed and is derived from "bis", twice + "caput", head. There is more than one biceps muscle. ...
Marie F.X., French anatomist, physician, and biologist, 1771–1802. See B. canal, B. fat-pad, B. fissure, B. fossa, B. ligament, B. membrane, B. protuberance, B. tunic.
SYN: epidemic gangrenous proctitis.
1. Two-headed. 2. Relating to a biceps muscle. [bi- + L. caput, head]
Gustav, 19th century German physician. See B. ring.
Pertaining to or characterized by biclonality.
A condition in which some cells have markers of one cell line and other cells have markers of another cell line, as in biclonal leukemias.
Concave on two sides; denoting especially a form of lens. SYN: concavoconcave.
Convex on two sides; denoting especially a form of lens. SYN: convexoconvex.
Having two horns or horn-shaped branches. The uterus (normally unicornuate) can sometimes be bicornuate (with two branches, eg, one at about 10:30 and the other at about 1:30).
An alkaloid naturally occurring in the d-form; found in Dicentra cucullaria and Adlumia fungosa (family Fumariaceae) and several Corydalis species; a powerful convulsant that ...
Having two flaps or cusps. The heart valve that is called the bicuspid valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Although the aortic valve in the heart ...
Bicuspid aortic valve
Whereas the normal aortic valve in the heart has three flaps (cusps) that open and close, a bicupid valve has only two. There may be no symptoms in childhood, but in time the ...
One of the four valves of the heart, this valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It permits blood to flow one way only, from the left atrium into the ...
Surgical change of a normally tricuspid valve into a functioning bicuspid valve; performed in correction of tricuspid valvar disease.
A well-known but often neglected device designed to protect the head of a bicyclist. Helmets decrease the risk of head injuries (traumatic brain damage) by about 85%. However, ...
bid (on prescription)
Seen on a prescription, bid means twice (two times) a day. It is an abbreviation for " bis in die" which in Latin means twice a day. The abbreviation bid is sometimes written ...
Abnormality in which the medial digits are lacking, with only the first and fifth represented. SEE ALSO: lobster- claw deformity, ectrodactyly. [bi- + G. daktylos, finger]
A tub for a sitz bath, having also an attachment for giving vaginal or rectal infusions. [Fr. a small horse]
Acronym for brittle hair, impaired intelligence, decreased fertility, and short stature; the brittle hair may be due to an inherited deficiency of a high-sulfur protein; ...
Rarely used term denoting of two days' duration. [L. biduus, lasting two days, fr. bi- + dies, day]
Joseph, U.S. physician, *1907. See B. sign.
Artur, Austrian physician, 1869–1933. See Bardet-B. syndrome.
Max, German neuropathologist, 1869–1940. See B. disease, B. stain, Jansky-B. disease.
Alfred, German ophthalmologist, 1871–1940. See B. sign.
Avic, French neurologist, *1902. See B. syndrome.
August K.G., German surgeon, 1861–1949. See B. amputation, B. hyperemia, B. method.
Anton, German physician, 1827–1892. See B. anemia, B. disease, Addison-B. disease.
A blood disorder caused by a lack of vitamin B12. Patients who have this disorder do not produce the substance in the stomach that allows the body to absorb vitamin B12. This ...
Alfred von, Polish physician, 1839–1888. See B. fossa.
Involving two of the presumed three major fascicles of the ventricular conduction system of the heart.
Cleft (split) in two. See, for example, bifid uvula.
* * *
Split or cleft; separated into two parts. [L. bifidus, cleft in two parts]
The uvula, the little V-shaped fleshy mass hanging from the back of the soft palate, is cleft or split. Cleft uvula is a common minor anomaly occurring in about 1% of whites ...
A genus of anaerobic bacteria (family Actinomycetaceae) containing Gram-positive rods of highly variable appearance; freshly isolated strains characteristically show true and ...
Having two openings. [bi- + L. foro, pp. -atus, to bore, pierce]
Referring to a molecule containing two reactive functional groups; cross-linking reagents are b. compounds.
- b. aortae [TA] SYN: aortic bifurcation.
- b. tracheae [TA] SYN: tracheal bifurcation.
- b. trunci pulmonalis [TA] SYN: bifurcation of pulmonary trunk.
A forking; a division into two branches. SYN: bifurcatio [TA].
- b. of aorta SYN: aortic b..
- aortic b. [TA] the division of the aorta into right and left common iliac ...
Big toe sign
An important neurologic examination based upon what the big toe (and other toes) do when the sole of the foot is stimulated. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble. The big ...
Henry J., U.S. surgeon, 1818–1890. See B. ligament, B. septum.
One of the corpora bigemina. [L. ntr. of bigeminus, doubled]
Pairing; especially, the occurrence of heart beats in pairs. SYN: bigemini. [bi- + L. geminus, twin]
- atrial b. pairing of atrial beats, as when an atrial extrasystole is ...
A small interstitial proteoglycan that contains two glycosaminoglycan chains. SYN: proteoglycan I.
Amico, Italian physician, 1862–1929. See Marchiafava-B. disease.
A plasma glycoprotein that is found in both the free state and covalently bound to the heavy chains of certain protease inhibitors. It may participate in cell growth, oocyte ...
A forceps for seizing and removing urethral or small vesical calculi. [bi- + L. labium, lip]
Having, or relating to, two sides. Bilateral is as opposed, for example, to unilateral (which means having, or relating to, one side).
* * *
Relating to, or having, two sides. ...
A condition in which the two sides are symmetrical.
: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and passes through the common bile duct into the duodenum where it helps digest fat. The ...
Bile acid resin
Bile acid resins are substances that bind in the intestines with bile acids that contain cholesterol and are then eliminated in the stool. The major effect of bile acid resins is ...
A mixture of microscopic particulate matter in bile that occurs when particles of material precipitate from bile. (Bile is the fluid that is made by the liver. It is stored in ...
Theodor M., German tropical disease specialist, 1829–1862. See Bilharzia, bilharzial appendicitis, bilharzial dysentery, bilharzial granuloma.
Disease caused by worms that parasitize people. Also called schistosomiasis. Three main species of these trematode worms (flukes)—Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. ...
a parasite infection by a trematode worm acquired from infested water. Also known as schistosomiasis. Species which live in man can produce liver, bladder, and gastrointestinal ...
A tumor-like inflammatory and fibrous swelling of the intestinal serosa, mesentery, or skin, caused by schistosomiasis.
Bile. [L. bilis, bile]
Having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. The biliary system itself consists of the gallbladder and bile ducts and, of course, the bile. For example, biliary ...
Congenital absence or closure of the major bile ducts, the ducts that drain bile from the liver. Biliary atresia results in a progressive inflammatory process which may lead to ...
Biliary sand is a term mostly used by surgeons when they remove the gallbladder to describe uncountable, small particles in bile that are visible to the naked eye. Biliary sand ...
A mixture of microscopic particulate matter in bile that occurs when particles of material precipitate from bile. (Bile is the fluid that is made by the liver. It is stored in ...
Rarely used term for containing or carrying bile.
Bile production. [ bili- + G. genesis, production]
The chain of four pyrrole residues resulting from the cleavage of one bond of one of the four methylidene residues of the porphin part of a porphyrin; specifically, the ...
The adjective for bile, bilious has three meanings. It means of or relating to bile. By extension, bilious means suffering from liver dysfunction (and especially excessive ...
A term used in the 18th and 19th centuries pertaining to bad digestion, stomach pains, constipation, and excessive flatulence (passing gas). The quantity or quality of the bile ...
Occurrence of bile pigments in the spinal fluid. [ bili- + G. rhachis, spine]
A yellow bile pigment found as sodium bilirubinate (soluble), or as an insoluble calcium salt in gallstones; formed from hemoglobin during normal and abnormal destruction of ...
The presence of bilirubin in the blood, where it is normally present in relatively small amounts; the term is usually used in relation to increased concentrations observed in ...
A bilirubin-globulin complex; a transport form of bilirubin to the liver where bilirubin is converted to a diglucuronic acid derivative and passes into the bile.
Generic term denoting intermediates in the conversion of bilirubin to stercobilin by reductive enzymes in intestinal bacteria. Included are mesobilirubin, mesobilane, ...
The presence of bilirubin in the urine. [ bilirubin + G. ouron, urine]
The presence of various bile salts, or bile, in the urine. SYN: choleuria, choluria. [ bili- + G. ouron, urine]
A green bile pigment formed from the oxidation of heme; a bilin with a structure almost identical to that of bilirubin. SYN: dehydrobilirubin, verdine.
Arthur H., U.S. obstetrician, 1877–1961. See B. maneuver.
J.J., 20th century Australian gynecologist. See B. method.
Christian A.T., Austrian surgeon, 1829–1894. See B. cords, under cord, B. operation I, B. operation II, B. venae cavernosae, under vena, B. I anastomosis, B. II anastomosis.
Surgical excision of two lobes of the right lung, either right upper and middle or right lower and middle.
Relating to, or performed by, both hands. [bi- + L. manus, hand]
Relating to both mastoid processes.
Relating to both the right and left maxillae; sometimes used when describing something affecting both halves of the upper jaw.
Denoting a frequency curve characterized by two peaks.
Involving two molecules, as in a b. reaction.
1. The second angle given the shank of an angled instrument to bring its working end close to the axis of the handle in order to prevent it from turning about the axis. 2. A ...
1. Comprising two components, elements, molecules, etc. 2. Denoting a choice of two mutually exclusive outcomes for one event ( e.g., male or female, heads or tails, affected or ...
Relating to both ears. SYN: binotic. [L. bini, a pair, + auris, ear]
1. To confine or encircle with a band or bandage. 2. To join together with a band or ligature. 3. To combine or unite molecules by means of reactive groups, either in the ...
1. A broad bandage, especially one encircling the abdomen. 2. Anything that binds. See bind (3).
- obstetrical b. a supporting garment covering the abdomen from the ribs to the ...
Alfred, French psychologist, 1857–1911. See B. age, B. scale, B. test, B.- Simon scale, Stanford-B. intelligence scale.
Paul Robert, German neurologist, 1878–1956. See B. reflex.
Richard J., U.S. physician, *1909. See Taussig-B. disease, Taussig-B. syndrome.
The dangerous practice of consuming large quantities of alcoholic beverages in a single session. Binge drinking carries a serious risk of harm, including alcohol poisoning. See ...
Binge eating disorder
An eating disorder characterized by periods of extreme over-eating, but not followed by purging behaviors as in most cases of bulimia. Binge eating can occur alone, or in ...
Eugene C., U.S. chemist, 1878–1945. See B. flow, B. model, B. plastic.
Adapted to the use of both eyes; said of an optical instrument. [L. bini, paired, + oculus, eye]
The ability to maintain visual focus on an object with both eyes, creating a single visual image. Lack of binocular vision is normal in infants. Adults without binocular vision ...
A set of two terms or names; in the probabilistic or statistical sense it corresponds to a Bernoulli trial. SEE ALSO: binary combination. [bi- + G. nomos, name]
SYN: binaural. [L. bini, a pair, + G. ous (ot-), ear]
Otto Ludwig, German neurologist, 1852–1929. See B. disease, B. encephalopathy.
A form of dementia with blood vessel abnormalities in the deep white-matter of the brain causing loss of memory, decreasing cognition, and mood changes. Patients usually show ...
Prefix indicating living plants or creatures, as in biology, the study of living organisms.
* * *
Combining form denoting life. [G. bios, life]
The science dealing with the effects of sound fields or mechanical vibrations on living organisms.
Referring to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism.
Determination of the potency or concentration of a compound by its effect upon animals, isolated tissues, or microorganisms, as compared with an analysis of its chemical or ...
The study of the effects of space travel and space habitation on living organisms.
The physiological availability of a given amount of a drug, as distinct from its chemical potency; proportion of the administered dose which is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Degree of microbial contamination or microbial load; the number of microorganisms contaminating an object.
A substance of biologic origin that can catalyze a reaction; e.g., an enzyme.
An assemblage of species living in a particular biotope. SYN: biotic community. [ bio- + G. koinos, common]
Relating to biochemistry, the application of the tools and concepts of chemistry to living systems. Biochemists study such things as the structures and physical properties of ...
The chemistry of living organisms and of the chemical, molecular, and physical changes occurring therein. SYN: biologic chemistry, physiologic chemistry.
Denoting the relationship between biologic action and chemical structure, as in food and drugs.
SYN: natural pigment. [ bio- + G. chroma, color]
Destructive of life; particularly pertaining to microorganisms. [ bio- + L. caedo, to kill]
The science of the relationship of climatic factors to the distribution, numbers, and types of living organisms; an aspect of ecology.
The relative ability of a material to interact favorably with a biological system. [ bio- + compatibility]
The science of communication and control within a living organism, particularly on a molecular basis.
ε-N-Biotinyl-l-lysine; biotin condensed through its carboxyl group with the ε-amino group of a lysyl residue in the apoenzymes to which biotin is the coenzyme; the ...
An enzyme in blood that catalyzes the hydrolysis of biocytin to biotin and lysine (or, lysyl residue if the lysine is in a protein).
Denoting a substance that can be chemically degraded or decomposed by natural effectors ( e.g., weather, soil bacteria, plants, animals).
The science dealing with the force or energy of living matter. [ bio- + G. dynamis, force]
An element required by a living organism.
1. The study of energy changes involved in the chemical reactions within living tissue. 2. The study of energy exchanges between living organisms and their environments.
A method of treatment that uses monitors to feed back to patients physiological information of which they are normally unaware. By watching the monitor, patients can learn by ...
An aggregate of microbes with a distinct architecture. A biofilm is like a tiny city in which microbial cells, each only a micrometer or two long, form towers that can be ...
Naturally occurring flavone or coumarin derivatives commonly found in citrus fruits having the activity of the so-called vitamin P, notably rutin and esculin.
1. Term given by Huxley to the principle that life originates from preexisting life only and never from nonliving material. See spontaneous generation, recapitulation theory. ...
The study of the influence of living organisms and life processes on the chemical structure and history of the earth.
That field of study dealing with the effect on living organisms (particularly humans) of abnormal gravitational effects produced, e.g., by acceleration or by free fall; in the ...
The analysis of biological information using computers and statistical techniques, the science of developing and utilizing computer databases and algorithms to accelerate and ...
A sensor or device usually attached to or embedded in the human body or other living animal to record and to transmit physiologic data to a receiving and monitoring station.
The study of the growth changes and movements that developing organisms undergo. [ bio- + G. kinesis, motion]
Biologic evolution was contrasted with cultural (social) evolution in 1968 by A.G. Motulsky who pointed out that biologic evolution is mediated by genes, shows a slow rate of ...
Biological response modifiers (BRMs)
: Substances that stimulate the body's response to infection and disease. The body naturally produces small amounts of these substances. Scientists can produce some of them in the ...
: Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is thus any form of treatment that uses the ...
The science concerned with the phenomena of life and living organisms. [ bio- + G. logos, study]
- cellular b. SYN: cytology.
- molecular b. study of phenomena in terms of b. ...
1. Light produced by certain organisms from the oxidation of luciferins through the action of luciferases and with negligible production of heat, chemical energy being ...
Disintegration of organic matter through the chemical action of living organisms. [ bio- + G. lysis, dissolution]
1. Relating to biolysis. 2. Capable of destroying life.
A naturally occurring substance of large molecular weight ( E.G., protein, DNA).
A biochemical feature or facet that can be used to measure the progress of disease or the effects of treatment.
The total weight of all living things in a given area, biotic community, species population, or habitat; a measure of total biotic productivity.
A synthetic or semisynthetic material used in a biological system to construct an implantable prosthesis and chosen for its biocompatibility. [ bio- + material]
The total complex of biotic communities occupying and characterizing a particular geographic area or zone. [ bio- + -ome]
The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.
- dental b. SYN: dental biophysics.
1. Pertaining to those aspects of the natural sciences, especially the biologic and physiologic sciences, that relate to or underlie medicine. 2. Biological and medical, i.e., ...
A structure bounding a cell or cell organelle; it contains lipids, proteins, glycolipids, steroids, etc. SYN: membrane (2).
A device for measuring carbon dioxide given off by organisms and, hence, for determining the quantity of living matter present. [ bio- + G. metron, measure]