One who specializes in the science of biometry.
The application of statistical methods to the study of numeric data based on biologic observations and phenomena. [ bio- + G. metron, measure]
- b. fetal ultrasound measurement ...
1. Microscopic examination of living tissue in the body. 2. Examination of the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, and retina by use of a slitlamp combined with a ...
An important genus of freshwater snails (family Planorbidae, subfamily Planorbinae), several species of which serve as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Africa, Saudi ...
A living thing. [G. pres. p. ntr. of bioo, to live]
Aldolpho, Italian pathologist, 1846–1917. See B.-Heidenhain stain.
Relating to or developed from bionics.
1. The science of biologic functions and mechanisms as applied to electronic chemistry; such as computers, employing various aspects of physics, mathematics, and chemistry; ...
The laws of life; the science concerned with the laws regulating the vital functions. SYN: bionomics (1). [ bio- + G. nomos, law]
An organism that derives the nourishment for its existence from another living organism.
The deriving of nourishment from living organisms. SYN: biophagy. [ bio- + G. phago, to eat]
Feeding on living organisms; denoting certain parasites.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug, and its dosage form, as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action, incluidng co-constituents and ...
Nonspecific defense reactions of the body, e.g., phagocytosis, vascular and other reactions of inflammatory processes. [ bio- + G. phylaxis, protection]
1. The study of biologic processes and materials by means of the theories and tools of physics; the application of physical methods to analyze biologic problems and processes. ...
Protoplasm, especially in its relation to living processes and development. [ bio- + G. plasma, thing formed]
A naturally occurring compound that is a polymer containing identical or similar subunits.
- aperiodic b. a b. consisting of nonidentical subunits present in a nonperiodic ...
1. Process of removing tissue from patients for diagnostic examination. 2. A specimen obtained by b.. [ bio- + G. opsis, vision]
- aspiration b. SYN: needle b..
- brush b. ...
A procedure for sampling the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Endometrial biopsy is done to learn the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding (most often), determine the ...
Examination of the first lymph node ("gland") that receives lymphatic drainage from a tumor to learn whether that node does or does not have tumor cells within it. Which lymph ...
Biopsy, stereotactic needle
A biopsy in which the spot to be biopsied is located three-dimensionally, the information is entered into a computer, and the computer calculates the information and positions a ...
An interdisciplinary area of study involving psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neural sciences, and related fields.
Involving interplay of biologic, psychological, and social influences.
A pterin found in yeast, the fruit fly, and in normal human urine. The reduced form of b. serves as a coenzyme for a number of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
A biopsy instrument passed through a catheter into the heart to obtain pieces of tissue for diagnosis. [biopsy + G. tome, a cutting]
Relating to both orbits. [bi- + G. orbita, orbit]
The science concerned with deformation and flow in biological systems. [ bio- + G. rheo, to flow, + logos, study]
A biologically inherent cyclic variation or recurrence of an event or state, such as the sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, or periodic diseases. [ bio- + G. rhythmos, rhythm]
Safety measures applied to the handling of biologic materials or organisms with a known potential to cause disease in humans. Current recommendations from the Centers for Disease ...
A specific combination of work practices, safety equipment, and facilities which are designed to minimize the exposure of workers and the environment to infectious agents. The ...
Life, in a general sense. [G. b., way of living]
Involving the interplay of biologic and social influences.
Spectroscopic determination of the types and amounts of various substances in living tissue or fluid from a living body. SYN: clinical spectrometry. [ bio- + L. spectrum, an ...
Spectroscopic examination of specimens of living tissue, including fluids removed therefrom. SYN: clinical spectroscopy. [ bio- + L. spectrum, image, + G. skopeo, to examine]
The study of organisms whose natural habitat is wholly or partly subterranean. [ bio- + G. speliaion, cave]
All the regions in the world where living organisms are found. [ bio- + G. sphaira, sphere]
The science of the relation between structure and function in organisms. [ bio- + G. statikos, causing to stand]
The science of statistics applied to biologic or medical data.
Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either in the organism (in vivo) or by fragments or extracts of cells (in vitro). SYN: biogenesis (2).
A living organism or any complete system of living things that can, directly or indirectly, interact with others.
Camille, 19th century French physician. See B. breathing, B. respiration, B. breathing sign, B. sign.
The collective flora and fauna of a region. [Mod. L., fr. G. bios, life]
1. The classification of living beings according to their anatomic characteristics. 2. SYN: cytoclesis. [ bio- + G. taxis, arrangement]
The fusion of biology and technology. Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to product research and development. In particular, biotechnology involves the use ...
The technique of monitoring vital processes and transmitting data without wires to a point remote from the subject.
Terrorism using biologic agents. Biological diseases and the agents that might be used for terrorism have been listed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the ...
A method for assessing the effect of a compound, technique, or procedure on an organism. SYN: biologic assay.
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is thus any form of treatment that uses the body's ...
The science concerned with the functions of life, or vital activity and force. [G. biotikos, relating to life]
A water-soluble B-complex vitamin involved in carbon dioxide transfer and therefore essential to the metabolism of carbohydrate and fat. A balanced diet usually contains enough ...
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of biotin amide (forming biotin and ammonia), biocytin (forming biotin and lysine), and other biotinides. A deficiency of b. can lead to ...
The smallest geographic area providing uniform conditions for life; the physical part of an ecosystem. [G. bios, life, + topos, place]
Any toxic substance formed in an animal body, and demonstrable in its tissues or body fluids, or both.
The conversion of molecules from one form to another within an organism, often associated with change (increase, decrease, or little change) in pharmacologic activity; refers ...
1. A population or group of individuals composed of the same genotype. 2. In bacteriology, former name for biovar, referring to a variant strain of bacteria. [ bio- + G. ...
A group ( infrasubspecific) of bacterial strains distinguishable from other strains of the same species on the basis of physiologic characters. Formerly called biotype. [ bio- + ...
A capsule with two compartments, used for making remedies in nascent form; the reaction between the two substances takes place as the capsule dissolves in the stomach, thus ...
Relating to both parietal bones of the skull. [bi- + L. paries, wall]
Bearing two young. [bi- + L. pario, to give birth]
Consisting of two parts or divisions.
1. Two-footed. 2. Any animal with only two feet. [bi- + L. pes, foot]
1. Relating to a biped. 2. Capable of locomotion on two feet; e.g., an iguana and some other lizards have this capability.
Pertaining to a muscle with a central tendon toward which the fibers converge on either side like the barbs of a feather. [bi- + L. penna, feather]
An anticholinergic agent with sedative and central effects on the basal ganglia; used in the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced parkinsonism. Also ...
The expression of markers of more than one cell type by the same cell, as in certain leukemias.
- polychlorinated b. (PCB) b. in which some or all of the hydrogen atoms attached to ring carbons are replaced by chlorine atoms; a probable human carcingogen and ...
Having two poles, ends, or extremes.
A type of depressive disease, formerly called manic-depressive illness. Not nearly as prevalent as other forms of depressive disorders, bipolar disorder involves cycles of ...
Genus of dematiaceous fungi that are among the causes of phaeohyphomycosis; some Drechslera and Helminthosporium species are now classified as B. species.
- B. australiensis ...
Capability of differentiating along two developmental pathways. An example is the capacity of the gonad to develop into either an ovary or a testis.
Having two branches. [bi- + L. ramus, branch]
Michael S., contemporary British cancer researcher. See B. granule.
birch tar oil
Pyroligneous oil obtained by the dry distillation of the wood of Betula alba and rectified by steam distillation; used externally in the treatment of skin diseases. SYN: ...
Felix V., German pathologist, 1842–1899. See Birch- Hirschfeld stain.
Samuel D., Australian physician, 1833–1904. See B. sign.
Refracting twice; splitting a ray of light in two.
A family of icosahedral nonenveloped viruses, 60 nm in diameter whose genome consists of two segments of linear double-stranded RNA.
A virus in the family Birnaviridae that includes infectious bursal disease virus of chickens, ducks, and turkeys and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of fish. [bi- + RNA + ...
1. Passage of the offspring from the uterus to the outside world; the act of being born. 2. Specifically, in the human, complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a ...
Any defect present in a baby at birth, irrespective of whether the defect is caused by a genetic factor or by prenatal events that are not genetic. Birth defects may involve many ...
Birth defects, study of
The study of birth defects is now usually called dysmorphology. Dysmorphology is a term coined by Dr. David W. Smith in the 1960's to describe the study of human congenital ...
The birth rate is usually given as the number of live births divided by the average population (or the population at midyear). This is termed the crude birth rate. In 1995, for ...
Parturition; the act of giving birth.
A persistent visible mark on the skin that is evident at birth or shortly thereafter. A birthmark is often due to a nevus (a mole) or an hemangioma (a localized collection of ...
bis in die (on prescription)
Seen on a prescription, bid means twice (two times) a day. It is an abbreviation for " bis in die" which in Latin means twice a day. The abbreviation bid is sometimes written ...
1. Prefix signifying two or twice. 2. In chemistry, used to denote the presence of two identical but separated complex groups in one molecule. Cf.:bi-, di-. [L.]
A laxative used orally or rectally for constipation. Same class as phenolphthalein.
The concurrence of having two kinds of serum albumin that differ in mobility on electrophoresis : normal albumin (albumin A) and any one of several variant types that migrate at ...
W., 20th century German neurosurgeon. See B. myelotomy.
A term associated with the firing of porcelain, and applied to the fired article before glazing. May be any stage after the fluxes have flowed enough to provide rigidity to the ...
The initial bake(s) given fusing porcelain at lower than glazing temperature to control shrinkage during the process of building up the dental restoration. SYN: biscuit-firing.
An individual who engages in both heterosexual and homosexual sexual relations. Bisexual can also refer to the corresponding lifestyle. In physical biology, the term "bisexual" ...
Bisexual suicide risk
High rates of suicide have consistently been reported among homosexuals, particularly among adolescents and young adults. A 1989 report concluded that " gay youth are 2 to 3 ...
Striking twice; said of the pulse. SYN: bisferient. [L. bis, twice, + ferio, to strike]
Louis F., U.S. physician, 1864–1941. See B. sphygmoscope.
Relating to any two corresponding iliac parts or structures, as the iliac bones or iliac fossae.
Bismarck brown Y
A diazo dye used for staining mucin and cartilage in histologic sections, in the Papanicolaou technique for vaginal smears, and as one of Kasten Schiff-type reagents in the PAS ...
A trivalent metallic element; atomic no. 83, atomic wt. 20.98037. Several of its salts are used in medicine; some contain BiO+, rather than Bi3+, and are called subsalts. [Ger. ...
The group, BiO+, that behaves chemically as the ion of a univalent metal; its salts are subsalts of bismuth.
- b. carbonate SYN: bismuth subcarbonate.
- b. chloride SYN: ...
Synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that inhibit osteoclast resorption of bone.
Relating to both stephanions; denoting particularly the b. width of the cranium, or b. diameter, the shortest distance from one stephanion to the other.
A molecule composed of two molecules of a given steroid joined together by a carbon-to-carbon bond.
A long, narrow-bladed knife, with a straight or curved edge and sharp or blunt point (probe-point); used for opening or slitting cavities or hollow structures. [Fr. bistouri, fr. ...
A salt containing HSO4−. SYN: acid sulfate.
A compound of the anion HS−; an acid sulfide.
1. The smallest unit of digital information expressed in the binary system of notation (either 0 or 1). 2. The electrical signal used in electronic computers. SYN: binary ...
A salt or anion resulting from the neutralization of one of tartaric acid 's two acid groups.
A female dog of breeding age. [O.E. bicche]
1. To incise or seize with the teeth. 2. The act of incision or seizure with the teeth. 3. A morsel of food held between the teeth. 4. Term used to denote the amount of pressure ...
Relating to both temples or temporal bones.
A removable appliance that incorporates a plane of acrylic designed to occlude with the opposing teeth.
An antiparasitic agent used for treatment of the human lungworm, Paragonimus westermani, and the Oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis; also used as a bacteriostat in ...
A sympathomimetic bronchodilator used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bronchial asthma and reversible bronchospasm.
Pierre A., French physician, 1822–1888. See B. spots, under spot.
Relating to two trochanters, either to the two trochanters of one femur or to both greater trochanters.
Having a dual affinity, as in tissues or organisms. [bi- + G. trope, a turning]
1. An alcoholic liquor in which bitter vegetable substances ( e.g., quinine, gentian) have been steeped. 2. Bitter vegetable drugs ( e.g., quassia, gentian, cinchona), ...
John J., U.S. oncologist, 1904–1961. See B. agent, B. milk factor.
Alexander, German physician, 1876–1949. See B. reaction.
A derivative of urea obtained by heating, eliminating one NH3 between two ureas. Used in protein determinations. SYN: carbamoylurea.
1. Having a combining power (valence) of 2. SYN: divalent. 2. In cytology, a structure consisting of two paired homologous chromosomes, each split into two sister ...
Two-bellied; denoting two-bellied muscles. [bi- + L. venter, belly]
- b. cervicis SYN: spinalis capitis (muscle).
- b. mandibulae SYN: digastric (muscle) (1).
A monomethyl ester of a 24-carbon branched unsaturated dicarboxylic acid; a carotenoid (a carotene-dioic acid); the orange-red coloring matter from seeds of Bixa orellana; the ...
Relating to both zygomatic bones or arches.
Giulio, Italian physician, 1846–1901. See B. corpuscle.
Jannik P., Danish ophthalmologist, 1851–1920. See B. scotoma, B. screen, B. sign.
V. O., 20th century Swedish cardiothoracic surgeon. See B.- Shiley valve.
R., 20th century Scandinavian dermatologist. See B. syndrome.
Acronym standing for "below knee amputation." A nurse scrubbing for a BKA is preparing to assist in a below-knee amputation. BKA is as opposed to AKA (above knee amputation).
Douglas A.K., Scottish physician, *1909. See B. formula.
Greene V., U.S. dentist, 1836–1915. See B. classification.
The Medieval black plague that ravaged Europe and killed a third of its population. It was due to the plague which is caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) transmitted to ...
Bruising of the eyelid and/or under- eye area as a result of trauma to the eye. Colloquially called a shiner.
Black lung disease
Lung disease resulting from coal mining. The silica mineral and carbon in the dust raised by coal mining can cause a serious chronic lung disease. Emphysema occurs first, ...
In 14th-century Europe, the victims of the "black plague" had bleeding below the skin (subcutaneous hemorrhage) which made darkened ("blackened") their bodies. ...
Kenneth D., U.S. physician, 1883–1941. See Diamond-B. anemia, Diamond-B. syndrome.
A familiar term for what is medically called an open comedo. A comedo, the primary sign of acne, consists of a dilated (widened) hair follicle filled with keratin squamae (skin ...
1. Temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased blood flow to the brain. 2. Momentary loss of consciousness, as in absence. 3. Temporary loss of vision, without alteration of ...
: The organ that stores urine. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and produce urine, which enters the bladder through two ...
Bladder catheter, indwelling
A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder that remains ("dwells") there to provide continuous urinary drainage. The principal type of indwelling bladder ...
Also referred to as cystitis, this form of inflammation (please see the entry to Inflammation) affects the urinary bladder. Bladder inflammation (cystitis) can be due, for ...
Among the symptoms of bladder infection are feelings of pain, pressure and tenderness around the bladder, pelvis, and perineum (the area between the anus and vagina or anus and ...
Familiar term for the scapula, also called the shoulder blade or wing bone, the flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder.
A thin, wedge-shaped endosteal implant of metal that is inserted into a surgically prepared groove in the maxilla or mandible.
Sir Charles, British physician, 1748–1820. See B. law.
Henri Marie Ducrotay de, French zoologist and anthropologist, 1777–1850. See B. ears, under ear.
Vilray P., U.S. surgeon, 1871–1955.
Arthur H., U.S. surgeon, 1897–1970. See Sengstaken-B. tube.
Alfred, U.S. surgeon, 1899–1964. See B. shunt, B.-Hanlon operation, B.- Taussig operation, B.- Taussig shunt.
A pioneering heart operation named after the American surgeon Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) and the pediatric cardiologist Helen B. Taussig (1898-1986). Dr. Taussig designed and ...
Philippe Frédéric, French anatomist and surgeon, 1798–1849. See B. gland.
A solution consisting of all of the analytical components except the compound to be measured; this is used to establish a baseline of measurement intensity against which the ...
- mucus b. the mucous covering of respiratory epithelium.
Term invented by van Helmont to denote a mystical spirit or vital force which presided over and governed the various processes of the body. Each bodily function was supposed to ...
Alfred, Austrian dermatologist, 1858–1922. See lines of B., under line.
Gerhard (Blaes), Dutch anatomist, 1626(?)–1692. See B. duct.
Abbreviation for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, a computer program that identifies homologous genes in different organisms (such as worms, the fruit fly, mice, and humans). ...
: Refers to advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia. In this phase, the number of immature, abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood is extremely high. Also called ...
1. The primordial cellular mass (precursor) from which an organ or part is formed. 2. A cluster of cells competent to initiate the regeneration of a damaged or ablated ...
1. Describing the formation of a conidium by the blowing out process of a fertile hypha before being limited by a septum. 2. Colloquial term for osteoblastic. [G. blastos, ...
Pertaining to the process of budding (and the formation of buds) by cells or tissue. [G. blastos, germ]
The cavity in the blastula of a developing embryo. SYN: blastocoele, cleavage cavity, segmentation cavity. [ blasto- + G. koilos, hollow]
Relating to the blastocele. SYN: blastocoelic.
A holoblastic conidium that is produced singly or in chains, and detached at maturity leaving a bud scar, as in the budding of a yeast cell. SYN: blastospore. [ blasto- + ...
A stage in the early embryonic development of mammals in which there is a hollow sphere with an outer layer of cells and inside the hollow sphere, there is a cluster of cells ...
A genus of yeastlike parasites in the digestive tract of mammals; generally considered nonpathogenic. Its relationship to fungi is now being questioned owing to protozoan ...
An undifferentiated blastomere of the morula or blastula stage of an embryo. [ blasto- + G. kytos, cell]
The thin, disk-shaped cell mass of a young embryo and its extraembryonic extensions over the surface of the yolk; when fully formed, all three primary germ layers (ectoderm, ...
1. The disk of active cytoplasm at the animal pole of a telolecithal egg. 2. The blastoderm, especially in very young stages when its extent is small.
1. Reproduction of unicellular organisms by budding. 2. Development of an embryo during cleavage and germ layer formation. 3. Transformation of small lymphocytes of human ...
Dissolution or destruction of the blastocyst or blast cells and subsequent death. [ blasto- + G. lysis, loosening]
A tumor thought to arise in embryonic tissue. The term "blastoma" is commonly used as part of the name for a tumor as, for examples, in glioblastoma and medulloblastoma (types of ...
One of the cells into which the egg divides after its fertilization. SYN: cleavage cell, embryonic cell. [ blasto- + G. meros, part]
A dimorphic soil fungus that causes blastomycosis. It grows in mammalian tissues as budding cells and in culture as a white to buff-colored filamentous fungus bearing ...
An antigen for intradermal testing prepared from sterile filtrates of cultures of the filamentous form of Blastomyces dermatitidis.
A chronic granulomatous and suppurative disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis; originates as a respiratory infection and disseminates, usually with pulmonary, osseous, ...
A temporary opening formed in some embryos by the union of the blastopore and neuropore. [ blasto- + neuropore]
An early stage of division of a coccidial schizont in which spheroid or ellipsoid structures are formed with a single peripheral layer of nuclei; merozoites form at the surface ...
The opening into the archenteron formed by invagination of the blastula to form a gastrula. SYN: protostoma, protostome. [ blasto- + G. poros, opening]
A genus of yeastlike fungi.
- B. capitatus fungal species that causes severe disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients; formerly classified as a species of Geotrichum. ...
SYN: Blastoconidium. [ blasto- + G. sporos, seed]
Experimental destruction of one or more blastomeres. SYN: blastomerotomy. [ blasto- + G. tome, incision]
: Immature blood cells. Leukemic blasts do not grow and age normally; they proliferate wildly and fail to mature.
An early stage of an embryo formed by the rearrangement of the blastomeres of the morula to form a hollow sphere. [G. blastos, germ]
Formation of the blastula or blastocyst from the morula.
Marc, French physician, *1878. See B. syndrome.
A genus of insects (family Blattidae) that includes the abundant oriental cockroach, B. orientalis. The dried insect yields antihydropin, a diuretic principle. [L. cockroach]
A genus of cockroaches, (family Blattidae) that includes B. germanica, the German cockroach or croton bug, probably the most familiar and widespread of the cockroaches. [L. ...
A family of insects (order Blattaria) consisting of over 4000 species of cockroaches, largely tropical but worldwide in distribution, including a number of abundant pests of ...
A bladder-like structure more than 5 mm in diameter with thin walls that may be full of fluid. Also called a bulla.
* * *
1. A large flaccid vesicle. 2. An acquired lung cyst, ...
To lose blood as a result of rupture or severance of blood vessel s.
1. Colloquialism for a person suffering from hemophilia, Christmas disease, Osler disease, or other clotting disorder. 2. A blood vessel cut during a surgical procedure.
1. Losing blood as a result of the rupture or severance of blood vessel s. 2. Phlebotomy; the letting of blood.
- dysfunctional uterine b. uterine b. due to a benign endocrine ...
1. A small circumscribed alteration of the skin considered to be unesthetic but insignificant. 2. To alter the skin, rendering an unesthetic appearance.
Inflammation of the mucous glands. [G. blennos, mucus, + aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
Rarely used term for vomiting of mucus. [G. blennos, mucus, + emesis, vomiting]
SYN: muciparous. [blenno- + G. -gen, to produce]
SYN: muciform. [blenno- + G. eidos, resemblance]
1. Rarely used term for any mucous discharge, especially from the urethra or vagina. 2. In ophthalmic usage, was synonymous with conjunctivitis, but is now obsolete. [blenno- + ...
Rarely used term relating to blennorrhea. SYN: blennorrhagic.
Rarely used term for diminution or suppression of secretion from the mucous membranes. [blenno- + G. stasis, standing]
Rarely used term for diminishing mucous secretion.
The excretion of an excess of mucus in the urine. [blenno- + G. ouron, urine]
An antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces verticillus. Often produces pulmonary fibrosis.
Inflammation of the meibomian glands or the marginal glands of Moll or Zeis. SYN: blepharoadenitis. [ blephar- + G. aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
Excision of all or part of an eyelid. [blepharo- + G. ektome, excision]
Edema of the eyelids, causing swelling and often a baggy appearance.
Inflammation of the eyelids. [blepharo- + G. -itis, inflammation]
- b. acarica SYN: demodectic b..
- b. angularis inflammation of the lid margins at the angles of the ...
A tumor or adenoma of a gland of the eyelid. [blepharo- + G. aden, gland, + -oma, tumor]