A nonmetallic, reddish, volatile, liquid element; atomic no. 35, atomic wt. 79.904; valences 1–7, inclusive; it unites with hydrogen to form hydrobromic acid, and this reacts ...
Chronic bromide intoxication, characterized by headache, drowsiness, confusion and occasionally violent delirium, muscular weakness, cardiac depression, an acneform ...
Tetrabromo-m-cresolsulfonphthalein; an indicator dye changing from yellow to blue at pH 4.7; used to track DNA in agarose electrophoresis, and in a dye-binding method for ...
A semisynthetic ergot derivative that slows dopamine turnover, inhibits prolactin secretion and release of prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and retards tumor ...
A compound that competes with uridine for incorporation in RNA and fluoresces in ultraviolet light; used in BrDu-banding.
An acneform or granulomatous eruption due to hypersensitivity to bromide. [ bromide + G. derma, skin]
Excessive secretion of sweat having a fetid odor, usually eccrine and generalized or affecting the feet. [G. bromos, a stench, + hyper, over, + hidrosis, sweating]
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (MW 670, pK 4.0), used as an acid-base indicator (yellow at pH less than 3.1, blue at pH more than 4.7); also used for histochemical and ...
A substituted triphenylmethane dye (MW 624, pK 7.0), used primarily as a hydrogen ion indicator (yellow at pH 6.0, blue at pH 7.6); also a weak but toxic vital stain.
Camphoric acid compound (neutralized) with 2-amino-2-thiazoline (1:2); an antitussive and respiratory stimulant.
The large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from the lungs. The bronchi have cartilage as part of their supporting wall structure. The trachea ...
The smaller divisions of the bronchi. SEE ALSO: bronchus, bronchiole. SYN: bronchial tubes. [G. pl. of bronchion, dim. of bronchos, trachea]
- b. sicca SYN: dry bronchiectasis.
Permanent dilatation (widening) of the bronchi (the large air tubes which begin at the bottom of the trachea and branch into the lungs). Bronchiectasis can result in very serious ...
Rarely used term for bronchophony [ bronchi- + L. loquor, to speak]
One of approximately six generations of increasingly finer subdivisions of the bronchi, all less than 1 mm in diameter, and having no cartilage in its wall, but relatively ...
Bronchiectasis involving the bronchioles. SYN: bronchiolectasia. [ bronchiole + G. ektasis, a stretching]
Inflammation of the bronchioles, part of the respiratory tree. The bronchioles are part of the airways that extend beyond the bronchi and terminate in the alveoli where oxygen ...
SYN: bronchiole. [Mod. L. dim. of bronchus]
- bronchioli respiratorii SYN: respiratory bronchioles, under bronchiole.
- b. terminalis SYN: terminal bronchiole.
: Inflammation and swelling of the bronchi. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic. Chronic bronchitis usually is defined clinically as a daily cough with production of sputum for 3 ...
Defined clinically as a daily cough with production of sputum for 3 months, two years in a row. In chronic bronchitis, there is inflammation and swelling of the lining of the ...
SYN: bronchus. [Mod. L. fr. G. bronchion]
Relating to a bronchus or bronchial tube and a pulmonary pathologic cavity.
A circumscribed dilation of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. kele, hernia]
Reduction in the caliber of a bronchus or bronchi, usually referring to a dynamic process as in asthma and emphysema, rather than a fixed constriction (the latter is a ...
1. Causing a reduction in caliber of a bronchus or bronchial tube. 2. An agent that possesses this action ( e.g., histamine, acetylcholine).
1. Increase in caliber of the bronchi and bronchioles in response to pharmacologically active substances or autonomic nervous activity. 2. Rarely used term for bronchiectasis. ...
1. Causing an increase in caliber of a bronchus or bronchial tube. 2. An agent that possesses this power ( e.g., epinephrine, albuterol).
The specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus by endoscopy and other means. [broncho- + G. oisophagos, ...
Examination of the tracheobronchial tree and esophagus through appropriate endoscopes.
Of bronchial origin; emanating from the bronchi. SYN: bronchiogenic.
A radiograph obtained by bronchography; radiographic visualization of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. gramma, a writing]
- air b. radiographic appearance of an air-filled bronchus ...
Radiographic examination of the tracheobronchial tree following introduction of a radiopaque material, usually an iodinated compound in a viscous suspension; rarely performed ...
A hard concretion in a bronchus, usually resulting from the erosion of a tuberculous or other granulomatous lymph node through the bronchial wall into the lumen. SYN: ...
Degeneration of elastic and connective tissue of bronchi and trachea. [broncho- + G. malakia, a softening]
1. Relating to a change in caliber, dilation, or contraction of a bronchus or bronchiole. 2. An agent possessing this action. [broncho- + L. motor, mover]
Any fungus disease of the bronchial tubes or bronchi. [broncho- + G. mykes, fungus]
Increased intensity and clarity of voice sounds heard over a bronchus surrounded by consolidated lung tissue. SEE ALSO: tracheophony. SYN: bronchial voice. [broncho- + G. phone, ...
Surgical alteration of the configuration of a bronchus. [broncho- + G. plastos, formed]
Acute inflammation of the walls of the smaller bronchial tubes, with varying amounts of pulmonary consolidation due to spread of the inflammation into peribronchiolar alveoli ...
Pertaining to both the air passages (bronchi) leading to the lungs and the lungs (pulmonary) themselves.
* * *
Relating to the bronchi and the lungs.
Chronic lung disease in infants who have received mechanical respiratory support with high oxygenation in the neonatal period.
A subdivision of one lobe of a lung based on the connection to the segmental bronchus. For example, the right upper lobe has apical, anterior, and posterior segments.
Suture of a wound of the bronchus. [broncho- + G. rhaphe, a seam]
Excessive secretions from the bronchial mucosa, resulting in copious production of thin sputum and most often due to diffuse bronchoalveolar carcinoma or pulmonary alveolar ...
: A thin, flexible instrument used to view the air passages of the lung.
* * *
An endoscope for inspecting the interior of the tracheobronchial tree, either for diagnostic ...
: A procedure that permits the doctor to see the breathing
* * *
Inspection of the interior of the tracheobronchial tree through a bronchoscope.
Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen. Cf.:bronchoconstriction.
Use of a single-lumen endobronchial tube for measurement of ventilatory function of one lung. [broncho- + L. spiro, to breathe, + G. grapho, to write]
A rare device for measurement of rates and volumes of air flow into each lung separately, using a double-lumen endobronchial tube. [broncho- + L. spiro, to breathe, + G. metron, ...
Use of a bronchospirometer to measure ventilatory function of each lung separately.
SYN: hemoptysis. [broncho- + G. staxis, a dripping]
Surgical formation of a new opening into a bronchus. [broncho- + G. stoma, mouth]
Relating to the bronchi and alveoli in the lungs, especially as regards lung sound heard by auscultation. SYN: bronchoalveolar.
One of the large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from the lungs. The bronchi (the plural) have cartilage as part of their supporting wall ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of thunder that causes undue anxiety even though sufferers realize that thunder itself poses no threat to them. When outdoors during a ...
1. SYN: litter (2). 2. To ponder anxiously; to meditate morbidly.
Henry A.G., English dermatologist, 1854–1919. See B. tumor.
Bryan N., British surgeon, *1915. See B. ileostomy.
A triazolo-benzodiazepine derivative with a sulfur and bromine atom in the molecule. Used as a sedative and hypnotic.
J.W., 20th century U.S. surgeon. See B. catheter.
A thin long tube made of flexible silicone rubber that is surgically inserted into the vena cava, one of the main blood vessels leading to the heart. The catheter can be used ...
1. The eyebrow. See eyebrow. 2. SYN: forehead. [A.S. bru]
Harold W., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1898. See B. syndrome.
James, U.S. plastic surgeon, 1899–1971. See B.- Adson forceps.
James H., U.S. microbiologist, *1884. See B.- Brenn ...
Brown adipose tissue, a rapid source of energy for infants in whom it forms about 5% of body weight. It is brown because the cells in it are packed with small cellular organs ...
An ophthalmology (eye) problem. Brown syndrome is an abnormality that is present at birth (congenitally) and is characterized by an inability to elevate the eyeball when trying ...
Charles E., French physiologist and neurologist, 1817–1894. See Brown-Séquard paralysis, Brown-Séquard syndrome.
Sir Denis John, British surgeon, *1892. See Denis B. pouch, Denis B. splint.
Relating to or described by Robert Brown.
William, U.S. anatomist and neurologist, 1855–1941. See B. vein.
Sir David, British surgeon, 1855–1931. See Brucella, brucellosis.
Robert A., U.S. cardiologist. See B. protocol.
A genus of encapsulated, nonmotile bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing short, rod-shaped to coccoid, Gram-negative cells. These organisms do not produce gas from ...
A family of bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing small, coccoid to rod-shaped, Gram-negative cells which occur singly, in pairs, in short chains, or in groups. The cells ...
A preparation of antigenic material from several species of Brucella; used in the diagnosis of brucellosis as a skin test similar to that used for tuberculosis.
An infectious disease due to the bacteria Brucella that causes rising and falling (undulant) fevers, sweats, malaise, weakness, anorexia, headache, myalgia (muscle pain) and ...
Carl W.L., German anatomist, 1819–1884. See B. glands, under gland, B. membrane.
An alkaloid from Strychnos nux-vomica and S. ignatii (family Loganiaceae), that produces paralysis of sensory nerves and peripheral motor nerves; the convulsive action which is ...
Alfred, German physician, *1865. See B. disease.
Ernst W. von, Austrian physiologist, 1819–1892. See B. muscle, B. tunic, B.- Bartley phenomenon.
Josef von, Polish physician, 1874–1917. See B. sign.
A genus of filarial worms transmitted by mosquitoes to humans, primates, felid carnivores, and a number of other mammals.
- B. malayi the Malayan filaria species, an important ...
A bruise or "contusion" is an traumatic injury of the soft tissues which results in breakage of the local capillaries and leakage of red blood cells. In the skin it can ...
A harsh or musical intermittent auscultatory sound, especially an abnormal one. [Fr.]
- aneurysmal b. blowing murmur heard over an aneurysm.
- carotid b. a systolic murmur ...
Fritz, 20th century Czechoslovakian physician. See B. reaction.
Albert von, German anatomist, 1849–1895. See B. membrane, B. nest.
Johann C., Swiss anatomist, 1653–1727. See B. glands, under gland.
Ludwig von, German neurologist, 1858–1916. See B. ataxia, B. nystagmus.
Alexander, U.S. surgeon, 1901–1969. See B. operation.
An instrument made of some flexible material, such as bristles, attached to a handle or to the tip of a catheter. [A.S. byrst, bristle]
- Ayre b. a device, consisting of a long ...
Thomas, British physician, 1858–1937. See B. spots, under spot, B.-Wyatt disease.
Speckled iris. Little white spots that slightly elevated on the surface of the iris arranged in a ring concentric with the pupil. These spots occur in normal children but are far ...
A naturally occurring acid calcium phosphate occasionally found in dental calculus and renal calculi.
Ogden C., American pediatrician, *1908. See B. agammaglobulinemia.
Grinding and gnashing the teeth. Bruxism is due to clenching of the teeth other than in chewing and is associated with forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. This results ...
Sir Thomas, English surgeon, 1828–1914. See B. traction.
Johannes N., Danish physical chemist, 1879–1947. See B. acid, B. base, B. theory.
Abbreviation for bovine serum albumin.
Abbreviation for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Abbreviation for brainstem evoked response. See auditory brainstem response.
N6,O2′-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate, a dibutyryl derivative of cAMP.
Symbol indicating that a gas volume has been expressed as if it were saturated with water vapor at body temperature (37°C) and at the ambient barometric pressure; used for ...
Abbreviation for British thermal unit.
Abbreviation for brevetoxins.
A nutritional (protein deficiency) disease observed in natives of the Congo and characterized by edema, skin lesions, and anemia; possibly related to kwashiorkor.
SYN: mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.
- b. braziliana SYN: espundia.
Inflammatory swelling of one or more lymph node s, usually in the groin; the confluent mass of nodes usually suppurates and drains pus. [G. boubon, the groin, a swelling in the ...
Rarely used term for pain in the groin. [G. boubon, groin, + algos, pain]
Relating in any way to a bubo.
The most common form of the plague, named for the characteristic buboes — buboes are enlarged lymph nodes ("swollen glands") — in the groin which are usually very tender and ...
1. An abscess occurring along the course of a lymphatic vessel. 2. One of a number of hard nodules, often breaking down into ulcers, which form along the course of acutely ...
SYN: ox heart. [G. bous, ox, + kardia, heart]
Pertaining to, adjacent to, or in the direction of the cheek.
Referring to the line angle formed by the buccal and axial walls of a cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of the buccal, axial, and cervical (gingival) walls of a cavity.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of a buccal, axial, and gingival (cervical) wall.
1. Relating to the cheek and the neck. 2. In dental anatomy, referring to that portion of the buccal surface of a bicuspid or molar tooth adjacent to its cemento-enamel ...
Incorrect term referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and pulpal wall. See buccopulpal.
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and distal wall of a cavity.
1. Relating to both cheek and lip. 2. In dentistry, referring to that aspect of the dental arch or those surfaces of the teeth in contact with the mucosa of lip and cheek.
1. Pertaining to the cheek and the tongue. 2. In dentistry, referring to that aspect of the dental arch or those surfaces of the teeth in contact with the mucosa of the lip or ...
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and mesial wall of a cavity.
Referring to the line angle formed by the junction of a buccal and pulpal wall of a cavity.
Malposition of a posterior tooth from the normal line of occlusion toward the cheek.
A fatty puffing under the chin. SYN: double chin. [L. dim. of bucca, cheek]
Eduard, German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1860–1917. See B. extract, B. funnel.
Hans E.A., German bacteriologist, 1850–1902. See B. extract.
The dried leaves of Barosma betulina, B. crenulata, or B. serratifolia (family Rutaceae), a shrub growing in South Africa; used as a carminative, diuretic, and urinary ...
Hermann Edmund, German physician, *1903. See B. atrophy.
Gordon, U.S. surgeon, 1807–1877. See B. extension, B. fascia, B. traction.
The leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata (family Gentianaceae); credited with emmenagogue, antiscorbutic, and simple bitter properties. SYN: bogbean, menyanthes.
Max, German ophthalmologist, 1895–1969. See Reis-B. corneal dystrophy.
Gustav, U.S. radiologist, 1880–1963. See B. diaphragm.
A mild sedative used for motion sickness, vertigo, and anxiety accompanying psychosomatic disorders.
Paul C., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1904–1992. See Klüver-B. syndrome.
1. An outgrowth that resembles the b. of a plant, usually pluripotential, and capable of differentiating and growing into a definitive structure. 2. To give rise to such an ...
George, English physician, 1808–1882. See B. syndrome, B.- Chiari syndrome.
E., Danish sanitary engineer, *1871. See B. process.
Julius L., German physiologist, 1811–1888. See B. center.
Pierre C., French gynecologist, 1846–1907. See B. obstetrical joint.
Leo, Austrian-U.S. physician, 1879–1943. See Winiwarter-B. disease, B. disease.
Combining forms denoting origin from toads; used in the systematic and trivial name s of toxic substances (genins) isolated from plants and animals containing the bufanolide ...
A group of steroids (bufanolides) in the venom of a family of toads ( Bufonidae) having a digitalislike action upon the heart; cardiac glycosides having a six-membered lactone. ...
The fundamental steroid lactone of several vegetable ( e.g., squill) and animal ( e.g., toad) venoms or toxins; also found in the form of glycosides in plants ( e.g., ...
1. A mixture of an acid and its conjugate base (salt), such as H2CO3/HCO3−; H2PO4−/HPO42−, that, when present in a solution, reduces any changes in pH that would otherwise ...
A family of toads whose dermal glands secrete several kinds of pharmacologically active substances having a cardiac action similar to that of digitalis. [L. bufo, toad]
An oral hypoglycemic agent similar to metformin.
A psychotomimetic agent isolated from the venom of certain toads (family Bufonidae) and also present in several plants and one of the active principles of cohoba; raises the ...
1. A group of steroid lactones (conjugates of bufagins and suberylarginine at C-3) of digitalis present in the venoms of toads (family Bufonidae); their effects are similar to ...
An insect belonging to the suborder Heteroptera. For organisms so called, see the specific term.
- assassin b. an insect of the family Reduviidae (order Hemiptera) that ...
The insect that carries and transmits the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). The bug got its name because it appears to " ...
The insect that carries and transmits the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that is the cause of Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). The bug is also called the kissing bug ...
SYN: sodomy. [O.F. bougre, heretic, fr. Med. L. Bulgaris, a Bulgar (hence a heretic)]
1. Any globular or fusiform structure. SYN: bulbus [TA]. 2. A short, vertical underground stem of plants, such as onion and garlic. [L. bulbus, a bulbous root]
- aortic b. ...
Pertaining to a bulb, in medicine any rounded mass of tissue (that is shaped somewhat like a crocus or tulip bulb). For example, the bulbar conjunctiva is that part of the ...
That part of the conjunctiva, a clear membrane of the eye, which covers the outer surface of the eye. The other part of the conjunctiva is the palpebral conjunctiva, which lines ...
Inflammation of the bulbous portion of the urethra.
Bulb; bulbus [L. bulbus]
Drug derived from roots of Corydalis cava and C. tuberosa (family Fumariaceae) and Dicentra canadensis (family Papaveraceae); blocks the effects of dopamine on peripheral ...
Bulb-shaped. [ bulbo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
Relating to the nuclei in the medulla oblongata.
Relating to the rostral part of the rhombencephalon composed of the pons and overlying tegmentum.
Relating to the medulla oblongata and spinal cord, particularly to nerve fibers interconnecting the two. SYN: spinobulbar.
Relating to the bulbus penis and the urethra. SYN: urethrobulbar.
SYN: bulb (1). [L. a plant bulb]
- b. aortae SYN: aortic bulb.
- b. cordis a transitory dilation in the embryonic heart where the arterial trunk joins the ventral roots of the ...
The will; a willing. [G. boulesis, a willing]
: An insatiable appetite, often interrupted by periods of anorexia. Bulimia is a psychological disorder that can be accompanied by self-induced
* * *
SYN: b. nervosa. [G. bous, ...
Relating to, or suffering from, bulimia nervosa.
A genus and subgenus of freshwater snails in the family Planorbidae ( subfamily Bulininae), which includes many species that are intermediate hosts of the human blood fluke, ...
Anything, such as agar, that increases the bulk of material in the intestine, thereby stimulating peristalsis.
Abbreviation for L. bulliens, bulliat, or bulliant, boiling, let boil.
A fluid-filled blister more than 5 mm (about 3/16 inch) in diameter with thin walls. A bulla on the skin is a blister. A bulla on the pleura (the membrane covering the lung) is ...
More than one bulla, a bulla being a blister more than 5 mm (about 3/16 inch) in diameter with thin walls that is full of fluid. Blisters on the skin are called bullae. Bullae ...
Resection of a bulla; helpful in treating some forms of bullous emphysema, in which giant bullae compress functioning lung tissue.
: Characterized by blistering, such as in a second-degree burn. Bullous is the adjective for bulla. A bulla is a blister more than 5 mm (about 3/16 inch) in diameter with thin ...
A disease characterized by tense blistering eruptions of the skin. caused by antibodies abnormally accumulating in a layer of the skin called the "basement membrane." ...
A diuretic used in the treatment of edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and renal disease, resembles furosemide.
Oswald C.E., German neurologist, 1877–1950. See B. pupil.
The raised area of a bump or bruise results from blood leaking from these injured blood vessels into the tissues as well as from the bodys response to the injury. A ...
: Blood urea nitrogen. A measure primarily of the urea level in blood. Urea is cleared by the kidney and diseases which compromises the function of the kidney will frequently lead ...
A structure composed of a group of fibers, muscular or nervous; a fasciculus. SYN: fasciculus (3) [TA].
- aberrant bundles a group, or groups, of fibers from the corticobulbar ...
Constituent proteins of the venom of the South Asian banded krait Bungarus multicinctus, a snake of the Elapidae family. Used as pharmacologic tools in studying neuromuscular ...
A bunion is a localized painful swelling at the base of the big toe (the great toe). The joint is enlarged (due to new bone formation) and the toe is often misaligned. It is ...
Excision of a bunion.
- Keller b. excision of the proximal portion of the proximal phalanx of the first toe.
- Mayo b. excision of the head of the first metatarsal.
Sterling, U.S. surgeon, 1882–1957. See B. suture, Paul-B. test.
Having molar teeth with rounded or low conical cusps, in contrast to lophodont. [G. bounos, mound, + odous (odont-), tooth]
Having molar teeth with transverse ridges and rounded cusps on the occlusal surface. [G. bunos, mound, + lophos, ridge, + odous, tooth]
Having molar teeth with crescentic ridges and rounded cusps on the occlusal surface. [bunos, + selene, moon, + odous, tooth]
A genus of hookworms (family Ancylostomatidae, subfamily Necatorinae) found in cattle and other herbivores; similar to Necator. [G. bounos, hill, mound, + stoma, mouth]
- B. ...
Robert W., German chemist and physicist, 1811–1899. See B. burner, B. solubility coefficient, B.- Roscoe law.
A gas lamp supplied with lateral openings admitting sufficient air so that the carbon is completely burned, thus giving a very hot but only slightly luminous flame. [RW Bunsen, ...
A family of arboviruses composed of more than 200 virus serotypes and containing at least five genera : Bunyavirus, Hantavirus, Phlebovirus, Nairovirus, and Tospovirus. Virions ...
A virus in the genus of the family Bunyaviridae that includes at least 160 types, i.e., California encephalitis virus and LaCrosse encephalitis virus.
buphthalmia, buphthalmus, buphthalmos
An affection of infancy, marked by an increase of intraocular pressure with enlargement of the eyeball. SYN: congenital glaucoma, hydrophthalmia, hydrophthalmos, hydrophthalmus. ...
A potent, long-acting local anesthetic used in regional anesthesia, joint and trigger point injections.
1. A rotary cutting instrument. 2. In ophthalmology, a device used to remove rust rings embedded in the cornea. SYN: burr.
- cross-cut b. a b. with blades located at right ...
H., 19th century German chemist. See B.- Liebermann reaction, Liebermann-B. test.
Karl F., German anatomist and physiologist, 1776–1847. See B. column, B. fasciculus, B. nucleus, B. tract.
See body b..
- clinical b. a b. that differs from genetic b. mainly in the added component of morbidity; a trait that is neither a clinical or a genetic lethal may be grossly ...
A graduated glass tube with a tap as its lower end; used for measuring liquids in volumetric chemical analyses. [Fr.]
Max T.F., German physician, *1885. See B.-Grütz syndrome, B.-Grütz disease.
Dean, U.S. scientist, *1904. See Lineweaver-B. equation, Lineweaver-B. plot.
A genus of motile, non–spore-forming Gram-negative rods, containing significant species of human pathogens formerly classified as members of the genus Pseudomonas.
- B. cepacia ...
Denis P., British physician in Uganda, 1911–1993. See B. lymphoma.
: A type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that most often occurs in young people between the ages of 12 and 30, accounting for 40% to 50% of childhood NHL. The disease usually ...
Joshua Harold, 1892–1981. See B. and Rand theory.
1. To cause a lesion by heat or a similar lesion by some other agent. 2. A sensation of pain caused by excessive heat, or similar pain from any cause. 3. A lesion caused by heat ...
Episodes of upper extremity burning pain. SEE ALSO: burner syndrome. SYN: stingers.
Charles H., U.S. physician, 1901–1967. See B. syndrome.
An instrument for smoothing and polishing the surface or edge of a dental restoration. [O.F. burnir, to polish]