( Cherenkov) Pavel A., Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, *1904. See C. radiation.
A natural mixture of hydrocarbons of high molecular weight; a substitute for beeswax, also used in dentistry for impressions. SYN: cerin, cerosin, earth wax, mineral wax (2), ...
A genus of marine and brackish water operculate (prosobranch) snails that serve as first intermediate hosts of a number of trematodes. C. cingulata serves as host for Heterophyes ...
A metallic element, atomic no. 58, atomic wt. 140.115. [fr. Ceres, the planetoid]
- c. oxalate a mixture of the oxalates of c., lanthanum, and other rare earths; has been used ...
Wax. [L. cera, wax]
A waxlike, golden or yellow-brown pigment first found in fibrotic livers of choline-deficient rats, and also known to be present in some of the cirrhotic livers (and certain ...
The manufacture of wax models of anatomic and pathologic specimens or of skin lesions. [G. keros, wax, + plasso, to mold]
A long-chain fatty acid found in natural waxes, wool fat, and certain lipids.
Denoting a person showing disordered behavior of sufficient gravity to justify involuntary mental hospitalization.
1. Acknowledgment by a medical specialty board of successful completion of requirements for recognition as a specialist. 2. The court procedure by which a patient is committed ...
A registered nurse with at least a master's degree in nursing and advanced education in the management of the entire maternity cycle. Achieved through an organized program of ...
To commit a patient to a mental hospital in accordance with the laws of the state. [L. certus, certain, + facio, to make]
SYN: blue. [L. caeruleus, blue, fr. caelum, sky]
A decapeptide with hypotensive activity; stimulates smooth muscle and increases digestive secretions; it is similar in structure to cholecystokinin and the gastrins, but much ...
A blue, copper-containing α-globulin of blood plasma, with a molecular weight of about 122,000 and 6 or 7 atoms of copper per molecule; involved in copper transport and ...
Lack of the protein ceruloplasmin from the blood and accumulation of iron in the pancreas, liver and brain, causing diabetes and progressive nervous system degeneration with the ...
The soft, brownish yellow, waxy secretion (a modified sebum) of the ceruminous glands of the external auditory meatus. SYN: ear wax, earwax. [L. cera, wax]
- c. inspissatum, ...
One of several substances instilled into the external auditory canal to soften wax. [ cerumen, + G. lysis, a loosening]
A usually benign adenomatous tumor of ceruminous glands of the external auditory canal.
SYN: lead carbonate. [L. cerussa]
An animal with its mesencephalon transected; it breathes spontaneously but is unresponsive, with abnormal pupils (usually dilated) and a continuous sleep pattern in the ...
Having to do with any kind of neck including the neck on which the head is perched and the neck of the uterus. The word "cervix" in Latin means "neck". That is ...
A soft rubber cup with a round rim designed to fit snugly around the cervix and act as a barrier contraceptive device. A spermicide is applied to the cap before insertion to ...
Encircling of an incompetent cervix (one that is abnormally liable to dilate), with a ring or loop, to prevent a miscarriage.
A disk shaped piece of specialized tissue that separates the vertebral bones of the spinal column in the neck. The center of the disc, which is called the nucleus, is soft, ...
Changes from normal in the cells lining the cervix of the uterus. Cervical dysplasia involves a sequence of cellular changes from mild to severe that are not yet cancerous but ...
Difficult labor and delivery caused by mechanical obstruction at the cervix. Dystocia comes from the Greek "dys" meaning "difficult, painful, disordered, ...
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
: A general term for the growth of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix. Numbers from 1 to 3 may be used to describe how much of the cervix contains abnormal cells. Also ...
Cervical kyphosis, postmenopausal
An outward curvature (kyphosis) of the cervical vertebrae (the bones of the neck), creating a hump at the back of the neck. This condition, once thought to be a characteristic ...
A supernumerary (extra) rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. It is located above the normal first rib. A cervical rib is present in only about 1 in 200 (0.5%) of ...
Cervical vertebra, first
The first cervical (neck) vertebra is called the atlas. It supports the head. The atlas bone is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its ...
Cervical vertebra, second
The second cervical vertebra is called the axis. It is so-named because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of the second ...
The cervical (neck) vertebrae are the upper 7 vertebrae in the spinal column (the vertebral column). They are designated C1 through C7 from the top down. C1 is called the ...
- c. ascendens 1. SYN: iliocostalis cervicis (muscle). 2. SYN: ascending cervical artery.
Surgical removal of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina. Cervicectomy is also called trachelectomy. Cervicectomy is done in younger women ...
Inflammation of the mucous membrane, frequently involving also the deeper structures, of the cervix uteri. SYN: trachelitis.
A cervix, or neck, in any sense. [L. cervix, neck]
Relating to the buccal region of the neck of a premolar or molar tooth.
Technique, equivalent to colposcopy, for photographing part or all of the uterine cervix. [cervix + G. grapho, to write]
Relating to the labial region of the neck of an incisor or canine tooth.
Relating to the lingual region of the cervix of a tooth.
Referring to the point angle formed by the junction of the cervical (gingival), lingual, and axial walls of a cavity.
Rearrangement of tissue of the cervix uteri or the neck.
Relating to: 1. The neck and thorax; 2. The transition between the neck and thorax; 3. The fusion of these vertebrae.
Incision into the cervix uteri. SYN: trachelotomy. [ cervico- + G. tome, incision]
The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, pear-shaped organ, is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. The ...
A cervix that is abnormally liable to dilate and so is not competent to hold the fetus and keep it from being spontaneously aborted (miscarried).
The hydrocarbon radical C26H53— of c. alcohol (hexacosanol). SYN: hexacosyl.
Denoting a c. section, which was included under lex cesarea, Roman law (715 B.C.); not because performed at the birth of Julius Caesar (100 B.C.).
The obstetrical procedure is often spelled this way in the U.S. with just an "e" although the Roman emperor remains Caesar in America with an "ae". Also ...
A metallic element, atomic no. 55, atomic wt. 132.90543; a member of the alkali metal group. 137Cs (half-life equal to 30.1 years) is used in the treatment of certain ...
Raymond, French neurologist, 1872–1934. See C.- Chenais syndrome.
A subclass of tapeworms (class Cestoidea), containing the typical members of this group, including the segmented tapeworms that parasitize humans and domestic animals. SYN: ...
A subclass of the class Cestoidea, containing tapeworms that lack a scolex and are unsegmented (monozoic), in contrast to the typical tapeworms in the subclass Cestoda; ...
Common name for tapeworms of the class Cestoidea or its subclasses, Cestoda and Cestodaria.
Disease caused by infection with a cestode.
The tapeworms, a class of platyhelminth flatworms characterized by lack of an alimentary canal and, in typical forms ( subclass Cestoda), by a segmented body with a scolex or ...
SYN: spermaceti. [G. ketos, a whale]
A component of the hydrophilic ointment ingredient known as emulsifying wax; a mixture of solid aliphatic alcohols consisting chiefly of stearyl and cetyl alcohols.
The dried plant, C. islandica (family Parmeliaceae), a lichen, not a moss, used as a demulcent and as a folk remedy for bronchitis. SYN: Iceland moss. [L. caetra, a short ...
The univalent radical C16H33— of c. alcohol.
- c. alcohol the 16-carbon alcohol corresponding to palmitic acid, so called because it is isolated from among the hydrolysis ...
The monohydrate of the quaternary salt of pyridine and cetyl chloride; a cationic detergent with antiseptic action against nonsporulating bacteria.
A mixture of dodecyl-, tetradecyl-, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides; an odorless surface-active agent, readily soluble in water; a disinfectant with a strong ...
SYN: sabadilla. [Sp. dim. of cebada, barley]
An alkaloid occurring in the seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale ( Sabadilla officinarum), family Liliaceae; highly irritating to skin and mucous membranes. SEE ALSO: veratrine.
Commonly used abbreviation for cystic fibrosis, one of the most frequent and serious genetic diseases, CF affects the exocrine glands and is characterized by the production of ...
Abbreviation for critical fusion frequency. See critical flicker fusion frequency.
Abbreviation for chorionic gonadotropin; phosgene.
Abbreviation for catabolite gene activator.
Abbreviation for cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate.
Abbreviation for chorionic “growth hormone-prolactin”.
Abbreviation for calcitonin gene-related peptide.
Abbreviation for centimeter-gram-second. See centimeter-gram-second system, centimeter-gram-second unit.
Abbreviation for crown-heel length.
Abbreviation for Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Surgery.
Abbreviation for Chirurgiae Doctor, Doctor of Surgery.
Charles G., U.S. neurologist, 1861–1936. See C. reflex, C. sign.
James R., U.S. gynecologist, 1844–1905. See C. sign.
SYN: seta. [Mod. L. fr. G. chaite, stiff hair]
To cause irritation of the skin by friction. [Fr. chauffer, to heat, fr. L. calefacio, to make warm]
Carlos, Brazilian physician, 1879–1934. See C. disease, C.- Cruz disease.
Small granuloma in the skin caused by early multiplication of Trypanosoma cruzi ( Chagas disease).
1. In chemistry, a series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds. 2. In bacteriology, a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and ...
A set of three adjacent bases in the DNA or their complementary bases in messenger RNA that specifies the end of a polypeptide chain. The three chain-termination codons (in ...
Learning related behaviors in a series in which each response serves as a stimulus for the next response.
Inhibition and relaxation of any previously sustained contraction of muscle, usually of a synergic group of muscles. [G. chalao, to loosen]
1. SYN: chalazion. 2. Suspensory ligament of the yolk in a bird's egg. [G. hail; a small tubercle, a sty (Galen)]
A cyst of the little glands in the eyelids that make a lubricant which they discharge through tiny openings in the edges of the lids. The lubricant is a fatty substance called ...
The parent compound of a series of plant pigments. All are flavonoids and typically are yellow to orange in color. SYN: benzalacetophenone.
Chronic copper poisoning. SYN: chalkitis. [G. chalkos, copper, brass]
- c. lentis a cataract caused by excessive intraocular copper. SYN: copper cataract, sunflower ...
Pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of dust incident to the occupation of stone cutting. SYN: flint disease. [G. chalix, gravel]
SYN: calcium carbonate. [L. calx]
- French c. SYN: talc.
- prepared c. purified native calcium carbonate, usually molded into cones; used as a mild astringent and antacid.
SYN: chalcosis. [G. chalkos, copper, brass]
Originally, a hormone ( e.g., enterogastrone) that inhibits rather than stimulates; now, any one of a number of mitotic inhibitors (often glycoproteins) elaborated by a tissue ...
Obsolete term for impregnated with or containing iron salts and for a therapeutic agent containing iron. [G. chalyps (chalyb-), steel]
A compartment or enclosed space. SEE ALSO: camera. [L. camera]
- altitude c. a decompression c. for simulating a high altitude environment, particularly its low barometric ...
The space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris. The cornea is the outer, transparent, dome-like structure that covers the iris, pupil, and the anterior ...
The space in the eye behind the iris and in front of the lens. The iris is the colored ring of tissue that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by adjusting the size of ...
W. Edward, U.S. radiologist, 1891–1947. See C. line.
Peter, English obstetrician, 1560–1631. See C. forceps.
Having a flat head; denoting a skull with a vertical index of 70 or less; similar to tapinocephalic. SYN: chamecephalous. [G. chamai, on the ground (low, stunted), + kephale, ...
Having a broad face. [G. chamai (adv.), on the ground (low, spread out), + prosopikos, facial]
A marginal finish on an extracoronal cavity preparation of a tooth which describes a curve from an axial wall to the cavosurface. [fr. O.Fr. chanfrein(t), beveled edge]
The flowering heads of Anthemis nobilis (family Compositae); a stomachic. SYN: camomile. [G. chamaimelon, c., fr. chamai, on the ground, + melon, apple]
The Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (in the United States). CHAMPUS is a federally-funded health program that provides beneficiaries with medical ...
Christian, French physician, *1885. See C. fixative.
I., 20th century British hematologist. See Dorfman-C. syndrome.
G.Q., 20th century British radiologist. See C. fracture.
The classic non-painful ulcer of syphilis. The chancre forms in the first (primary) stage of syphilis, is highly contagious and can last 1-5 weeks. The disease can be transmitted ...
An infectious, painful, ragged venereal ulcer at the site of infection by Haemophilus ducreyi, beginning after an incubation period of 3–7 days; seen more commonly in men; ...
Paul A., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1896. See C. syndrome.
An alteration; in pathology, structural alteration of which the cause and significance is uncertain. SYN: shift.
- Armanni-Ebstein c. SYN: Armanni-Ebstein kidney.
- Baggenstoss ...
Change, single base
A change in which a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. These single base changes are also called SNPs or "snips." Millions of SNP's have been ...
Jean-Pierre, French 20th century biochemist. See Monod-Wyman-C. model.
A furrow, gutter, or groovelike passageway. SEE ALSO: canal. [L. canalis]
- ion c. a specific macromolecular protein pathway, with an aqueous “pore,” that traverses the lipid ...
SYN: ion channel disorders, under disorder. [channel + G. pathos, disease]
André, French bacteriologist, 1851–1919. See C. reaction.
1. State of such total disorganization that it has no constructive predicates. 2. A state in which no causal relationships are operating. [G., primeval formless void]
The property of certain substances, usually ions ( e.g., SCN−, ClO4−, guanidinium), to disrupt the structure of water and thereby promote the solubility of nonpolar ...
Acronym for cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cisplatin, a chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
1. A protein required for the proper folding and/or assembly of another protein or protein complex. 2. One who accompanies a physician during examination of a patient of the ...
A disease marked by subcutaneous nodules, the size of a pigeon's egg, which break down, release a fatty looking material, and form ulcers; the eruption is preceded by severe ...
Having or pertaining to skin, especially of the hands, that is dry, scaly, and fissured, owing to the action of cold or to the excess rate of evaporation of moisture from the ...
Dry, cracked or sore lips, usually in cold, windy, dry weather and less often in warm weather. Sun exposure can contribute to chapping of the lips. Licking or biting the lips does ...
A genetic disorder characterized by patent ductus arteriosis and unusual facial features including a long philtrum (increase in the distance between the nose and upper lip), ...
An attribute in individuals that is amenable to formal and logical analysis and may be used as the basis of generalizations about classes and other statements that transcend ...
1. SYN: character. 2. Typical or distinctive of a particular disorder.
- receiver operating c. (ROC) a plot of the sensitivity of a diagnostic test as a function of ...
The discernment, description, or attributing of distinguishing traits.
- denture c. modification of the form and color of the denture base and/or teeth to produce a more lifelike ...
A resin obtained from mature leaves of selected varieties of Cannabis sativa; used for smoking.
Known also as anthrax, charbon is a serious bacterial infection. It is not primarily a human disease but rather an infection of animals. Cattle, sheep, horses, mules, and some ...
Carbon obtained by heating or burning wood with restricted access of air. SYN: carbo.
- activated c. the residue from the destructive distillation of various organic materials, ...
Jean M., French neurologist, 1825–1893. See C. arteries, C. disease, C. intermittent fever, C. gait, C. joint, C. syndrome, C. triad, C. vertigo, C.- Leyden crystals, under ...
A neuromuscular disease, the most common inherited disorder of peripheral nerves, characterized by progressively debilitating weakness. The disease is also called peroneal ...
Erwin, Austrian-U.S. biochemist, *1905. See C. rule.
A medical fraud claiming to cure disease by useless procedures, secret remedies, and worthless diagnostic and therapeutic machines. SYN: quack. [Fr., fr. It. ciarlare, to ...
A fraudulent claim to medical knowledge; treating the sick without knowledge of medicine or authority to practice medicine. SYN: quackery.
Jacques, French physicist, 1746–1823. See C. law.
Localized pain or muscle stiffness following a contusion of a muscle. [slang]
Willy, German physician, *1889. See Schultz-C. phenomenon, Schultz-C. reaction.
Sir John, English orthopedic surgeon, 1911–1982. See C. hip arthroplasty.
Joseph F.B., French instrument maker, 1803–1876. See C. scale.
1. A recording of clinical data relating to a patient's case. 2. SYN: curve (2). 3. In optics, symbols of graduated size for measuring visual acuity, or test types for ...
The familiar eye chart used to measure how well you see at various distances. Snellen's chart is imprinted with block letters that line-by-line decrease in size, corresponding ...
W.J., U.S. dentist. See C. method.
Making a record in tabular or graph form of the progress of a patient's condition. SYN: clinical recording.
Chasing the dragon
A practice of heroin use involving heating heroin and then inhaling it. Some heroin users have gone to this practice because they believe erroneously that it will protect them ...
Edouard P.M., French surgeon, 1804–1879. See C. space, C. tubercle.
Anand P. See Gorlin-C.- Moss syndrome.
Anatole M.E., French physician, 1855–1932. See C. syndrome, Still-C. syndrome.
The fixed oil expressed from seeds of Taraktogenos kurzii and Hydnocarpus wightiana (family Flacourtiaceae); formerly used in the treatment of leprosy. SYN: gynocardia oil, ...
François, French physician, 1746–1828. See C. line, C. sign.
Herman E.S., U.S. prosthodontist, 1880–1933. See C. method.
Congenital heart disease, a malformation of the heart or the large blood vessels near the heart. The term “congenital” speaks only to time, not to causation; it means ...
Walter B., English pediatrician, 1835–1910. See C. disease.
Sir George L., British surgeon, 1865–1951. See C. slit.
Moisés, 20th century Cuban physician. See C.- Higashi disease, C.-Steinbrinck- Higashi anomaly, C.-Steinbrinck- Higashi syndrome.
The side of the face forming the side wall of the mouth. The cheek bone is part of the temporal bone of the skull that provides the prominence of the cheek. The word "cheek" ...
1. Excision of a portion of the lip. 2. Chiseling away bony irregularities at osteochondral margin of a joint cavity that interfere with movements of the joint. [ cheil- + G. ...
A cephalometric point located at the angle (corner) of the mouth. [G. cheilos, lips]
Inflammation of the lips or of a lip. Cheilitis can also be spelled chilitis. Angular cheilitis is inflammation and fissuring radiating from the commissures (angles) of the mouth ...
Inflammation of the lips or of a lip. SEE ALSO: cheilosis. [ cheil- + G. -itis, inflammation]
- actinic c. SYN: solar c..
- angular c. inflammation and fissuring radiating from ...
Associated condition of cleft mandible and lower lip, and bifid tongue. [cheilo- + G. gnathos, jaw, + glossa, tongue, + schisis, cleft]
Cleft lip with cleft upper jaw and palate. SYN: cheilognathopalatoschisis. [cheilo- + G. gnathos, jaw, + ouranos, sky (roof of mouth), + schisis, cleft]
Old term for plastic surgery of the lips. [cheilo- + G. plastos, formed]
A condition characterized by dry scaling and fissuring of the lips, attributed by some to riboflavin and other nutritional deficiencies. SEE ALSO: cheilitis. [ cheil- + G. ...
Incision into the lip. [cheilo- + G. tome, incision]
Obsolete term for pain and paresthesia in the hand.
- c. paresthetica compression neuropathy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve, marked by pain and paresthesia over ...
Obsolete term for inflammation of the joints of the hand. SYN: chirarthritis. [ cheir- + arthritis]
Able to distinguish between right and left, as of the hands or of which side of the body is touched. SYN: chirognostic. [cheiro- + G. gnostikos, perceptive]
The subjective sensation of movement of the hands. SYN: chirokinesthesia. [cheiro- + G. kinesis, movement, + aisthesis, sensation]
Rarely used term for pain in the hands and in the feet. SYN: chiropodalgia. [cheiro- + G. pous, foot, + algos, pain]
SYN: dyshidrosis. [cheiro- + G. pompholyx, a bubble, fr. pomphos, a blister]
Rarely used term for spasm of the muscles of the hand, as in writers' cramp. SYN: chirospasm. [cheiro- + G. spasmos, spasm]
A gene on chromosome 22q that encodes a kinase enzyme and influences a person's susceptibility to breast cancer. A variant (allele) of CHEK2 that abolishes its kinase activity ...
1. To effect chelation. 2. Pertaining to chelation. 3. A complex formed through chelation.
Complex formation involving a metal ion and two or more polar groupings of a single molecule; thus, in heme, the Fe2+ ion is chelated by the porphyrin ring. C. can be used to ...
One of the two anterior appendages of arachnids; in ticks and parasitic mites, the chelicerae are piercing and cutting structures, and constitute important feeding organs. [G. ...
SYN: cubital fossa. [G. c., a swallow, because of fancied resemblance to the shape of a swallow's tail]
A chemosurgical technique designed to remove acne scars or treat chronic skin changes caused by exposure to sunlight. SYN: chemical peeling.
A process in which one substance is transformed into another. Thousands of different types of chemical reactions occur in the body and are essential to its structure and function.
Light produced by chemical action usually at, or below, room temperature. SYN: chemoluminescence.
A square of gauze fastened to a catheter passed through its center; used to retain a tampon packed around the catheter inserted into a wound, such as that resulting from a ...
1. A specialist or expert in chemistry. 2. Pharmacist (British).
1. The science concerned with the atomic composition of substances, the elements, and their interreactions, as well as the formation, decomposition, and properties of molecules. ...
Slang for chemotherapy — drug therapy for cancer. Most anticancer drugs are given IV (into a vein) or IM (into muscle). Some anticancer agents are taken orally (by mouth). ...
Chemical substances that influence the migration of cells. [ chem- + attract + -i]
An organism that depends on chemicals for its energy and principally on carbon dioxide for its carbon. SYN: chemolithotroph. [chemo- + G. autos, self, + trophikos, nourishing]
Study devoted to elucidation of correlations between the chemical constitution of various materials and their ability to modify the function and morphology of biological ...
Any substance that destroys tissue upon application. SYN: chemical cautery, chemicocautery.
Aortic body, carotid body, chemoreceptor, or glomus jugulare tumor; nonchromaffin paraganglioma; receptoma; a relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the ...
Multiple tumors of perivascular tissue of carotid body or presumed chemoreceptor type, which have been reported in the lungs as minute neoplasms.
Differentiation of the cellular chemical constituents in the embryo prior to cytodifferentiation; sometimes recognizable histochemically. SYN: invisible differentiation.
SYN: chemoorganotroph. [ chem- + G. heteros, other, + trophe, nourishment]
One of a large group of proteins that act as lures and were first found attracting white blood cells. The chemokines are involved in a wide variety of processes including acute ...