An important species of cosmopolitan tapeworm of fowls, occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by houseflies and stableflies; related to Dipylidium, the double-pored ...
1. To prevent respiration by compression or obstruction of the larynx or trachea; common expression for laryngospasm. 2. Any obstruction of the esophagus in herbivorous animals ...
A manifestation of decompression sickness or altitude sickness characterized by dyspnea, coughing, and choking.
Choking (object in airway)
Partial or complete obstruction of the airway can be due to a foreign body (e.g., food, a bead, toy, etc.) The onset of respiratory distress may be sudden with cough. There is ...
1. An agent that promotes the flow of bile into the intestine, especially as a result of contraction of the gallbladder. 2. Relating to such an agent or effect. SYN: cholagogic. ...
Parent hydrocarbon of the cholanic acid s ( cholic acids); androstane with a —CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 group in the 17 position. 5α-C. is sometimes called allocholane. For ...
Increase in output of cholic acid or its conjugates. [cholane + G. hairesis, a taking]
Dilation of the bile ducts, usually as a sequel to obstruction or from a congenital lack of a portion of the ductal wall. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + ektasis, a stretching]
An adenocarcinoma, primarily in intrahepatic bile ducts, composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells that do not contain bile, with abundant fibrous stroma; cirrhosis ...
Fibrosis of the bile ducts. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + fibrosis]
Formation of a communication between a bile duct and the stomach. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + gaster, belly, + stoma, mouth]
The radiographic record of the bile ducts obtained by cholangiography.
Radiographic examination of the bile ducts with contrast medium. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + grapho, to write]
- cystic duct c. radiography of the biliary system after ...
A ductule occurring between a bile canaliculus and an interlobular bile duct. SYN: canal of Hering. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -ole, small]
Inflammation of the small bile radicles or cholangioles.
A neoplasm of bile duct origin, especially within the liver; may be either benign or malignant (cholangiocarcinoma). [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -oma, tumor]
Contrast radiographic examination of the bile and pancreatic ducts after the injection of radiopaque dye.
- endoscopic retrograde c. ( ERCP) a method of c. using an endoscope ...
Visual examination of bile ducts utilizing a fiberoptic endoscope. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + skopeo, to examine]
Formation of a fistula into a bile duct. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + stoma, mouth]
Incision into a bile duct. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + tome, incision]
Inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree. SYN: angiocholitis, cholangeitis. [ chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation]
- ascending c. SYN: c. lenta.
A chronic disorder of the liver in which the ducts carrying bile from the liver to the intestine and, often, the ducts carrying bile within the liver, become inflamed, thickened ...
Synthesis by the liver of cholic acid or its conjugates, or of natural bile salts. [ chol- + G. ano, upward, + poiesis, making]
A polycyclic, somewhat carcinogenic hydrocarbon, structural parent of the highly carcinogenic 3 (or 20)-methylcholanthrene.
Rarely used term for escape of bile into the free peritoneal cavity. [ chol- + G. askos, bag]
A salt or ester of a cholic acid.
- c. ligase an enzyme that converts c., coenzyme A, and ATP, to choloyl-coenzyme A, AMP, and pyrophosphate. SYN: cholyl- coenzyme A ...
(5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol; formed by breakage of the 9,10 bond in 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet irradiation, yielding a double bond between C-10 ...
Synthesis of bile pigments by the liver. [chole- + G. chroma, color, + poiesis, making]
A substance that stimulates activity of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + agogos, leader]
Atonia, weakness, or failure of function of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + atonia, atony]
Rarely used term for dilation of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ektasis, extension]
Surgical removal of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ektome, excision]
Formation of a direct communication between the gallbladder and the intestine. SYN: enterocholecystostomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]
Incision of both intestine and gallbladder. SYN: enterocholecystotomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + enteron, intestine, + tome, a cutting]
SYN: gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder]
Inflammation of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation]
- acute c. inflammation and/or hemorrhagic necrosis, with variable infection, ulceration, and ...
Establishment of a direct communication between the gallbladder and the duodenum. SYN: duodenocholecystostomy, duodenocystostomy (1). [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + L. duodenum ...
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the stomach. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + gaster, stomach, + stoma, mouth]
The radiographic record of gallbladder structure and function obtained by cholecystography.
Radiographic study of the gallbladder after oral administration of a cholecystopaque; or scintigraphic imaging of the gallbladder and central bile ducts after administration of ...
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the ileum. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ileum + G. stoma, mouth]
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the jejunum. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + jejunum, + G. stoma, mouth]
A polypeptide hormone (the human peptide has 33 residues) liberated by the upper intestinal mucosa on contact with gastric contents; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and ...
Presence of one or more gallstones in the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + lithos, stone]
Fragmentation of a gallstone most commonly by the application of transcutaneously applied sonic energy focused on the stone. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + lithos, stone, + ...
A radiographic contrast medium that opacifies the gallbladder following oral administration, by virtue of hepatic secretion and gallbladder concentration; used in ...
Suture of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + pexis, fixation]
Suture of an incised or ruptured gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + rhaphe, sewing]
Establishment of a fistula into the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + stoma, mouth]
Incision into the gallbladder. SYN: cholecystomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + tome, incision]
- laparoscopic c. minimally invasive surgical technique for removal of the ...
SYN: bile duct (1). [G. choledochos, containing bile, fr. chole, bile, + dechomai, to receive]
Surgical removal of a portion of the common bile duct. [ choledoch- + G. ektome, excision]
SYN: choledochotomy. [ choledoch- + G. endysis, an entering in]
Obsolete term for stenosis of the gall duct. [ choledoch- + L. artus (improperly arctus), narrow]
Inflammation of the common bile duct. [ choledoch- + G. -itis, inflammation]
The ductus choledochus (the common bile duct). [G. choledochos, containing bile, fr. chole, bile, + dechomai, to receive]
Operative joining of divided portions of common bile duct. [choledocho- + choledocho- + G. stoma, mouth]
Formation of a communication, other than the natural one, between the common bile duct and the duodenum. [choledocho- + duodenum + G. stoma, mouth]
Establishment of a communication, other than the natural one, between the common bile duct and any part of the intestine. [choledocho- + G. enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]
Anastomosis between the common bile duct and the jejunum. [choledocho- + jejuno- + G. stoma, mouth]
Stone in the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. lithos, stone]
Incision of the common bile duct for the extraction of a stone. [choledocho- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]
Fragmentation of a gallstone in the common bile duct either by transcutaneous sonic energy or endoscopically directed laser. SYN: choledocholithotrity. [choledocho- + G. ...
Rearrangement of tissues of the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. plastos, formed]
Suturing together the divided ends of the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. rhaphe, suture]
Establishment of a fistula into the common bile duct. [choledocho- + G. stoma, mouth]
Incision into the common bile duct. SYN: choledochendysis. [choledocho- + G. tome, incision]
A pigmented compound of globin and iron porphyrin (with an open ring due to cleavage of the α-methene bridge by α-methyl oxygenase); the first intermediate in the ...
A red pigment in the bile of herbivorous animals; derived from chlorophyll and a product of hematin oxidation.
SYN: cholemia. [chole- + G. haima, blood]
SYN: gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone]
Presence of concretions in the gallbladder or bile ducts. SYN: chololithiasis.
Operative removal of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]
Rarely used term for the crushing of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + tripsis, a rubbing]
Rarely used term for the crushing of a gallstone. [chole- + G. lithos, stone, + L. tero, pp. tritus, to rub]
Vomiting of bile. [chole- + G. emesis, vomiting]
The presence of bile salts in the circulating blood. SYN: cholehemia. [chole- + G. haima, blood]
1. Disease of bile ducts. 2. Irregularity in contractions of the bile ducts.
- c. spastica spastic contraction of the bile ducts.
Formation of bile. SYN: cholopoiesis. [chole- + G. poiesis, making]
A devastating and sometimes lethal disease with intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea leading to dehydration which, unless immediately treated, may be fatal. Cholera was ...
The genome of the bacterium called Vibrio cholerae that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The ...
A term suggested for a factor(s) produced during growth in vitro of the cholera vibrio and causes diarrhea. [ cholera + G. -gen, producing]
Bacteriophage of Vibrio cholerae. [ cholera + G. phago, to eat]
The secretion of bile, as opposed to the expulsion of bile, by the gallbladder. [chole- + G. hairesis, a taking]
1. Relating to choleresis. 2. An agent, usually a drug, that stimulates the liver to increase output of bile.
Denoting diarrhea produced secondary to unabsorbed bile salts. [chole- + G. hairesis, a taking]
A mild form of diarrhea seen during epidemics of Asiatic cholera.
Extensive flow of bile. [chole- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]
A diagnostic test in which a two-dimensional picture of a radiation source in the biliary system is obtained by the use of radioisotopes. Cholescintigraphy is done by nuclear ...
The parent hydrocarbon of cholesterol. For structure, see steroids.
Differing from cholesterol in the absence of the double bond.
An oxidation product of cholestanol, differing from it in the presence of a ketone oxygen in place of the 3-hydroxyl group; an isomer of coprostanone.
An arrest in the flow of bile; c. due to obstruction of bile ducts is accompanied by formation of plugs of inspissated bile in the small ducts, canaliculi in the liver, and ...
- intrahepatic c. of pregnancy intrahepatic c. with centrilobular bile staining without inflammatory cells or proliferation of mesenchymal cells; clinically ...
Tending to diminish or stop the flow of bile.
1. A mass of keratinized squamous cell epithelium and cholesterol in the middle ear, usually resulting from chronic otitis media, with squamous metaplasia or extension of ...
A dehydrocholestanone, differing from cholestanone by the presence of a double bond between carbons 4 and 5.
The presence of enhanced quantities of cholesterol in the blood. SYN: cholesterinemia, cholesterolemia. [cholesterol + G. haima, blood]
5-Cholesten-3β-ol ( cholestane with a 5,6 double bond and a 3β-hydroxyl group); the most abundant steroid in animal tissues, especially in bile and gallstones, and present in ...
Cholesterol lowering with fibrate
The fibrates are cholesterol-lowering drugs that are primarily effective in lowering triglycerides and, to a lesser extent, in increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. Gemfibrozil ...
Lipoproteins which are combinations of lipids (fats) and proteins are the form in which lipids are transported in the blood. The low-density lipoproteins transport cholesterol ...
1. A condition resulting from a disturbance in metabolism of lipids, characterized by deposits of cholesterol in tissue, as in Tangier disease. 2. Cholesterol crystals in the ...
The excretion of cholesterol in the urine. SYN: cholesterinuria.
An anion exchange resin used to bind dietary cholesterol and hence prevent its systemic absorption. Used to treat hypercholesteremia. Can bind many acidic drugs in the ...
Relating to the bile. SYN: choleic.
A family of steroids comprising the bile acids (or salts), generally in conjugated form ( e.g., glycocholic and taurocholic acid s). Chemically, cholic acid s are cholan-24-oic ...
Enlargement of the gallbladder due to retained fluids. [G. chole, bile, + kele, tumor]
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium ion; found in most animal tissues either free or in combination as lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), acetate (acetylcholine), or cytidine ...
An enzyme catalyzing the reaction between CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol to form a phosphatidylcholine and CMP. The last step in lecithin biosynthesis.
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter. Cf.:adrenergic. [choline + G. ergon, work]
One of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of acylcholines and a few other compounds. In mammals, found in white matter of brain, liver, heart, pancreas, and ...
A drug that reacts directly with the alkylphosphorylated enzyme to free the active unit; the drugs used therapeutically to reactivate phosphorylated forms of ...
Referring to chemical sites in effector cells with which acetylcholine unites to exert its actions. Cf.:adrenoceptive. [ acetylcholine + L. capio, to take]
Preventing the action of acetylcholine. [ acetylcholine + G. lysis, loosening]
Having an action similar to that of acetylcholine, the substance liberated by cholinergic nerves; term proposed to replace the less accurate term, parasympathomimetic. ...
The presence of bile salts in the blood or tissues. [ cholo- + G. plane, a wandering]
Obsolete term for an excessive secretion of bile. [ cholo- + G. rhoia, a flow]
Rarely used term for cholangioscopy. [ cholo- + G. skopeo, to view]
The radical of cholic acid or cholate.
SYN: biliuria. [G. chole, bile, + ouron, urine]
A condensation product of cholic acid and coenzyme A; an intermediate in the formation of bile salts from bile acids, such as taurocholic acid from cholic acid.
- cholyl- ...
SYN: cartilaginous. [G. chondros, cartilage]
Occurrence of cartilage in abnormal situations in the bony skeleton. [G. chondros, cartilage, + allos, other, + plasia, formed]
Excision of cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + ektome, excision]
Conversion into cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + L. facio, to make]
Inflammation of cartilage. [G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation]
- costal c. SYN: costochondritis.
1. Cartilage or cartilaginous. 2. Granular or gritty substance. [G. chondrion, dim. of chondros, groats (coarsely ground grain), grit, gristle, cartilage]
Relating to cartilage and bone, either as a mixture of the two tissues or as a junction between the two, such as the union of a rib and its costal cartilage.
Term used for a group of disorders of bone and cartilage which includes Morquio syndrome and similar conditions. SYN: osteochondrodystrophia deformans, osteochondrodystrophy.
A dividing cell of growing cartilage tissue. SYN: chondroplast. [chondro- + G. blastos, germ]
A benign tumor arising in the epiphyses of long bones, consisting of highly cellular tissue resembling fetal cartilage.
A 69,000 molecular weight protein believed to play a role in mineralization in hard tissue.
Calcification of cartilage. [chondro- + calcium + G. -osis, condition]
- articular c. [MIM*118600] a disease characterized by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals free of ...
A multinucleated cell (giant cell) involved in the resorption of calcified cartilage; morphologically identical to osteoblasts. [chondro- + G. klastos, broken in pieces]
A cartilaginous skull; the cartilaginous parts of the developing skull. [chondro- + G. kranion, skull]
A nondividing cartilage cell; occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix. SYN: cartilage cell. [chondro- + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]
- isogenous chondrocytes a clone of ...
chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis
A benign, chronic, small, painful nodule (or nodules) on the helix of the ear in the elderly, which may occasionally become ulcerated and results from habitually sleeping on the ...
SYN: chondrodystrophy. [chondro- + G. dys, bad, + plasis, a molding]
- c. calcificans congenita [MIM*118650] autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by asymmetric ...
A disturbance in the development of the cartilage primordia of the long bones, especially the region of the epiphysial plates, resulting in arrested growth of the long bones and ...
Relating to ectodermally derived cartilage; e.g., branchial cartilages that have developed from the neural crest.
Formation of cartilage. [chondro- + G. genesis, origin]
1. Resembling cartilage. SYN: cartilaginoid. 2. Uncharacteristically developed cartilage, primarily cellular with a basophilic matrix and thin or nonexistent capsules. ...
A (muco)polysaccharide (proteoglycan) composed of alternating residues of β-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine sulfate in alternating β(1-3) and β(1-4) linkages; ...
The study of cartilage. [chondro- + G. logos, treatise]
Disappearance of articular cartilage as the result of disintegration or dissolution of the cartilage matrix and cells.
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. [chondro- + G. -oma, tumor]
- extraskeletal c. a c. located in soft tissues, usually of the fingers, hands, ...
Softening of any cartilage. [chondro- + G. malakia, softness]
- c. fetalis an intrauterine form of c. in which the fetus is born dead with soft pliable limbs.
- generalized c. ...
The patellofemoral syndrome (PFS), the most common cause of chronic knee pain. PFS characteristically causes vague discomfort of the inner knee area, aggravated by activity ...
Presence of multiple tumor-like foci of cartilage.
- synovial c. c. or osteocartilaginous nodules occurring in the synovial membrane of a joint. SYN: synovial ...
Pertaining to or manifesting the features of a chondroma.
The genetic information contained in all of the mitochondria of a cell. [mitochondria + -ome]
A cartilage unit of the fetal axial skeleton developing within a single metamere of the body; a primordial cartilaginous vertebra together with its costal component. [chondro- ...
A glycoprotein of cartilage matrix that mediates the adhesion of chondrocytes to type II collagen. [chondro- + L. necto, to bind, + -in]
Any disease of cartilage. [chondro- + G. pathos, suffering]
An abnormal cartilaginous mass that develops at the articular surface of a bone. [chondro- + G. phytos, a growth]
The formation of cartilage by specialized cells called chondrocytes.
SYN: chondroblast. [chondro- + G. plastos, formed]
Reparative or plastic surgery of cartilage. [chondro- + G. plastos, formed]
Condition of cartilage in which spaces appear, either normal (in the process of ossification) or pathologic. [chondro- + L. porosus, porous]
A malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and older people; most chondrosarcomas ...
A disaccharide composed of one molecule of d-glucuronic acid and one of d-galactosamine (chondrosamine); a component of the chondroitins.
A skeleton formed of hyaline cartilage; e.g., that of the human embryo or of certain adult fishes such as the shark or ray.
1. Relating to a sternal cartilage. 2. Relating to the costal cartilages and the sternum.
A very stiff scalpel-shaped knife used in cutting cartilage. SYN: cartilage knife. [chondro- + G. tome, cutting]
Division of cartilage. [chondro- + G. tome, a cutting]
Influencing the nutrition and thereby the development and growth of cartilage. [chondro- + G. trophe, nourishment]
Relating to the xiphoid or ensiform cartilage. [chondro- + G. xiphos, sword, + eidos, appearance]
1. SYN: cartilage. 2. The plant C. crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders. SYN: carrageen (1), ...
Acronym for cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of lymphomas.
François, French surgeon, 1743–1795. See C. amputation, C. joint.
Cord. SEE ALSO: cord-. [G. chorde]
A tendinous or a cord-like structure. SEE ALSO: cord. [L., cord]
- c. arteriae umbilicalis [TA] SYN: cord of umbilical artery.
- c. chirurgicalis surgical catgut. [L.]
- c. ...
A branch of the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve) that serves the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the ...
That part of the epiblast of a young embryo that has the potentiality of forming notochord and mesoderm.
Thread-like bands of fibrous tissue which attach on one end to the edges of the tricuspid and mitral valves of the heart and on the other end to the papillary muscles, small ...
Relating to any chorda or cord, especially to the notochord.
The phylum that includes the vertebrates, defined by possession of: 1) a single dorsal nerve cord (the brain and spinal cord of mammals); 2) a cartilaginous rod, the notochord, ...
An animal of the phylum Chordata.
1. Painful erection of the penis in gonorrhea or Peyronie disease, with curvature resulting from lack of distensibility of the corpus cavernosum urethrae. SYN: gryposis penis. ...
Inflammation of a cord; usually a vocal cord. [G. chorde, cord, + -itis, inflammation]
- c. vocalis inferior an inflammation limited mainly to the undersurface of the vocal cords ...
: A form of bone cancer that usually starts in the lower spinal column.
* * *
A rare neoplasm of skeletal tissue in adults, derived from persistent portions of the notochord; ...
The part of the embryonic skeleton that develops in conjunction with the notochord.
Ceaseless rapid complex body movements that look well coordinated and purposeful but are, in fact, involuntary. Chorea was thought suggestive of a grotesque dance. The term ...
Relating to or of the nature of chorea.
Abnormal movements of body of combined choreic and athetoid pattern. [ choreo- + G. athetos, unfixed, + -osis, condition]
- congenital c. SYN: double athetosis.
Resembling chorea. SYN: choreiform.
Any membrane, especially that which encloses the fetus. [G. chorion, membrane]
A benign neoplasm of chorion, especially with hydatidiform mole formation.
- c. destruens hydatidiform mole in which there is an unusual degree of invasion of the myometrium ...
Extraembryonic membrane formed by the fusion of the allantois with the serosa or false chorion. In mammals it forms the fetal portion of the placenta; in avian embryos it is ...
Infection involving the chorion, amnion, and amniotic fluid; usually the placental villi and decidua are also involved.
Benign tumor of placental blood vessel s (hemangioma), usually of no clinical significance; large tumors may be associated with placental insufficiency and fetal hydrops; in some ...
A benign vascular (blood vessel) tumor of the placenta (afterbirth). Large chorioangiomas cause complications including polyhydramnios (excess amniotic fluid), maternal and ...
An abnormal increase in the number of vascular channels in placental villi; severe c. is associated with a high incidence of neonatal death and major congenital malformations. ...
A highly malignant tumor that arises from trophoblastic cells within the uterus. Choriocarcinoma tends to be invasive and to metastasize early and widely through both the venous ...
A hernia of the choroid coat of the eye through a defect in the sclera. [ chorio- + G. kele, hernia]