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Слова на букву chem-culi (2629)

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costosternoplasty
Operation to correct a malformation of the anterior chest wall. [ costo- + G. sternon, chest, + plastos, formed]
costosuperior
Relating to the upper ribs.
costotome
An instrument, knife or shears, designed for cutting through a rib.
costotomy
Division of a rib. [ costo- + G. tome, a cutting]
costotransverse
Relating to the ribs and the transverse processes of the vertebrae articulating with them. SYN: transversocostal.
costotransversectomy
Excision of a proximal portion of a rib and the articulating transverse process.
costovertebral
Relating to the ribs and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae with which they articulate. SYN: costocentral, vertebrocostal (1).
costoxiphoid
Relating to the ribs and the xiphoid cartilage of the sternum.
cosubstrate
The second or other substrate of a multisubstrate enzyme; often, specifically refers to the coenzyme.
cosyntropin
α1-24- or β1–24-Corticotropin; a synthetic corticotrophic agent, comprising the first 24 amino acyl residues of human ACTH, which sequence is found in several other species ...
Cotard
Jules, French neurologist, 1840–1887. See C. syndrome.
cotarnine
An alkaloidal principle, C12H15NO4, derived from narcotine by oxidation; an astringent. [anagram of narcotine]
COTe
Abbreviation of cathodal opening tetanus.
Cotinine
A major metabolite of nicotine with a long half life. It is a breakdown product of nicotine. Cotinine is widely used as a quantitative biomarker of cigarette smoking. It is an ...
cotranslational
Any process involving the maturation or delivery of a protein that occurs during the process of translation.
cotransport
The transport of one substance across a membrane, coupled with the simultaneous transport of another substance across the same membrane in the same direction.
Cotte
Gaston, French surgeon, 1879–1951. See C. operation.
Cotton
Frank A., U.S. chemist, *1930. See C. effect.
cotton
The white, fluffy, fibrous covering of the seeds of a plant of the genus Gossypium (family Malvaceae); used extensively in surgical dressings. [Ar. qútun] - absorbent c. c. from ...
cottonpox
Obsolete name for variola minor.
cottonseed oil
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of cultivated plants of various varieties of Gossypium hirsutum or of other species of Gossypium (family Malvaceae); a solvent.
Cotunnius, Cotugno
Domenico, Italian anatomist, 1736–1822. See C. aqueduct, C. canal, C. liquid, C. space, aqueductus cotunnii, liquor cotunnii.
cotyle
1. Any cup-shaped structure. 2. SYN: acetabulum. [G. kotyle, anything hollow, the cup or socket of a joint]
cotyledon
1. See maternal c., fetal c.. 2. In plants, a seed leaf, the first leaf to grow from a seed. 3. A placental unit. See maternal c.. [G. kotyledon, any cup-shaped hollow] - fetal ...
Cotylogonimus
A group of heterophyid flukes, now properly included in the genus Heterophyes. [G. kotyle, cup, + gonimos, productive]
cotyloid
1. Cup-shaped; cuplike. 2. Relating to the c. cavity or acetabulum. [G. kotyle, a small cup, + eidos, appearance]
Cough
A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs typically in order to clear the lung airways of fluids, mucus, or material. Also called tussis. * * * 1. A sudden explosive forcing of ...
Cough suppressant
A drug used to control coughing, particularly with a dry, nagging, unproductive cough.
Coughing syncope
The temporary loss of consciousness upon coughing. Syncope is the temporary loss of consciousness or, in plain English, fainting. The situations that trigger this reaction are ...
coulomb
The unit of electrical charge, equal to 3 × 109 electrostatic units; the quantity of electricity delivered by a current of 1 A in 1 s equal to 1/96,485 faraday. [CA de C., Fr. ...
Coumadin, teratogenicity of
The anticoagulant ("blood- thinner") Coumadin is a known teratogen, an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo and fetus and lead to birth defects.. Coumadin taken ...
coumaranone
3(2H)-Benzofuranone; the basis of many plant products; e.g., aurone.
coumaric anhydride
SYN: coumarin.
coumarin
1. A general descriptive term applied to anticoagulants and other drugs derived from dicumarol, a component of the Tonka bean. 2. A fragrant neutral principle obtained from the ...
coumetarol
An oral anticoagulant. SYN: cumetharol, cumethoxaethane.
Councilman
William T., U.S. pathologist, 1854–1933. See C. body.
Councilmania
Obsolete generic term for a group of amebae now recognized as Entamoeba. [W. Councilman]
counseling
A professional relationship and activity in which one person endeavors to help another to understand and to solve his or her adjustment problems; the giving of advice, opinion, ...
Counseling, genetic
An educational counseling process for individuals and families who have a genetic disease or who are at risk for such a disease. Genetic counseling is designed to provide ...
Counselor, genetic
A health professional with a specialized graduate degree and experience in the areas of medical genetics and counseling. Genetic counselors enter the field from a variety of ...
count
1. A reckoning, enumeration, or accounting. 2. To enumerate or score. - Addis c. a quantitative enumeration of the red blood c., white blood c., and casts in a 12-hr urine ...
counter
A device that counts, usually scintillations. - automated differential leukocyte c. an instrument using digital imaging or cytochemical techniques to differentiate leukocytes. - ...
counter-
Opposite, opposed, against. SEE ALSO: contra-. [L. contra, against]
counterbalancing
A procedure in behavorial research for distributing unwanted but unavoidable influences equally among the different experimental conditions or subjects.
counterconditioning
Any of a group of specific behavior therapy techniques in which a second conditioned response ( e.g., approaching or even touching a snake) is introduced for the express purpose ...
countercurrent
1. Flowing in an opposite direction. 2. A current flowing in a direction opposite to another current.
countercurrent exchanger
A system in which heat or chemicals passively diffuse across a membrane separating two c. streams so that at each end the fluid leaving along one side of the membrane nearly ...
countercurrent multiplier
A system in which energy is used to transport material across a membrane separating two c. tubes connected at one end to form a hairpin shape; by this means a concentration can be ...
counterdie
The reverse image of a die, usually made of a softer and lower fusing metal than the die.
counterextension
SYN: countertraction.
counterimmunoelectrophoresis
A modification of immunoelectrophoresis in which antigen ( e.g., serum containing hepatitis B virus) is placed in wells cut in the sheet of agar gel toward the cathode, and ...
counterincision
A second incision in the region of a primary incision designed to take tension off the primary closure.
counterinvestment
SYN: anticathexis.
counterirritant
1. An agent that causes irritation or a mild inflammation of the skin in order to relieve symptoms of a deep-seated inflammatory process. 2. Relating to or producing ...
counterirritation
Irritation or mild inflammation (redness, vesication, or pustulation) of the skin excited for the purpose of relieving symptoms of an inflammation of the deeper structures.
coup de sabre
Linear scleroderma found over the scalp with scarring alopecia, face, or forehead. [Fr. stroke of a sword]
couple
To copulate; to perform coitus; said especially of the lower animals.
coupling
1. Usually the result of the repeated pairing of a normal sinus beat with a ventricular extrasystole. 2. See c. phase. 3. A condition in which one or more products of a ...
Courvoisier
Ludwig G., French surgeon, 1843–1918. See C. law, C. sign, C. gallbladder.
Cousin marriage
Marriage involving cousins. Everyone carries rare recessive alleles, rare genes that are generally innocuous in the heterozygous state but that in the company of another gene of ...
couvade
A primitive custom in certain cultures in which a man develops labor pains while his wife is in labor and then submits to the same postpartum purification rites and taboos. [Fr. ...
Couvelaire
Alexandre, French obstetrician, 1873–1948. See C. uterus.
couvercle
Rarely used term for an external coagulum, especially a blood clot formed extravascularly. [Fr. cover, lid]
covalent
Denoting an interatomic bond characterized by the sharing of 2, 4, or 6 electrons.
coverage
A measure of the extent to which the services rendered cover the potential need for these services in a community; applied specifically to such services as immunization in ...
covering
A surrounding layer; something that covers or encloses, forming an outer layer. SEE ALSO: tunica. - coverings of spermatic cord coverings of the spermatic cord, including ...
coverslip
SYN: cover glass.
cow
1. A generator for short-lived isotopes based upon successively eluting or otherwise separating (“milking”) a short-lived radioactive daughter from a longer-lived parent; ...
Cowden
Surname of the family from which the condition subsequently known as C. disease was first reported.
Cowdry
Edmund Vincent, U.S. cytologist, 1888–1975. See C. type A inclusion bodies, under body, C. type B inclusion bodies, under body.
cowl
See caul.
Cowling rule
See under rule.
Cowper
William, English anatomist, 1666–1709. See C. cyst, C. gland, C. ligament.
cowperian
Relating to or described by Cowper.
Cox
H.R., U.S. bacteriologist, *1907.
Cox-1 (cyclooxygenase-1)
This protein acts as an enzyme and specifically catalyzes (speeds) the production of certain chemical messengers (called prostaglandins). The prostaglandins work within certain ...
Cox-2 (cyclooxygenase-2)
This protein acts as an enzyme and specifically catalyzes (speeds) the production of certain chemical messengers (called prostaglandins). Some of these messengers are responsible ...
Cox-2 inhibitor
A class of drugs that selectively blocks a specific enzyme called Cox-2. Blocking this enzyme impedes the production of the chemical messengers that cause the pain and swelling of ...
coxa
1. SYN: hip (1). 2. SYN: hip joint. [L] - c. adducta SYN: c. vara. - false c. vara approximation of the head of the femur to the shaft, due not to deformity of the neck of the ...
coxalgia
SYN: coxodynia. [L. coxa, hip, + G. algos, pain]
Coxiella
A genus of filterable bacteria (order Rickettsiales) containing small, pleomorphic, rod-shaped or coccoid, Gram-negative cells that occur intracellularly in the cytoplasm of ...
coxitis
Inflammation of the hip.
coxodynia
Pain in the hip joint. SYN: coxalgia. [L. coxa, hip, + G. odyne, pain]
coxofemoral
Relating to the hip bone and the femur.
coxotuberculosis
Tuberculous hip-joint disease.
coxsackievirus
A group of picornaviruses, included in the genus Enterovirus, of icosahedral shape, stable at acid pH, and about 28 nm in diameter, causing myositis, paralysis, and death in ...
CPAP
Abbreviation for continuous positive airway pressure.
CPEO
Acronym for chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
CPK
Abbreviation for creatine phosphokinase.
CPM
Abbreviation for continuous passive motion.
cpm
Abbreviation for counts per minute.
CPM machine
A machine used to help rehabilitate a limb (an arm or leg). The continuous passive motion (CPM) machine is attached to, for example, a knee that has had surgery. The CPM machine ...
CPPD
Abbreviation for calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.
CPPV
Abbreviation for continuous positive pressure ventilation.
CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR involves applying external chest compression to make the heart pump and breathing for the victim by mouth-to-mouth ventilation. In the case of ...
cps
Abbreviation for cycles per second.
CR
Abbreviation for conditioned reflex; crown-rump length; computed radiography.
Cr
1. Symbol for chromium. 2. Abbreviation for creatinine.
crab
1. A crustacean, many varieties of which are edible. 2. An insect, the c. louse, Pthirus pubis.
Crabs
Slang for pubic lice, parasitic insects found in the genital area of humans. Pubic lice are usually spread through sexual contact. Rarely, infestation can be spread through ...
Crabtree
Herbert G., 20th century English physician and biochemist. See C. effect.
crack
1. A fissure. 2. See c. cocaine. [slang] - lacquer cracks breaks in Bruch membrane seen in pathologic myopia.
Crack (drug)
The street name given to cocaine that has been processed from cocaine hydrochloride to a ready-to-use free base for smoking. Rather than requiring the more volatile method of ...
Cracked tooth syndrome
A toothache caused by a broken tooth (tooth fracture) without associated cavity or advanced gum disease. Biting on the area of tooth fracture can cause severe sharp pains. These ...
crackle
SYN: rale. [echoic]
cradle
A frame used to keep bedclothes from coming in contact with a patient. [M.E. cradel]
Cradle cap
A form of seborrheic dermatitis. of the scalp in infants. It is characterized by flaking or scaling of the skin, The skin may also be reddened. Although cradle cap is on the ...
Crafoord
Clarence, Swedish thoracic surgeon, 1899–1984. See C. clamp.
Craigia
Obsolete generic term for a group of amebae now recognized as Entamoeba. [C. Craig]
Cramer
Friedrich, German surgeon, 1847–1903. See C. wire splint.
cramp
1. A painful muscle spasm caused by prolonged tetanic contraction. 2. A localized muscle spasm related to occupational use, qualified according to the occupation of the ...
Cramp, writer’s
A dystonia that affects the muscles of the hand and sometimes the forearm and only occurs during handwriting. Similar focal dystonias have also been called typist’s cramp, ...
Cramps, heat
Painful muscle spasms in the abdomen, arms, or legs following strenuous activity. The skin is usually moist and cool and the pulse is normal or slightly raised. Body temperature ...
Crampton
Sir Philip, Irish surgeon, 1777–1858. See C. line, C. muscle. Charles Ward, U.S. physician, *1877. See C. test.
Crandall
Barbara F., U.S. physician. See C. syndrome.
crani-
See cranio-.
crania
Plural of cranium.
craniad
Situated nearer the head in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of caudad. SEE ALSO: superior.
cranial
1. [TA] Relating to the cranium or head. SYN: cranialis [TA], cephalic. SEE ALSO: cephalad. 2. SYN: superior (2).
Cranial (anatomic orientation)
Toward the head, as opposed to caudad. The eye is cranial to the jaw. For a more complete listing of terms used in medicine for spatial orientation, please see the entry ...
Cranial arteritis
A serious disease characterized by inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The vessels affected by inflammation are the arteries (hence the name ...
Cranial bone
Part of the top portion of the skull which protects the brain. The bones of the cranium include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
Cranial nerve I
The cranial nerves emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. There are twelve cranial nerves. The ...
Cranial nerve II
The second cranial is the optic nerve, the nerve that connects the eye to the brain and carries the impulses formed by the retina — the nerve layer that lines the back of the ...
Cranial nerve III
The third cranial nerve is the oculomotor nerve. The cranial nerves emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the ...
Cranial nerve IV
The fourth cranial nerve, the trochlear nerve, is the nerve supply to the superior oblique muscle of the eye, one of the muscles that moves the eye. Paralysis of the trochlear ...
Cranial nerve IX
The ninth cranial nerve is the glossopharyngeal nerve. The 12 cranial nerves, the glossopharyngeal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerve V
The fifth cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is quite complex. It functions both as the chief nerve of sensation for the face and the motor nerve ...
Cranial nerve VI
The sixth cranial nerve is the abducent nerve. It is a small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. ...
Cranial nerve VII
The cranial nerves emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. There are twelve cranial nerves. The ...
Cranial nerve VIII
The eighth cranial nerve is the vestibulocochlear nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for the sense of hearing and it is also pertinent to balance, to the body ...
Cranial nerve X
The tenth cranial nerve, and one of the most important, is the vagus nerve. All twelve of the cranial nerves, the vagus nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the ...
Cranial nerve XI
The eleventh cranial nerve is the accessory nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the accessory nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium) as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerve XII
The twelfth cranial nerve is the hypoglossal nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the hypoglossal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerve, eighth
The eighth cranial nerve is the vestibulocochlear nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for the sense of hearing and it is also pertinent to balance, to the body ...
Cranial nerve, eleventh
The eleventh cranial nerve is the accessory nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the accessory nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium) as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerve, fifth
The fifth cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is quite complex. It functions both as the chief nerve of sensation for the face and the motor nerve ...
Cranial nerve, first
The cranial nerves emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. There are twelve cranial nerves. The ...
Cranial nerve, fourth
The fourth cranial nerve, the trochlear nerve, is the nerve supply to the superior oblique muscle of the eye, one of the muscles that moves the eye. Paralysis of the trochlear ...
Cranial nerve, ninth
The ninth cranial nerve is the glossopharyngeal nerve. The 12 cranial nerves, the glossopharyngeal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerve, second
The second cranial nerve is the optic nerve, the nerve that connects the eye to the brain and carries the impulses formed by the retina — the nerve layer that lines the back ...
Cranial nerve, seventh
The seventh cranial nerve is the facial nerve, a mixed nerve that has fibers both going out and coming in (both efferent and afferent fibers). It supplies the muscles of ...
Cranial nerve, sixth
The sixth cranial nerve is the abducent nerve. It is a small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. ...
Cranial nerve, tenth
The tenth cranial nerve, and one of the most important, is the vagus nerve. All twelve of the cranial nerves, the vagus nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the ...
Cranial nerve, third
The third cranial nerve is the oculomotor nerve. The cranial nerves emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the ...
Cranial nerve, twelfth
The twelfth cranial nerve is the hypoglossal nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the hypoglossal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the ...
Cranial nerves
Nerves that emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the spinal nerves which emerge from the vertebral column. Cranial nerves come directly from the brain ...
cranialis
SYN: cranial (1).
craniamphitomy
A decompression operation in which the entire circumference of the calvarium is divided. [G. kranion, skull, + amphi, around, + tome, cutting]
Craniata
SYN: Vertebrata. [Mediev. L. cranium, fr. G. kranion, skull]
craniectomy
Excision of a portion of the skull, without replacement of the bone, e.g., subtemporal or suboccipital. [G. kranion, skull, + ektome, excision] - linear c. excision of a strip ...
Cranio- (prefix)
Referring to the cranium, the top portion of the skull, the bony vault that protects the brain. "Cranio-" contributes to many terms including craniocleidodysostosis, ...
cranio-, crani-
The cranium. Cf.:cerebro-. [G. kranion, skull]
cranio-aural
Relating to the skull and the ear.
craniocele
SYN: encephalocele. [cranio- + G. kele, hernia]
craniocerebral
Relating to the skull and the brain.
cranioclasia, cranioclasis
Formerly used operation for crushing of the fetal skull in cases of dystocia. [cranio- + G. klasis, a breaking]
cranioclast
Instrument like a strong forceps formerly used for crushing and extracting the fetal head after perforation. [cranio- + G. klao, to break in pieces]
Craniocleidodysostosis
A genetic (inherited) disorder of bone development characterized by: {{}}Typical cranial and facial abnormalities with square skull, late closure of the sutures of the skull, late ...
craniodidymus
Conjoined twins with fused bodies but with two heads. See conjoined twins, under twin. [cranio- + G. didymos, twin]
craniofacial
Relating to both the face and the cranium.
craniofenestria
SYN: craniolacunia. [cranio- + L. fenestra, window]
craniognomy
SYN: phrenology. [cranio- + G. gnome, judgment]
craniograph
An instrument for making drawings to scale of the diameters and general configuration of the skull.
craniography
The art of representing, by drawings made from measurements, the configuration of the skull and the relations of its angles and craniometric points. [cranio- + G. grapho, to ...
craniolacunia
Incomplete formation of the bones of the vault of the fetal skull so that there are nonossified areas in the calvaria. SYN: craniofenestria. [cranio- + L. lacuna, cleft]
Craniology
The study of variations in size, shape, and proportion of the skull (cranium). Also known as phrenology, it was a pseudoscience of the 18th and 19th centuries based on the belief ...
craniomalacia
Softening of the bones of the skull. [cranio- + G. malakia, softness] - circumscribed c. SYN: craniotabes.
craniomeningocele
Protrusion of the meninges through a defect in the skull. [cranio- + G. meninx, membrane, + kele, hernia]
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia
An inherited skeletal condition that involves abnormal bone formation and abnormal mineralization of the skull as well as the long bones. There is increased density of ...
craniometer
An instrument for measuring the diameters of the skull.
craniometric
Relating to craniometry.
craniometry
Measurement of the dry skull after removal of the soft parts, and study of its topography. [cranio- + G. metron, measure]
craniopagus
Conjoined twins with fused skulls. See conjoined twins, under twin. SEE ALSO: janiceps, syncephalus. [cranio- + G. pagos, something fixed] - c. occipitalis conjoined twins ...
craniopathy
Any pathologic condition of the cranial bones. [cranio- + G. pathos, suffering] - metabolic c. SYN: Morgagni syndrome.
craniopharyngeal
Relating to the skull and to the pharynx.
craniopharyngioma
A suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from the nests of epithelium derived from Rathke pouch; the histologic pattern, similar to that observed in ...
craniophore
An apparatus for holding a skull while its angles and diameters are measured. [cranio- + G. phoros, bearing]
cranioplasty
An operation to correct a cranial defect, such as burring or onlay bone grafting or application of alloplastic material. [cranio- + G. plastos, formed]
craniopuncture
Puncture of the brain for exploratory purposes.
craniorrhachidian
SYN: craniospinal. [cranio- + G. rhachis, spine]
craniorrhachischisis
Severe congenital malformation in which there is incomplete closure of the skull and spinal column. [cranio- + G. rhachis, spine, + schisis, a cleaving]
craniosacral
Denoting the cranial and sacral origins of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
cranioschisis
Congenital malformation in which there is incomplete closure of the skull. Usually accompanied by grossly defective development of the brain. [cranio- + G. schisis, a cleavage]
craniosclerosis
Thickening of the skull. [cranio- + G. skleros, hard, + -osis, condition]
cranioscopy
Examination of the skull in the living subject for craniometric or diagnostic purposes. [cranio- + G. skopeo, to view]
craniospinal
Relating to the cranium and spinal column. SYN: craniorrhachidian.
craniostenosis
Premature closure of cranial sutures resulting in malformation of the skull. [cranio- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
craniostosis
SYN: craniosynostosis. [cranio- + G. osteon, a bone, + -osis, condition]
Craniosynostosis
Premature fusion of the cranial sutures (the fibrous joints between the bones of the skull) in an infant, preventing normal growth of the baby's head. Craniosynostosis involving ...
craniotabes
A disease marked by the presence of areas of thinning and softening in the bones of the skull and widening of the sutures and fontanelles. Usually of syphilitic or rachitic ...
craniotome
Instrument formerly used for perforation and crushing of the fetal skull.
craniotomy
1. Opening into the skull. 2. Formerly used operation for perforation of the head of the fetus, removal of the contents, and compression of the empty skull, when delivery by ...
craniotonoscopy
Auscultatory percussion of the cranium. [cranio- + G. tonos, tone, + skopeo, to examine]
craniotrypesis
Trephining of the skull. [cranio- + G. trypesis, a boring]
craniotympanic
Relating to the skull and the middle ear.
Cranium
The top portion of the skull which protects the brain. The bones of the cranium include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones. * * * The bones of ...
crapulent, crapulous
Rarely used term for drunken; due to alcoholic intoxication. [L. crapula, drunkenness]
crash cart
A movable collection of emergency equipment and supplies meant to be readily available for resuscitative effort. It includes medication as well as the equipment for ...
crassamentum
1. Old term for blood clot. 2. Old term for coagulum. [L. thickness, fr. crassus, thick]
crater
The most depressed, usually central portion of an ulcer.
crateriform
Hollowed like a bowl or a saucer. [L. crater, bowl, + forma, shape]
craterization
SYN: saucerization.
craw-craw
A term applied in west Africa to a pruritic papular skin eruption, which may lead to ulceration; some cases are caused by Onchocerca.
Crawford
Brian H., British physicist, *1906. See Stiles-C. effect.
crazing
In dentistry, the appearance of minute cracks on the surface of plastic restorations such as filling materials, denture teeth, or denture bases.
cream
1. The upper fatty layer that forms in milk on standing or which is separated from it by centrifugalization; it contains about the same amount of sugar and protein as milk, but ...
crease
A line or linear depression as produced by a fold. SEE ALSO: fold, groove, line. - digital c. one of the grooves on the palmar surface of a finger, at the level of an ...
creatinase
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of creatine to sarcosine and urea.
Creatine
A compound the body synthesizes (makes) and then utilizes to store energy. The storage of energy occurs when phosphate molecules are attached to creatine to create creatine ...
creatinemia
The presence of abnormal concentrations of creatine in peripheral blood. [ creatine + G. haima, blood]
creatininase
An amidohydrolase catalyzing the conversion of creatine to creatinine.
Creatinine
A chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. ...
Creatinine clearance test
A test that helps determine whether the kidneys are functioning normally. Specifically, the creatinine-clearance test gauges the rate at which a waste, creatinine, is "cleared" ...
creatinuria
The urinary excretion of increased amounts of creatine. [ creatine + G. ouron, urine]
Credé
Karl S.F., German obstetrician and gynecologist, 1819–1892. See Credé methods, under method.
credentialing
A formal review of the qualifications of a provider who has applied to participate in a health care system or plan. [credential, proof of authenticity, fr. Med. L. credentialis, ...
creep
Any time-dependent strain developing in a material or an object in response to the application of a force or stress.
cremaster
See cremasteric fascia, c. muscle. [G. kremaster, a suspender, in pl. the muscles by which the testicles are retracted, fr. kremannymi, to hang]
cremasteric
Relating to the cremaster.
cremnocele
A protrusion of intestine into the labium majus. [G. kremnos, overhanging cliff, labium pudendi, + kele, hernia]
cremnophobia
Morbid fear of precipices or steep places. [G. kremnos, precipice, + phobos, fear]
crena
A V-shaped cut or the space created by such a cut; one of the notches into which the opposing projections fit in the cranial sutures. [L. a notch] - c. analis [TA] SYN: ...
crenate, crenated
Indented; denoting the outline of a shriveled red blood cell, as observed in a hypertonic solution. [L. crena, a notch]
crenation
The process of becoming, or state of being, crenated.
crenocyte
A red blood cell with serrated, notched edges. [L. crena, a notch, + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]
crenocytosis
The presence of crenocytes in the blood. [ crenocyte + G. -osis, condition]
Crenosoma vulpis
A metastrongyle lungworm species of the fox, wolf, dog, raccoon, and other small carnivores in Europe, Asia, and North America; it occurs in the bronchi, causing bronchitis. ...
creophagy, creophagism
Carnivorousness; flesh-eating. [G. kreas, flesh, + phago, to eat]
creosol
A slightly yellowish aromatic liquid distilled from guaiac or from beechwood tar; a constituent of creosote. Cf.:cresol.
creosote
A mixture of phenols (chiefly methyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and creosol) obtained during the distillation of wood-tar, preferably that derived from beechwood; used as a ...
crepitant
1. Relating to or characterized by crepitation. 2. Denoting a fine bubbling noise (rale) produced by air entering fluid in lung tissue; heard in pneumonia and in certain other ...
crepitation
1. Crackling; the quality of a fine bubbling sound (rale) that resembles noise heard on rubbing hair between the fingers. 2. The sensation felt on placing the hand over the seat ...
Crepitus
A clinical sign in medicine characterized by a peculiar crackling, crinkly, or grating feeling or sound under the skin, around the lungs, or in the joints. Crepitus in soft ...
crescent
1. Any figure of the shape of the moon in its first quarter. 2. The figure made by the gray columns or cornua on cross-section of the spinal cord. 3. SYN: malarial c.. [L. ...
crescentic
Shaped like a crescent.
crescograph
A device for recording the degree and rate of growth. [L. cresco, to grow, + G. grapho, to draw or write]
cresol
A mixture of the three isomeric cresols, o-, m-, and p-c., obtained from coal tar. Its properties are similar to those of phenol, but it is less poisonous; used as an antiseptic ...
cresol red
An acid-base indicator with a pK value of 8.3; yellow at pH values below 7.4, red above 9.0.
cresolase
SYN: monophenol monooxygenase (1).
CREST
Acronym for calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal motility disorders, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. See C. syndrome.
crest
1. A ridge, especially a bony ridge. SEE ALSO: crista. 2. The ridge of the neck of a male animal, especially of a stallion or bull. 3. Feathers on the top of a bird's head, or ...
cresta
A small membranous organelle characteristic of certain flagellate protozoa, located near the pelta and seen in the living organism as an independently moving structure. [L. ...
cresyl blue, cresyl blue brilliant
A basic oxazin dye used for staining the reticulum in young erythrocytes (reticulocytes); also used in vital staining and as a selective stain for gastric surface epithelial ...
cresyl echt, cresyl fast violet
A metachromatic basic oxazin dye, closely related to cresyl violet acetate and used for the same purposes.
cresyl violet acetate
A metachromatic basic oxazin dye, used as a stain for nuclei and Nissl substance; related to German derived dye known as cresyl echt violet or cresyl fast violet.
cresylate
A salt of cresylic acid, or cresol.
creta
SYN: calcium carbonate. [L. orig. adj. fr. C., Crete, i.e. Cretan earth, chalk]
cretin
An individual exhibiting cretinism. [Fr. crétin]
Cretinism
Congenital hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid gland at birth) resulting in growth retardation, developmental delay and other abnormal features. Can be due to ...
cretinistic
SYN: cretinous.
cretinoid
Resembling a cretin; presenting symptoms similar to those of cretinism.
cretinous
Relating to cretinism or a cretin; affected with cretinism. SYN: cretinistic.
Creutzfeldt
Hans Gerhard, German neuropsychiatrist, 1885–1964. See C.-Jakob disease.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
A degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. It affects about one person in every one million people per year worldwide; in the United States there are about 200 cases per ...
crevice
A crack or small fissure, especially in a solid substance. [Fr. crevasse] - gingival c. SYN: gingival sulcus.
crevicular
1. Relating to any crevice. 2. In dentistry, relating especially to the gingival crevice or sulcus.
CRF
Abbreviation for corticotropin-releasing factor.
CRH
Abbreviation for corticotropin-releasing hormone.
Crib death
The sudden and unexpected death of a baby with no known illness, typically affecting infants from 2 weeks to 6 months of age while sleeping. Crib death is now called Sudden Infant ...
cribra
Plural of cribrum.
cribrate
SYN: cribriform.
cribration
1. Sifting; passing through a sieve. 2. The condition of being cribrate or numerously pitted or punctured.
cribriform
Sievelike; containing many perforations. SYN: cribrate, polyporous. [L. cribrum, a sieve, + forma, form]
cribrum
SYN: cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. [L. a sieve]

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