Da Vinci, Leonardo
The father of anatomic art. The architect, scientist, engineer, inventor, poet, sculptor and painter, Leonardo da Vinci first became interested in anatomic art when he was asked ...
Abbreviation for deoxyadenosine.
Anders, Norwegian physician, 1838–1910. See D. disease.
Abbreviation for 3′3-diaminobenzidine HCl; in the immunoperoxidase technique, used to produce a colored complex at the site of peroxidase activity.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and sarcoma.
Inflammation of the lacrimal gland. SYN: dacryadenitis. [dacryo- + G. aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
A chronic discharge of mucus from a lacrimal sac. [dacryo- + G. blenna, mucus, + rhoia, flow]
SYN: lacrimal sac. [dacryo- + G. kystis, sac]
Surgical removal of the lacrimal sac. [ dacryocyst + G. ektome, excision]
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. [ dacryocyst + G. -itis, inflammation]
Enlargement of the lacrimal sac with fluid. SYN: dacryocele. [ dacryocyst + G. kele, hernia]
A radiograph of the lacrimal apparatus obtained after injection of contrast material for the purpose of determining the presence of and localizing a site of obstruction; this ...
An operation providing an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa through an opening in the lacrimal bone. [ dacryocyst + G. rhis (rhin-), nose, + stoma, mouth] ...
Incision of the lacrimal sac. [ dacryocyst + G. tome, incision]
A concretion in the lacrimal apparatus. SYN: lacrimal calculus, ophthalmolith, tear stone. [dacryo- + G. lithos, stone]
- Desmarres dacryoliths SYN: Nocardia dacryoliths.
The point of junction of the frontomaxillary and lacrimomaxillary sutures on the medial wall of the orbit.See figure under craniometric points, under point. [G. a tear]
1. Excess of tears in the eye. 2. A cyst of a duct of the lacrimal gland. [dacryo- + G. ops, eye]
The discharge of tears containing leukocytes. [dacryo- + G. pyon, pus, + rhoia, flow]
An excessive secretion of tears. [dacryo- + G. rhoia, flow]
Stricture of the lacrimal duct. [dacryo- + G. stenosis, narrowing]
Produced by several species of Streptomyces ( e.g., S. parvulus); an antineoplastic antibiotic used especially for Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms tumor in ...
SYN: digit. [G. daktylos]
Prefix or suffix denoting involvement of the digits (fingers or toes).
Pain in the fingers. SYN: dactylodynia. [ dactyl- + G. algos, pain]
A genus of dematiaceous soil-dwelling fungi. D. gallopava is a causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis in chickens and turkeys. [G. daktylos, finger]
Inflammation of a digit (either a finger or a toe). Dactyl comes from the Greek "daktylos" meaning "finger." It now refers not only to the fingers but also the toes. Dactyledema ...
The fingers and (less often) toes. See entries under digit. [G. daktylos, finger]
Permanent flexion of the fingers. [dactylo- + G. kampsis, bending]
Painful contraction of one or more fingers. [dactylo- + G. kampsis, a bending, + odyne, pain]
Contraction of the fingers. [dactylo- + G. gryposis, a crooking]
The use of the finger alphabet in communicating. SYN: cheirology, chirology. [dactylo- + G. logos, word]
An examination of the markings in prints made from the fingertips; employed as a method of personal identification. See Galton system of classification of fingerprints, under ...
A nondepolarizing steroid neuromuscular blocking agent with more rapid onset and shorter duration of action than pancuronium.
Abbreviation for diacylglycerol.
Leaves of Leonotis leonurus, a plant found in South Africa, where it is smoked like tobacco with mild sedative effect; a term mistakenly applied to Indian hemp, Cannabis sativa. ...
Giuseppe, Italian physician, 1866–1928. See Aschner-D. reflex.
Abbreviation for disordered action of heart.
A violet dye, methyl-triethyl-amino-triphenyl-carbinol chloride. Also called Hoffman violet.
SYN: inulin. [fr. dahlia, after A. Dahl, Swedish botanist, 1751–1789]
A naturally occurring calcium phosphate, similar in structure to the mineral portions of bones and teeth. SYN: podolite.
Daily Prayer of a Physician
A prayer that is said to have been written by the 12th-century physician-philosopher Moses Maimonides. Like the famous oath of Hippocrates, the prayer of Maimonides is often ...
Daily Value (DV)
A new term appearing on food labels, Daily Value is a new dietary reference value designed to help consumers use food label information to plan a healthy diet. Daily Values (DVs) ...
Colloquial term descriptive of the segmented forms (merozoites) of the mature schizont of Plasmodium malariae.
Henry, U.S. chemist, 1880–1952. See D. fluid, D. solution, D.- Carrel treatment.
Sir Henry Hallett, English physiologist and Nobel laureate, 1875–1968. See D. reaction, D.- Feldberg law, Schultz-D. reaction.
Johan A., Swedish ophthalmologist, 1866–1940. See D.- Fuchs nodules, under nodule.
Lynn, contemporary Australian molecular biologist.
John, English oculist, 1803–1852. See D. sign.
John, English chemist, mathematician, and natural philosopher, 1766–1844. See D. law, D.- Henry law, daltonian, daltonism.
Term unofficially used to indicate a unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom, 1.0000 in the atomic mass scale; numerically, but not dimensionally, equal to ...
1. Attributed to or described by John Dalton. 2. Pertaining to daltonism.
Colorblindness of the red-green type (also known as deuteranopia or deuteranomaly). The term "Daltonism" is derived from the name of the chemist and physicist, John Dalton ...
Abbreviation for disability-adjusted life years, under year.
Abbreviation for diacetylmonoxime.
C.P. Henrik, Danish biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1895–1976. See D. unit.
1. Any barrier to the flow of fluid. 2. In surgery and dentistry, a sheet of thin rubber arranged so as to shut off the part operated upon from the access of fluid. [A.S. ...
An enzyme responsible for the methylation of adenine residues in specific sequences. SYN: deoxyadenosine methylase.
diffuse alveolar d. SYN: adult respiratory distress syndrome.
A genus of biting lice containing a number of species found on domestic and wild animals; they are all highly host-specific, one species being confined to each species of mammal. ...
A resin resembling copal, obtained from various species of Shorea (family Dipterocarpaceae) in the East Indies; used, dissolved in chloroform, for mounting microscopic ...
Abbreviation for deoxyadenylic acid.
1. Humid; moist. 2. Atmospheric moisture. 3. Foul air in a mine; air charged with carbon oxides (black or choke d.) or with various explosive hydrocarbon vapors (firedamp).
Bringing a mechanism to rest with minimal oscillation; e.g., in echocardiography, electrical or mechanical loading to reduce duration of echo, transmitter pulse, and ...
Charles L., U.S. neurologist, 1852–1935. See D. operation, Putnam-D. syndrome.
An anterior pituitary suppressant used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and angioedema.
Jean B.H., French physician, 1797–1832. See D. sign.
Involuntary movements related to brain damage.
- hilar d. vigorous pulmonary arterial pulsations due to increased blood flow, often seen fluoroscopically in patients with ...
1. A fine scaling of the skin and scalp. SEE ALSO: dandruff. 2. A normal effluvium of animal hair or coat capable of causing allergic responses in atopic persons.
Tiny scales shed from human or animal skin or hair. Danders float in the air, settle on surfaces and make up much household dust. Cat danders are a classic cause of allergic ...
A mild skin condition that produces white flakes that may be shed and fall from the hair. Dandruff is due to the sebaceous glands overworking. (The sebaceous glands keep the ...
Walter E., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1886–1946. See D. operation, D.- Walker syndrome.
An acute mosquito- borne viral illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with headache, fever, prostration, severe joint and muscle pain, swollen glands ...
D.S., 20th century British virologist. See D. particles, under particle.
William Clark, U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1878–1949. See D. sign.
Daniel C., Norwegian physician, 1815–1894. See D. disease, D.- Boeck disease.
Henri A., French dermatologist, 1844–1912. See Ehlers-D. syndrome.
Better known today as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), this is an inherited disorder with easy bruising, joint hypermobility (loose joints), skin laxity, and weakness of tissues. ...
A genetic disorder characterized by heart problems, mental retardation and muscle weakness that affects males who usually die of cardiac arrhythmia or heart failure at around the ...
Abbreviation for 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonic acid; a green fluorescing compound used in immunohistochemistry to detect antigens.
The 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl radical; a blocking agent for NH2 groups, used in peptide synthesis.
An anthraquinone laxative. SYN: chrysazine.
A synthetic skeletal muscle relaxant that acts directly on muscle by uncoupling electrical from mechanical events; also, the specific agent for prevention and treatment of ...
Jan, Polish pathologist in France, 1860–1928. See D. phenomenon.
Abbreviation for 4′6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCl, a fluorescent probe for DNA. See D. stain.
An antibiotic used in the treatment of leprosy and certain cutaneous diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis, is active against the tubercle bacillus, is used in the treatment ...
Jean F., French dermatologist, 1856–1938. See D. disease, D. sign.
Samuel Taylor, U.S. physician in Panama, 1872–1925. See D. disease.
A basic oxazin dye used as a substitute for cresyl violet acetate in the staining of Nissl substance. [Mary A. Darrow, U.S. stain technologist, 1894–1973]
Resembling tunica dartos in its slow involuntary contractions. [G. dartos, flayed]
See d. fascia. [G. skinned or flayed, fr. dero, to skin]
- d. muliebris a very thin layer of smooth muscle in the integument of the labia majora; less well-developed than the ...
Charles R., English biologist and evolutionist, 1809–1882. See darwinian ear, darwinian evolution, darwinian reflex, darwinian theory, darwinian tubercle.
English naturalist (1809-82), considered the father of evolution. Darwin voyaged aboard the Beagle to see the wonders of South America. After his return to England, he proposed ...
A genus of rodents of the guinea pig family, a reservoir host of Trypanosoma cruzi. SYN: agouti. [G. dasyproktos, having hairy buttocks]
Facts, statistics, and the like. In medicine and the health sciences, Americans often speak of "the data" erroneously in the singular. "Data" is a plural noun and takes a plural ...
Conversion of crude information into usable or storable form; statistical analysis of data by a computer program.
Rape of a woman by a man with whom she is acquainted. The rapist is usually the woman's "date" (escort). Although there are many possible date rape scenarios, in a common one, the ...
The date for a drug estimated for its shelf life with proper storage in sealed containers away from harmful and variable factors like heat and humidity. The expiration date of a ...
An individual piece of information used in a scholarly field. [L., given, fr. do, pp. d., to give]
A genus of solanaceous plants. Several species (D. arborea, D. fastuosa, D. ferox, and D. sanguinea) are used in Brazil, India, and Peru to produce unconsciousness. The seeds ...
In nuclear medicine, an isotope that is the disintegration product of a radionuclide. See d. isotope, radionuclide generator. [O.E. dohtor]
- DES ( diethylstilbestrol) d. the ...
An antibiotic of the rhodomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces peucetius; used in the treatment of acute leukemia; also used in cytogenetics to produce Q-type chromosome ...
M. von, German histologist, †1904. See D. cells, under cell.
Edward C., U.S. surgeon, 1894–1933. See D. syringe.
Jacques, French oculist, 1693–1762. See D. operation, D. spoon.
J.N.P., U.S. pathologist, *1915. See D. disease.
John Staige, U.S. surgeon, 1872–1946. See D. graft, Crowe-D. mouth gag.
Hallowell, U.S. physiologist, 1896–1992. See D. battery model of transduction.
David M., U.S. ...
James R., U.S. pathologist, *1908. See D. encephalitis.
Richard H., U.S. physician, 1813–1892. See D. test.
Richard L., U.S. pediatrician, *1905. See Riley-D. syndrome.
Night blindness. Listed in medical dictionaries under “Nyctalopia” from the Greek “nyct’ (night) + “aloas” (obscure or blind) + “opsis” (vision), the condition ...
The consequence of illumination too intense for adaptation by the eye; in contrast to glare, d. is alleviated by appropriate tinted glasses.
Abbreviation for decibel.
Abbreviation for vitamin D–binding protein.
Abbreviation for direct current.
Abbreviation for deoxycytidylic acid.
Abbreviation for dideoxyadenosine.
DDH (developmental dislocation of the hip)
The abnormal formation of the hip joint in which the ball at the top of the thighbone (the femoral head) is not stable within the socket (the acetabulum). The ligaments of the ...
Abbreviation for dideoxyinosine.
Abbreviation for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.
G., French psychiatrist, 1872–1934. See de Clerambault syndrome.
Cornelia, Dutch pediatrician, 1871–1950. See de Lange syndrome.
de Lange syndrome
A relatively common syndrome with multiple congenital malformations (birth defects) and mental retardation of unknown origin that is recognized by the presence of: Prenatal and ...
Campbell, English physician, 1811–1876. See D. spots, under spot.
Georges, 20th century Swiss neurologist. See de Morsier syndrome.
Anew; often applied to particular biochemical pathways in which metabolites are newly biosynthesized ( e.g., d. purine biosynthesis). [L.]
O., 19th century French physician. See de Pezzer catheter.
Friedrich Joseph, Swiss surgeon, 1868–1940. See de Quervain disease, de Quervain tenosynovitis, de Quervain thyroiditis.
De Quervain's tenosynovitis
Inflammation of the extensor pollicus longus tendon on the side of the wrist at the base of the thumb. De Quervain's Tenosynovitis typically is associated with pain when the ...
Carlo, Italian psychiatrist, *1888. See D.-Cacchione syndrome.
Louis H., French physician, 1832–1906. See de Wecker scissors.
1. Away from, cessation, without; sometimes has an intensive force. 2. For names with this prefix not found here, see under the principal part of the name. [L. de, from, away]
A loss of the motor nerve fibers to an area of the body. [L. de, from, + efferent]
Obsolete surgical destruction of the epicardium, usually by the application of phenol, designed (unsuccessfully) to promote collateral circulation to the myocardium.
To cause the mobilization and excretion of lead deposited in the bones and other tissues, as by the administration of a chelating agent.
Every prescription written in the United States bears a DEA number, that of the prescribing doctor, the DEA being the Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of ...
The process of rendering or of becoming inactive.
1. A member of the subclass of hydrolases (EC class 3), especially of that subclass of esterases, lipases, lactonases, and hydrolases (EC subclass 3.1). 2. Any enzyme ...
1. Without life. SEE ALSO: death. 2. Numb.
Unable to hear. [A.S. deáf]
A loss of the sensory input from a portion of the body, usually caused by interruption of the peripheral sensory fibers. [L. de, from, + afferent]
General term for inability to hear.
- central d. d. due to disorder of the auditory system of the brainstem or cerebral cortex.
- cortical d. d. resulting from bilateral lesions ...
Deafness with goiter
Deafness with goiter, which is Pendred syndrome, is the hereditary association of congenital deafness (deafness at the time of birth) and goiter (enlargement of the thyroid ...
The loss of hearing that occurs or develops some time during a person's life but was not present at birth. Acquired deafness contrasts to congenital deafness which is present at ...
Loss of hearing present at birth. Congenital deafness contrasts to acquired deafness which occurs after birth. The distinction between congenital and acquired deafness ...
The act of whitening, bleaching, or blanching. [L. de-albo, pp. -atus, to whiten]
The removal of alcohol from a fluid; in histologic technique, the removal of alcohol from a specimen that has been previously immersed in this fluid.
To perform deamidation. SYN: desamidize.
Enzymes catalyzing simple hydrolysis of C—NH2 bonds of purines, pyrimidines, and pterins, thus producing ammonia (usually named in terms of the substrate, e.g., guanine d., ...
Removal, usually by hydrolysis, of the NH2 group from an amino compound.
- oxidative d. d. by enzymes that uses flavin or pyridine nucleotides (such as FAD or NAD+).
Henry Trendley, U.S. dentist and epidemiologist, 1893–1962. See D. fluorosis index.
The p-acetamidobenzoic acid salt of 2-dimethylaminoethanol; a central nervous system stimulant.
The cessation of life. In lower multicellular organisms, d. is a gradual process at the cellular level, because tissues vary in their ability to withstand deprivation of oxygen; ...
The number of deaths in the population divided by the average population (or the population at midyear) is the crude death rate. In 1994, for example, the crude death rate per ...
Death rate, infant
The number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year. The infant death rate is also called the infant mortality rate. The infant ...
The black plague or the plague. In 14th century Europe, the victims of the "black plague" had bleeding below the skin (subcutaneous hemorrhage) which made darkened ...
A respiratory gurgling or rattling in the pharynx or trachea of a dying person, caused by the loss of the cough reflex and accumulation of mucus.
John Blair, U.S. surgeon, 1855–1931. See D. incision.
George G., U.S. physiatrist, 1890–1973. See D. method.
Michael Ellis, U.S. heart surgeon, *1908. See D. classification, D. forceps.
The removal of fixed orthodontic appliances.
1. Weakening; causing debility. 2. Obsolete term for a quieting agent or one that subdues excitement. [L. debilito, to weaken, fr. de, neg., + habilis, able]
To impair the strength or to enfeeble. A chronic progressive disease may debilitate a patient. So may, temporarily, a major surgical procedure. In both cases the weakness is ...
Denoting or characteristic of a morbid process that causes weakness.
Weakness. [L. debilitas, fr. debilis, weak, fr. de- priv. + habilis, able]
To separate a dental appliance such as an orthodontic band from the tooth to which it has been attached or bonded by a resin cement. [de- + bond]
To open or empty into another part. [Fr. bouche, mouth]
Robert, French pediatrician and infectious disease specialist, 1882–1978. See Debré phenomenon, Debré- Sémélaigne syndrome, Kocher-Debré-Sémélaigne syndrome.
Excision of devitalized tissue and foreign matter from a wound. [Fr. unbridle]
A useless accumulation of miscellaneous particles; waste in the form of fragments. [Fr. débris, fr. O.Fr. desbrisier, to break apart, (fr. des- down, away + brisier to break) ...
An antihypertensive agent resembling guanethidine; also used in drug metabolism studies.
A deficit; a liability. [L. debitum, d.]
- alactic oxygen d. that part of the oxygen d. that is not lactacid oxygen d.; during recovery, stores of ATP and creatine phosphate ...
Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify multiples of 10. Also spelled deka-. [G. deka, ten]
1. Removal of lime or calcium salts, chiefly tricalcium phosphate, from bones and teeth, either in vitro or in vivo as a result of a pathologic process. 2. Precipitation of ...
To remove lime or calcium salts, especially from bones or teeth.
Denoting an agent, measure, or process that causes decalcification.
Removing the hair; making bald. [L. decalvare, to make bald]
A synthetic nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to produce muscular relaxation during general anesthesia.
Planned or accidental removal of a tracheostomy tube.
Rarely used term denoting the concentration of a solution 10 times that of normal.
To pour off gently the upper clear portion of a fluid, leaving the sediment in the vessel. [Mediev. L. decantho, fr. de- + canthus, the beak of a jug, fr. G. kanthos, corner of ...
Pouring off the clear upper portion of a fluid, leaving a sediment or precipitate.
Prevention of spermatozoa from undergoing capacitation and thus from becoming able to fertilize ova. SEE ALSO: d. factor.
An oligopeptide containing 10 amino acid s.
1. To cut off the head; specifically, to remove the head of a fetus to facilitate delivery in cases of irremediable dystocia; to cut off the head of an animal in preparation for ...
Incision and removal of a capsule or enveloping membrane.
- d. of kidney removing or stripping off the capsule of the kidney.
Rarely used term denoting the process of arterialization of the blood by oxygenation and the removal of carbon dioxide in the lungs.
Any enzyme (EC 4.1.1.x) that removes a molecule of carbon dioxide from a carboxylic group ( e.g., from an α-amino acid, converting it into an amine).
A reaction involving the removal of a molecule of carbon dioxide from a carboxylic acid.
- oxidative d. d. requiring the participation of coenzymes such as NAD+, NADP+, FAD, or ...
1. Destruction of an organic substance by slow combustion or gradual oxidation. 2. SYN: putrefaction. 3. To deteriorate; to undergo slow combustion or putrefaction. 4. In ...
1. The act of decelerating. 2. The rate of decrease in velocity per unit of time.
- early d. slowing of the fetal heart rate early in the uterine contraction phase, denoting ...
1. To cause decerebration. 2. Denoting an animal so prepared, or a patient whose brain has suffered an injury which renders the patient, in neurologic behavior, comparable to a ...
Removal of the brain above the lower border of the corpora quadrigemina, or a complete section of the brain at this level or somewhat below.
- bloodless d. destroying the ...
Reduction of sodium chloride in the tissues and fluids of the body by reducing its intake or increasing its excretion. SYN: dechlorination, dechloruration.
Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify one-tenth (10−1). [L. decimus, tenth]
One-tenth of a bel; unit for expressing the relative intensity of sound on a logarithmic scale. [L. decimus, tenth, + bel]
SYN: deciduous membrane. [L. deciduus, falling off (qualifying membrana, membrane, understood)]
- d. basalis the area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic vesicle ...
Relating to those mammals ( e.g., humans, dogs, rodents) that shed maternal uterine tissue when expelling the placenta at birth, in contrast to indeciduate mammals (horse, pig). ...
Shedding of endometrial tissue during menstruation. [L. deciduus, falling off]
An intrauterine mass of decidual tissue, probably the result of hyperplasia of decidual cells retained in the uterus. SYN: placentoma.
- Loeb d. mass of decidual tissue ...
1. Not permanent; denoting that which eventually falls off. 2. (D) (in dental formulas)In dentistry, often used to designate the first or primary dentition. See d. tooth. [L. ...
One-tenth of normal, denoting the concentration of a solution.
limiting d. an understanding of self achieved as a result of response to a significant or traumatic event. SEE ALSO: Time-Line therapy.
Alternative choices available at each stage of deciding how to manage a clinical problem, displayed graphically; at each branch or decision node, the probabilities of each ...
A retractor that holds certain structures out of the way during an operation.
The posterior sloping portion of the monticulus of the vermis of the cerebellum; vermal lobule immediately caudal to the primary fissure; lobule VI. SYN: declivis, lobulus ...
1. The process of boiling. 2. The pharmacopeial name for preparations made by boiling crude vegetable drugs, and then straining, in the proportion of 50 g of the drug to 1000 mL ...
Rarely used term for surgical separation of tissues or organs which are adherent, either normally or pathologically. [Fr. ungluing]
The discharge of feces from the rectum. SYN: motion (2), movement (3). [L. defaeco, pp. -atus, to remove the dregs, purify]
The temporary loss of consciousness upon defecating (having a bowel movement). Syncope is the temporary loss of consciousness or, in plain English, fainting. The situations ...
Radiographic examination of the act of defecation of a radiopaque stool. [ defecation + G. grapho, to write]
An imperfection, malformation, dysfunction, or absence; an attribute of quality, in contrast with deficiency, which is an attribute of quantity. [L. deficio, pp. -fectus, to fail, ...
Defect, atrial septal (ASD)
A hole in the septum, the wall, between the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. Commonly called an ASD. ASDs are a major class of congenital cardiac malformation.
An abnormality in the protein (enzyme) important in catalyzing a normal biochemical reaction in the body. Disorders result from a deficiency (or functional abnormality) of an ...
Defect, neural tube
A birth defect caused by abnormal development of the neural tube. (The neural tube is the structure present during embryonic life which gives rise to the central nervous system ...
Defect, ventricular septal (VSD)
A hole in the septum (the wall) between the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). Ventricular Septal Defect is the most common type of heart malformation (congenital heart ...
Denoting or exhibiting a defect; imperfect; a failure of quality.
A weakening or loss of feminine characteristics. [L. de-, away, + femina, woman]
The psychological mechanisms used to control anxiety, e.g., rationalization, projection. [L. defendo, to ward off]
- screen d. the use of falsified or incomplete memories or ...
A class of basic antibiotic polypeptides, found in neutrophils, that kill bacteria by causing membrane damage. These cytotoxic peptides contain 29–38 amino acid residues. [L. ...