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Disease, Menetrier
A premalignant disorder of the stomach characterized by overgrowth of the stomach lining (gastric mucosa), nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain, and hypoalbuminemia (low blood ...
Disease, Meniere
A condition with recurrent vertigo accompanied by ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and deafness. Symptoms include vertigo, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, loss of hearing (in the ...
Disease, Minamata
A disorder caused by methyl mercury poisoning that was first described in the inhabitants of Minamata Bay, Japan. Minamata disease resulted from their eating fish contaminated ...
Disease, mitochondrial
Mutations (changes) in the mitochondrial chromosome are responsible for a number of disorders including, for example: An eye disease called Leber's hereditary optic atrophy; A ...
Disease, mixed connective tissue
A mixture of three diseases of connective tissue (the framework of the cells of the body) — systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and polymyositis. Patients with ...
Disease, new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Abbreviated nvCJD. A human disease thought due to the same infectious agent as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. Both the human and bovine disorders ...
Disease, Niemann-Pick
A disorder of the metabolism of a lipid (fat) called sphingomyelin that usually causes the progressive development of enlargement of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), ...
Disease, Norwalk
: Disease due to Norwalk virus, not one but a family of small round viruses that are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis (viral inflammation of the stomach and ...
Disease, occupational
A disease due to a factor in a person's occupation. Occupational medicine was founded by the Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714). His De Morbis Artificium (On ...
Disease, Osgood-Schlatter
A condition involving inflammation and sometimes tearing of ligaments within the knee and lower leg. Treatment is by rest, casting if necessary, and sometimes surgery. ...
Disease, Osler-Rendu-Weber
Known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia (HHT), this is a genetic vascular disease with dilatation (widening) of capillaries and small arteries (arterioles) producing ...
Disease, ovarian, polycystic
See Disease, polycystic ovarian.
Disease, Paget's
A chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged, deformed bones due to excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can cause bones to weaken and may result in ...
Disease, Parkinson
An abnormal condition of the nervous system caused by degeneration of an area of the brain called the basal ganglia. The disease results in rigidity of the muscles, slow body ...
Disease, Parry’s
Toxic multinodular goiter, a condition in which the thyroid gland contains multiple lumps (nodules) that are overactive and produce excess thyroid hormones. This condition is also ...
Disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (PMD)
An X-linked disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which there is loss of myelin (the sheath around the nerve protecting it). PMD affects boys and is characterized by ...
Disease, pelvic inflammatory (PID)
Despite its seeming lack of gender, this term is applied to women only. PID refers exclusively to ascending infection of the female upper genital tract (the female structures ...
Disease, phytanic acid storage (Refsum’s disease)
A genetic disorder of the fatty acid phytanic acid which accumulates and causes a number of progressive problems including polyneuritis (inflammation of numerous nerves), ...
Disease, Pick
A form of dementia characterized by a slowly progressive deterioration of social skills and changes in personality leading to impairment of intellect, memory, and language. ...
Disease, Plummer’s
Toxic multinodular goiter, a condition in which the thyroid gland contains multiple lumps (nodules) that are overactive and produce excess thyroid hormones. This condition is also ...
Disease, polycystic kidney
Genetic (inherited) disorders characterized by the development of innumerable cysts in the kidneys filled with fluid that replace much of the mass of the kidneys and reduce kidney ...
Disease, polycystic ovarian (PCO)
Polycystic ovarian (PCO) disease, also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of signs and symptoms including: ...
Disease, Quincke’s
This is angioneurotic edema (or angioedema), a form of localized swelling of the deeper layers of the skin and fatty tissues beneath the skin. Hereditary angioneurotic edema ...
Disease, Ramsey Hunt
A herpes virus infection of the geniculate nerve ganglion, Ramsey Hunt disease causes paralysis of the facial muscles on the same side of the face as the infection. It is usually ...
Disease, Raynaud
A condition resulting in skin discoloration of the fingers and/or toes when a person is exposed to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or to emotional events. This condition can ...
Disease, Refsum’s
A genetic disorder affecting metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. When phytanic acid accumulates, it causes a number of progressive problems, including inflammation of ...
Disease, Rendu-Osler-Weber
Known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia (HHT), this is a genetic vascular disease with dilatation (widening) of capillaries and small arteries (arterioles) producing ...
Disease, rheumatic heart
Heart damage caused by rheumatic fever. Treatment is by preventing reinfection with strep and by treating with heart drugs as needed.
Disease, Ritter
This is the scalded skin syndrome, a potentially serious side effect of infection with the Staph (Staphylococcus) bacteria that produces a specific protein which loosens the ...
Disease, rotator cuff
Damage to the rotator cuff, a group of four tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint and move the shoulder in various directions. A common cause of shoulder pain, rotator ...
Disease, rotavirus
A leading cause of severe winter diarrhea in young children. Each year, rotavirus (RV) causes an estimated 500,000 doctor visits and 50,000 hospital admissions in the United ...
Disease, sickle cell
A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the ...
Disease, single-gene
An hereditary disorder caused by a change (mutation) in a single gene. There are thousands of single-gene diseases including achondroplasia, Huntington disease, cystic ...
Disease, sixth
A viral disease of infants and young children with sudden onset of high fever which lasts several days and then suddenly subsides leaving in its wake a fine red rash. The ...
Disease, sleeping
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Also known as narcolepsy. The disorder is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden ...
Disease, startle
A genetic disorder also known as hyperexplexia in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction). This disorder was not recognized until 1962 when it was described ...
Disease, Stein-Leventhal
Known descriptively as polycystic ovarian (PCO) disease, this syndrome is basically an hormonal problem that causes women to have various symptoms including: {{}}Irregular or no ...
Disease, Tay-Sachs (TSD)
Deficiency of hexosaminidase A causes a disorder known as Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) which is concisely defined by OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) as “an autosomal ...
Disease, Tsutsugamushi
Scrub typhus, a mite-borne infectious disease caused by a microorganism, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, characteristically with fever, headache, a raised (macular) rash, swollen ...
Disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Abbreviated vCJD. A human disease thought due to the same infectious agent as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. Both the human and bovine disorders ...
Disease, Vrolik’s
Osteogenesis imperfecta type II, an inherited connective tissue disorder with very severe bone fragility, the lethal form of “brittle bone disease.” It is a recessive trait ...
Disease, Werner-His
Named for the German physician Heinrich Werner (who did not describe Werner's premature aging syndrome) and the Swiss physician Wilhelm His, Jr. (who did describe the bundle of ...
Disease, Whipple
A form of intestinal malabsorption (an inability to absorb nutrients from the intestine) described in 1907 by the pathologist and Nobel laureate George H. Whipple in a medical ...
Disease, Whitmore's
An infectious illness, also called melioidosis, that is most frequent in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and is caused by a bacteria called " Pseudomonas pseudomallei" ...
Disease, Wilson
An inherited disorder in which too much copper accumulates in the body. Although the accumulation of copper begins at birth, symptoms of the disorder appear later in life, ...
Diseases related to obesity
Obesity increases the risk of developing a large number of diseases including: {{}}Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes High blood pressure (hypertension) Stroke (cerebrovascular ...
Diseases, inherited metabolic
Also called inborn errors of metabolism, these are heritable (genetic) disorders of biochemistry. Examples include albinism, cystinuria (a cause of kidney stones), ...
Diseases, Musculoskeletal and Skin, National Institute of Arthritis and (NIAMS)
One of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. As its somewhat cumbersome name indicates, NIAMS’s mission is a broad and important one, namely to “conduct and support a ...
Diseases, rickettsial
The infectious diseases caused by the rickettsiae fall into 4 groups:(1) typhus: epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, murine (endemic) typhus, and scrub typhus; (2) ...
disengagement
1. The act of setting free or extricating; in childbirth, the emergence of the head from the vulva. 2. Ascent of the presenting part from the pelvis after the inlet has been ...
disequilibrium
A disturbance or absence of equilibrium. - genetic d. a state in the genetic composition of a population which under selection may be expected to change toward an equilibrium ...
disfluency
Inability to produce a smooth flow of speech sounds in connected discourse; the flow of speech is characterized by frequent interruptions and repetitions. [dis- + fluency]
disfluent
Relating to disfluency.
disgerminoma
SYN: dysgerminoma.
DISH
Abbreviation for diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.
dish
A shallow container, usually concave. - Petri d. a small, shallow, circular d. made of thin glass or clear plastic with a loosely fitting, overlapping cover used especially in ...
DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis)
A form of degenerative arthritis characteristically associated with flowing calcification along the sides of the vertebrae of the spine and, commonly, inflammation (tendinitis) ...
disharmony
1. The state of being deranged or lacking in orderliness. 2. In a complex sound, the absence of a mathematical relationship among the frequencies of the fundamental tone and its ...
DISIDA
Abbreviation for diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid or disofenin.
disimpaction
1. Separation of impaction in a fractured bone. 2. Removal of feces, usually manually, in fecal impaction.
disinfect
To destroy pathogenic microorganisms in or on any substance or to inhibit their growth and vital activity.
disinfectant
1. Capable of destroying pathogenic microorganisms or inhibiting their growth activity. 2. An agent that possesses this property. - complete d. a d. that kills both vegetative ...
disinfection
Destruction of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins or vectors by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents. - concurrent d. application of disinfective measures as soon ...
disinfestation
Physical or chemical process to destroy or remove small undesirable animal forms, particularly arthropods or rodents, present upon the person, clothing, or environment of an ...
disinhibition
1. Removal of an inhibition, such as by a toxic or organic process. 2. Removal of an inhibitory effect by a stimulus, as when a conditioned reflex has undergone extinction but ...
Disinsection
Spraying aircraft for insects, a procedure called disinsection. Some countries in Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Australia and the South Pacific require the spraying of the ...
disinsection, disinsectization
Freeing an area from insects. [L. dis-, apart, + insect]
disintegration
1. Loss or separation of the component parts of a substance, as in catabolism or decay. 2. Disorganization of psychic and behavioral processes. [dis- + L. integer, whole, ...
disinvagination
Relieving an invagination.
disjunction
The normal separation of pairs of chromosomes at the anaphase stage of meiosis I or II. [dis- + L. junctio, a joining, fr. jungo, pp. junctum, to join]
disk
1. A round, flat plate; any approximately flat circular structure. 2. SYN: lamella (2). 3. In dentistry, a circular piece of thin paper or other material, coated with an ...
diskitis
SYN: discitis.
disko-
See disco-.
diskogram
The graphic record, usually radiographic, of diskography.
diskography
Historically, radiographic demonstration of intervertebral disk by injection of contrast media into the nucleus pulposus. [disco- + G. grapho, to write]
dislocate
To luxate; to put out of joint.
dislocatio
SYN: dislocation. [L.] - d. erecta a subglenoid dislocation of the shoulder in which the humerus is in an abducted postion with the head of the humerus displaced inferiorly.
dislocation
Displacement of an organ or any part; specifically a disturbance or disarrangement of the normal relation of the bones at a joint. The direction of the d. is determined by the ...
Dislocation, congenital hip
The abnormal formation of the hip joint in which the ball at the top of the thighbone (the femoral head) is not stable within the socket (the acetabulum). The ligaments of the ...
dismember
1. To amputate an arm or leg. 2. To divide the body (corpus) in parts.
dismutase
Generic name for enzymes catalyzing the reaction of two identical molecules to produce two molecules in differing states of oxidation ( e.g., superoxide d.) or of ...
dismutation
A reaction involving a single substance but producing two products; e.g., two molecules of acetaldehyde may react, producing an oxidation product (acetic acid) and a reduction ...
disobliteration
Opening of a pathologically closed channel.
disofenin
SYN: diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid.
disomic
Relating to disomy.
disomy
1. The state of an individual or cell having two members of a pair of homologous chromosomes; the normal state in humans, in contrast to monosomy and trisomy. 2. An abnormal ...
disopromine
SYN: diisopromine.
disopyramide
An antiarrhythmic drug resembling quinidine with substantial anticholinergic properties.
disorder
A disturbance of function, structure, or both, resulting from a genetic or embryonic failure in development or from exogenous factors such as poison, trauma, or disease. - ...
Disorder, articulation
The inability to correctly produce speech sounds (phonemes) because of the imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or flow of movement of the lips, tongue, or throat.
Disorder, attention deficit (ADD)
An inability to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli. In November, 1998 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a consensus report developed by ...
Disorder, borderline personality
A serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. This instability often disrupts family and work ...
Disorder, central auditory processing
A condition in which there is an inability to differentiate, recognize or understand sounds while both the hearing and intelligence are normal. (In technical terms, a central ...
Disorder, cephalic
A congenital condition that stems from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. Cephalic is a term that means "head" or "head end of the body." ...
Disorder, mathematics
A condition characterized by math skills that are significantly below normal, given the person's age, intelligence, and education. A mathematics disorder can include problems ...
Disorder, specific developmental
A disorder that selectively affects one area of development, sparing essentially all other areas of development. For example, dysgraphia is one type of specific developmental ...
Disorders, lymphoproliferative
Malignant diseases of the lymphoid cells and cells from the reticuloendothelial system (which take up and sequester inert particles). The lymphoproliferative disorders are in ...
Disorders, myeloproliferative
Malignant diseases of certain bone marrow cells including those that give rise to the red blood cells, the granulocytes (types of white blood cells), and the platelets (crucial to ...
disorganization
Destruction of an organ or tissue with consequent loss of function.
disorientation
Loss of the sense of familiarity with one's surroundings (time, place, and person); loss of one's bearings.
disparate
Unequal; not alike. [L. disparo, pp. -atus, to separate, fr. paro, to prepare]
disparity
The condition of being disparate. [L. dispar, dissimilar] - fixation d. the amount of heterophoria possible with fusion present. - retinal d. the slight difference in retinal ...
dispensary
1. A physician's office, especially the office of one who dispenses medicines. 2. The office of a hospital pharmacist, where medicines are given out on physicians' orders. 3. An ...
Dispensatory
A work originally intended as a commentary on the Pharmacopeia, but now more of a supplement to that work, which contains an account of the sources, mode of preparation, ...
dispense
To give out medicine and other necessities to the sick; to fill a medical prescription.
dispermy, dispermia
Entrance of two spermatozoa into one ovum.
dispersal
SYN: dispersion (1). - flash d. the property of rapid disintegration of a tablet when placed on the tongue.
disperse
To dissipate, to cause disappearance of, to scatter, to dilute.
dispersion
1. The act of dispersing or of being dispersed. SYN: dispersal. 2. Incorporation of the particles of one substance into the mass of another, including solutions, suspensions, ...
dispersity
The extent to which the dimensions of particles have been reduced in colloid formation.
dispersoid
A colloidal solution in which the dispersed phase can be concentrated by centrifugation. SYN: dispersion colloid, molecular dispersed solution.
dispireme
The double chromatin skein in the telophase of mitosis. [G. di-, twice, + speirema, coil, convolution]
displaceability
The capability of, or susceptibility to, displacement. - tissue d. the property of tissue that permits it to be moved from an initial or relaxed position or form. SYN: ...
displacement
1. Removal from the normal location or position. 2. The adding to a fluid (particularly a gas) in an open vessel one of greater density whereby the first is expelled. 3. In ...
display
differential d. the use of RT-PCR-based technologies to amplify mRNA from specific cells or tissues and then to compare them directly with amplified mRNA from another cell or ...
disproportion
Lack of proportion or symmetry. - cephalopelvic d. a condition in which the fetal head is too large to traverse the maternal pelvis.
Disruption sequence
The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.
Disse
Josef, German anatomist, 1852–1912. See D. space.
Dissect
To cut apart or separate tissue as, for example, for anatomical study or in surgery. An artery is said to dissect when its wall is torn. * * * 1. To cut apart or separate the ...
Dissecting aneurysm
A localized widening (dilatation) of an artery (an aneurysm) in which the wall of an artery rips (dissects) longitudinally. This occurs because bleeding into the weakened wall ...
dissection
The act of dissecting. SYN: anatomy (3) [TA], necrotomy (1). - aortic d. a pathologic process, characterized by splitting of the media layer of the aorta, which leads to ...
dissector
1. One who dissects. 2. A written guide for dissection. 3. Instrument for dissecting.
disseminated
Widely scattered throughout an organ, tissue, or the body. [L. dissemino, pp. -atus, to scatter seed, fr. semen (-min-), seed]
dissepiment
A separating tissue, partition, or septum. [L. dis- sepio, pp. -septus, to divide by a fence]
dissimilation
1. SYN: disassimilation. 2. SYN: catabolism.
dissimulation
Concealment of the truth about a situation, especially about a state of health or during a mental status examination, as by a malingerer or someone with a factitious disorder. ...
dissociation
1. Separation, or a dissolution of relations. SYN: disassociation. 2. The change of a complex chemical compound into a simpler one by any lytic reaction, by ionization, by ...
dissolve
To change or cause to change from a solid to a dispersed form by immersion in a fluid of suitable properties. [L. dis-solvo, pp. -solutus, to loose asunder, to d.]
dissonance
In social psychology and attitude theory, an aversive state which arises when an individual is minimally aware of inconsistency or conflict within himself. See cognitive d. ...
dissymmetry
SYN: asymmetry. [dis- + symmetry]
distad
Toward the periphery; in a distal direction.
Distal
The more (or most) distant of two (or more) things. For example, the distal end of the femur (the thigh bone) is the end down by the knee. For another example, the distal bile ...
distalis
SYN: distal.
distance
The measure of space between two objects. [L. distantia, fr. di-sto, to stand apart, be distant] - focal d. the d. from the center of a lens to its focus. - infinite d. the limit ...
Distance healing
Healing in which people seek to help patients simply with the power of the mind. Distance healing can include anything from therapeutic touch — in which practitioners, without ...
distensibility
The capability of being distended or stretched. [L. dis- tendo, to stretch apart]
Distention
The state of being distended, enlarged, swollen from internal pressure. For example, on inhalation there is distention of the lungs due to the increased air pressure within the ...
distention, distension
The act or state of being distended or stretched. SEE ALSO: dilation. [L. dis-tendo, to stretch apart]
Distichiasis
Double rows of eyelashes. The extra eyelashes grow from glands called the Meibomian glands and may protrude into the cornea, producing severe corneal abrasions. * * * A ...
distill
To extract a substance by distillation.
distillate
The product of distillation.
distillation
Volatilization of a liquid by heat and subsequent condensation of the vapor; a means of separating the volatile from the nonvolatile, or the more volatile from the less ...
disto-occlusal
SYN: distoclusal.
disto-occlusion
SYN: distal occlusion (1).
distobuccal
Relating to the distal and buccal surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
distobucco-occlusal
Relating to the distal, buccal, and occlusal surfaces of a bicuspid or molar tooth; denoting especially the angle formed by the junction of these surfaces.
distobuccopulpal
Relating to the point (trihedral) angle formed by the junction of a distal, buccal, and pulpal wall of a cavity.
distocervical
Relating to the line angle formed by the junction of the distal and cervical (gingival) walls of a class V cavity.
distoclusal
1. Relating to or characterized by distoclusion. 2. Denoting a compound cavity or restoration involving the distal and occlusal surfaces of a tooth. 3. Denoting the line angle ...
distoclusion
A malocclusion in which the mandibular arch articulates with the maxillary arch in a position distal to normal; in Angle classification, a Class II malocclusion. SYN: distal ...
distogingival
Relating to the junction of the distal surface with the gingival line of a tooth.
distoincisal
Relating to the line (dihedral) angle formed by the junction of the distal and incisal walls of a class V cavity in an anterior tooth.
distolabial
Relating to the distal and labial surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
distolabiopulpal
Relating to the point (trihedral) angle formed by the junction of distal, labial and pulpal walls of the incisal part of a class IV ( mesioincisal) cavity.
distolingual
Relating to the distal and lingual surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
distolinguo-occlusal
Relating to the distal, lingual, and occlusal surfaces of a bicuspid or molar tooth; denoting especially the angle formed by the junction of these surfaces.
Distoma
Obsolete term for various digenetic flukes, now referred to other genera; e.g., Fasciola, Fasciolopsis, Paragonimus, Opisthorchis, Clonorchis, Dicrocoelium, Heterophyes, and ...
distomiasis, distomatosis
Presence in any of the organs or tissues of digenetic flukes formerly classified as Distoma or Distomum; in general, infection by any parasitic trematode or fluke. - hemic d. ...
distomolar
A supernumerary tooth located in the region posterior to the third molar tooth.
Distomum
SYN: Distoma.
distoplacement
SYN: distoversion.
distopulpal
Relating to the line (dihedral) angle formed by the junction of the distal and pulpal walls of a cavity.
distortion
1. In psychiatry, a defense mechanism that helps to repress or disguise unacceptable thoughts. 2. In dental impressions, the permanent deformation of the impression material ...
distoversion
Malposition of a tooth distal to normal, in a posterior direction following the curvature of the dental arch. SYN: distoplacement.
distractibility
A disorder of attention in which the mind is easily diverted by inconsequential occurrences; seen in mania and attention deficit disorder.
distraction
1. Difficulty or impossibility of concentration or fixation of the mind. 2. A force applied to a body part to separate bony fragments or joint surfaces. [L. dis-traho, pp. ...
distress
Mental or physical suffering or anguish. [L. distringo, to draw asunder] - fetal d. SYN: nonreassuring fetal status.
distribution
1. The passage of the branches of arteries or nerves to the tissues and organs. 2. The area in which the branches of an artery or a nerve terminate, or the area supplied by such ...
districhiasis
Growth of two hairs in a single follicle. [G. dis, double, + thrix (trich-), hair]
distrix
Splitting of the hairs at their ends. [G. dis, twice, + thrix, hair]
distropin
SYN: dystrophin.
disturbance
Deviation from, interruption of, or interference with a normal state. - emotional d., mental d. mental illness, behavior disorder.
disulfamide
A diuretic.
disulfate
A molecule containing two sulfates.
disulfide
1. A molecule containing two atoms of sulfur to one of the reference element, e.g., CS2, carbon d.. 2. A compound containing the –S–S– group, e.g., cystine. - asymmetric ...
disulfiram
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in ...
DIT
Abbreviation for diiodotyrosine.
diterpenes
Hydrocarbons or their derivatives containing four isoprene units, hence containing 20 carbon atoms and four branched methyl groups; e.g., vitamin A, retinene, aconitine.
dithiazanine iodide
A broad spectrum anthelmintic, effective against Strongyloides.
dithiothreitol
A donor of thiol groups used in biochemical and pharmacological studies. SYN: Cleland reagent.
dithranol
SYN: anthralin.
Dittrich
Franz, German pathologist, 1815–1859. See D. plugs, under plug, D. stenosis.
diuresis
Excretion of urine; commonly denotes production of unusually large volumes of urine. [G. dia, throughout, completely, + ouresis, urination] - alcohol d. d. following the ...
diuretic
1. Promoting the excretion of urine. 2. An agent that increases the amount of urine excreted. - cardiac d. a d. that acts by increasing function of the heart, and thereby ...
Diurnal
Occurring in the daytime. A patient may have a diurnal fever rather than a nocturnal one. Diurnal also can refer to recurring every day. Pronounced die-URN-ul, it comes from the ...
div. in p. aeg.
Abbreviation for L. divide in partes aequales, divide into equal parts.
divalence, divalency
SYN: bivalence.
divalent
SYN: bivalent (1).
divalproex sodium
Pentanoic acid, 2-propyl-, sodium salt (2:1); an anticonvulsant used in absence seizures and related seizure disorders. Derived from valproic acid.
divarication
SYN: diastasis (1). [L. divaricare, to spread asunder]
divergence
1. A moving or spreading apart or in different directions. 2. The spreading of branches of the neuron to form synapses with several other neurons. [L. di-, apart, + vergo, to ...
divergent
Moving in different directions; radiating.
Diverticula
The plural of diverticulum. As a person ages, pressure within the large intestine (colon) causes pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colon walls. A small bulging sac ...
diverticular
Relating to a diverticulum.
diverticulectomy
Excision of a diverticulum.
diverticulitis
Inflammation of a diverticulum, especially of the small pockets in the wall of the colon which fill with stagnant fecal material and become inflamed; rarely, they may cause ...
Diverticulitis, bleeding from
Diverticular bleeding typically occurs intermittently over several days. Colonoscopy is usually performed to confirm the diagnosis and exclude bleeding from other causes. ...
diverticuloma
Development of a granulomatous mass in the wall of the colon. [ diverticulum + G. -oma, tumor]
diverticulopexy
An operation to obliterate a diverticulum without resecting it, usually by securing the tip to a nearby structure so the diverticulum no longer fills. [ diverticulum + G. ...
diverticulosis
Presence of a number of diverticula of the intestine, common in middle age; the lesions are acquired pulsion diverticula.
Diverticulosis/diverticulitis and fiber
High fiber diets help delay the progression of diverticulosis and, at least, reduce the bouts of
Diverticulum
A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is a diverticulum. As a person ages, pressure within the large intestine (colon) causes pockets of tissue (sacs) that push ...
Diverticulum, Meckel's
An outpouching of the small bowel. About 1 in every 50 people has a Meckel's diverticulum. It is usually located about 2 feet before the junction of the small bowel with the ...
divicine
A base with alkaloidal properties present in Lathyrus sativus that is responsible, in part at least, for the latter's poisonous action. See lathyrism.
divisio
SYN: division. - divisiones anteriores plexus brachialis [TA] SYN: anterior divisions of (trunks of) brachial plexus, under division. - d. autonomica systematis nervosi ...
division
A separating into two or more parts. SEE ALSO: ramus. SYN: divisio. - anterior primary d. SYN: anterior ramus of spinal nerve. - anterior divisions of (trunks of) brachial ...
divulse
To tear away or apart. [L. divello, pp. di-vulsus, to pull apart]
divulsion
1. Removal of a part by tearing. 2. Forcible dilation of the walls of a cavity or canal.
divulsor
An instrument for forcible dilation of the urethra or other canal or cavity.
Dix
M.R., 20th century British otologist. See D.-Hallpike maneuver.
dixyrazine
A phenothiazine compound used as an antipsychotic.
Dizygotic twin
A twins who have shared a common uterine environment with its twin but is due to a different fertilized ovum. Dizygotic twins are also called fraternal twins.
dizygotic, dizygous
Relating to twins derived from two separate zygotes, i.e., bearing the same genetic relationship as full sibs but sharing a common intrauterine environment. [G. di-, two, + ...
Dizziness
Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of vision, the brain, balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, and gastrointestinal system. ...
Dizziness, anxiety as a cause of
One cause of dizziness is overbreathing (hyperventilation) due to anxiety. The overbreathing also causes lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness and tingling around the mouth ...
Dizziness, pre-syncopal
Syncope is fainting. Pre-syncope is before fainting, whed one is about to faint. Some symptoms of dizziness such as wooziness, feeling about to black out, and tunnel vision may ...
djenkolic acid
S,S′-Methylenebiscysteine; a sulfur-containing amino acid, resembling cystine but with a methylene bridge between the two sulfur atoms; very insoluble. [djenkol bean, bean ...
dl-
Prefix (in small capital letters) denoting a substance consisting of equal quantities of the two enantiomorphs, d and l; replaces the older dl- as a more exact definition of ...
dl-hyoscyamine
SYN: atropine.
dl-narcotine
SYN: gnoscopine.
DM
Abbreviation for adamsite; diabetes mellitus; diastolic murmur; dopamine.
DMA
Abbreviation for dimethoxyamphetamine.
DMARD
Acronym for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, under drug.
DMC
Abbreviation for p,p,′-dichlorodiphenyl methyl carbinol.
dmf, DMF
Abbreviation for decayed, missing, and filled teeth. SEE ALSO: dmfs caries index.
dmfs, DMFS
Abbreviation for decayed, missing, and filled surfaces. SEE ALSO: d. caries index.
DMPP
Abbreviation for dimethylphenylpiperazinium.
DMSA
See 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid.
DMSO
Abbreviation for dimethyl sulfoxide.
DMT
Abbreviation for N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
DN
Abbreviation for dibucaine number.
DNA
Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information. (The other is RNA. In humans DNA is the genetic material; RNA is transcribed from it. In some other organisms, RNA ...
DNA (did not attend)
In the UK, DNA is an abbreviation for "did not attend." (In the US, the term used for a patient who missed an appointment is "no-show.")
DNA amplification
The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. DNA amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA ...
DNA assembly
The process of putting fragments of DNA that have been sequenced into their correct chromosomal positions. The pieces of DNA are assembled to reconstitute the sequence of the ...
DNA cloning
The use of DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA.
DNA diagnostics
SYN: genetic testing. See DNA markers, familial screening, prenatal screening.
DNA markers
Segments of chromosomal DNA known to be linked with heritable traits or diseases. Although the markers themselves do not produce the conditions, they exist in concert with the ...
DNA molecules, recombinant
A combination of DNA molecules of different origin that are joined using recombinant DNA technology.
DNA polymerase
Enzyme that catalyzes (speeds) the polymerization of DNA. DNA polymerase uses preexisting nucleic acid templates and assembles the DNA from deoxyribonucleotides.
DNA repair
The body has a series of special enzymes to repair mutations (changes) in the DNA and restore the DNA to its original state. The DNA in genes is constantly mutating and being ...
DNA repair gene
A gene engaged in DNA repair. When a DNA repair gene is impaired, mutations pile up throughout the DNA. The DNA in genes is constantly mutating and being repaired. This repair ...
DNA repair gene, Med1
A gene that codes for one of the key enzymes involved in repairing DNA. The DNA in genes is constantly mutating and being repaired. This repair process is controlled by special ...
DNA repair pathway
The sequence of steps in the repair of DNA. Each step is governed by an enzyme.
DNA replication
A wondrous complex process whereby the ("parent") strands of DNA in the double helix are separated and each one is copied to produce a new ("daughter") ...
DNA sequence
The precise ordering of the bases (A,T,G,C) from which the DNA is composed. DNA sequencing involves determining the exact order of the base pairs in a segment of DNA.
DNA sequence, finished
A DNA sequence in which the bases are identified to an accuracy of no more than 1 error in 10,000 and are placed in the right order and orientation along a chromosome with ...
DNA splicing, alternative
Different ways of combining the DNA of a gene to create different variants of the complete protein product of that gene.
DNA technology, recombinant
A series of procedures used to join together (recombine) DNA segments. A recombinant DNA molecule is constructed (recombined) from segments from 2 or more different DNA ...
DNA virus
A virus in which the genetic material is DNA rather than RNA. The DNA may be either double- or single-stranded. Major groups of double-stranded DNA viruses (class I viruses) ...
DNA, coding
A sequence of DNA that codes for protein. Coding DNA sequences are separated by long regions of DNA called introns that have no apparent function. Coding DNA is also known as an ...
DNA, junk
Regions of the DNA that have no apparent function. The term " junk DNA" is a disparaging one, expressing some of the disappointment felt by geneticists when they first gazed upon ...
DNA, mitochondrial
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA of the mitochondrion, a structure situated in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than in the nucleus (where all the other chromosomes are ...
DNA, nongenetic
Through the marvelous medium of the Internet, we have discovered that DNA need not refer to deoxyribonucleic acid. Specifically, in an e-mail entitled " A day in the life of ...
DNA, repetitive
DNA sequences that are repeated in the genome. These sequences do not code for protein. One class termed highly repetitive DNA consists of short sequences, 5-100 nucleotides, ...
DNA, satellite
DNA that contains many tandem (not inverted) repeats of a short basic repeating unit. Satellite DNA is located at very specific spots in the genome (on chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and ...
dnaG
SYN: primase.
DNAse, DNAase, DNase
Abbreviations for deoxyribonuclease.
DNP, Dnp
1. Abbreviation for 2,4-dinitrophenol. 2. Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleoprotein.
DNR
Abbreviation for “do not resuscitate.”
Dns, DNS
Abbreviations for dansyl.
DOA
Abbreviation for dead on arrival.
DOB
Abbreviation standing for the date of birth. As examples, "DOB: 10/12/97" in the U.S. indicates the date of birth is October 12, 1997 whereas "DOB: 10/12/97" in Great Britain ...
dobutamine
A synthetic derivative of dopamine characterized by prominent inotropic but weak chronotropic and arrhythmogenic properties; a cardiotonic agent.

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