Abbreviation for deoxycorticosterone; deoxycholate.
In a medical context, the word "doctor" is quite nonspecific. It can refer to any medical professional with an MD, a PhD, or any other doctoral degree. A doctor may, for example, ...
Doctors Without Borders
A group which sends physicians and other health workers to some of the most destitute and dangerous parts of the world and encourages them not only to care for people, but also to ...
A staff or rod, with a snake curled around it. It is the staff or rod of Aesculapius (also called Asklepios), the ancient mythical god of medicine. His Greek name was ...
A particular system of principles taught or advocated. [L. doceo, to teach]
- Arrhenius d. the theory of electrolytic dissociation (1887) that became the basis of our modern ...
A surface-active agent used in the treatment of constipation as a nonlaxative fecal softener. SYN: dioctyl calcium sulfosuccinate.
A surface-active agent used as a dispersing agent in topically applied preparations. After oral administration it lowers the surface tension of the gastrointestinal tract and is ...
n-C12H26; a straight, unbranched, saturated hydrocarbon containing 12 carbon atoms; the 12th member of the alkane series that begins with methane.
The radical of dodecane.
- d. gallate an antioxidant.
- d. sulfate sodium d. sulfate.
Albert, S.G., German obstetrician, 1860–1941. See D. bacillus.
Department of Energy, U.S. One of the agencies contributing to the Human Genome Project.
Leo G., U.S. audiologist, *1919. See D.- Stewart test.
Jan von, Russian anatomist and physiologist, 1830–1905. See D. cells, under cell.
Alexander S., Russian histologist, 1852–1922. See D. corpuscle.
A theory or belief that is formally stated, defined, and thought to be true.
- central d. the proposition that while genetic information is transferred from parent to offspring ...
See d. school. [G. dogmatikos, concerning opinions; d. iatroi, physicians who go by general principles; fr. dogma, an opinion]
Karl G.P., German histologist and pathologist, 1855–1928. See D. bodies, under body, D. inclusions, under inclusion.
Edward A., U.S. biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1893–1986. See Allen-D. test, Allen-D. unit.
A unit measure of pain. [L. dolor, pain]
Having a disproportionately long head; denoting a skull with a cephalic index below 75. SYN: dolichocranial. [ dolicho- + G. kephale, head]
A colon of abnormal length. [ dolicho- + G. kolon, colon]
Polyisoprenes in which the terminal member is saturated and oxidized to an alcohol, usually phosphorylated and often glycosylated; found in endoplasmic reticulum, but not in ...
Having a disproportionately long pelvis; denoting a pelvis with a pelvic index above 95. [ dolicho- + G. pellis, bowl (pelvis)]
Narrow body habitus which, like arachnodactyly, is a common feature of several kinds of hereditary disorders of connective tissue. [ dolicho- + G. stenos, narrow, + melos, limb]
Richard, British epidemiologist, *1912. See Armitage-D. model.
Pain, as one of the four signs of inflammation (d., calor, rubor, tumor) enunciated by Celsus. [L.]
- d. capitis headache, especially due to changes in the scalp or bones rather ...
The measurement of pain. [L. dolor, pain, + G. metron, measure]
The study and treatment of pain. [L. dolor, pain, + G. logos, study]
Abbreviation for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine.
German physician and chemist (1893-1946) who discovered the first sulfa drug, prontosil, which ushered in the era of antibacterial medicine. For more information, see ...
In biomedicine, a domain is a discrete portion of a protein with its own function. The combination of domains in a single protein determines its overall function. (Not to be ...
d. of pleura cervical pleura.
Intentionally inflicted injury perpetrated by and on family member(s); varieties include spouse abuse, child abuse, and sexual abuse, including incest. Various kinds of abuse, ...
A state of close association of an organism within human abodes or activities, such that partial domestication results, leading to the organism's dependence on continued ...
The state of being dominant.
- cerebral d. the fact that one hemisphere is dominant over the other and will exercise greater influence over certain functions; the left cerebral ...
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene. (In genetic terms, a dominant trait is one that is phenotypically ...
An organic form of iodine complexed with glycerol; used as a mucolytic/expectorant.
A dopamine antagonist (like chlorpromazine) with antiemetic properties.
In psychiatry, a term used to denote males with compulsive sexual or romantic overactivity, usually with a succession of female partners. [legendary Spanish nobleman]
Julius, German physician, 1870–1950. See D.- Landsteiner phenomenon, D.- Landsteiner cold autoantibody, Landsteiner-D. test.
Franz C., Dutch ophthalmologist, 1818–1889. See D. law, D. pressure, space of D..
Frederick G., English physical chemist, 1870–1956. See D. equilibrium, Gibbs-D. equilibrium.
Alfred, French physician, 1801–1878. See Donné corpuscle.
William L., Canadian pediatric pathologist, 1906–1984. See D. disease.
1. An individual from whom blood, tissue, or an organ is taken for transplantation. 2. A compound that will transfer an atom or a radical to an acceptor; e.g., methionine is a ...
A procedure in which a fine catheter (tube) is inserted through the cervix (the natural opening of the uterus) into the uterus (the womb) to deposit a sperm sample from a man ...
Charles, Irish surgeon, 1863–1951. See D. bodies, under body, Leishman-D. body.
H., 20th century German pediatrician and epileptologist. See D. syndrome.
A precursor (forerunner) of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is believed to be ...
dopa, DOPA, Dopa
An intermediate in the catabolism of l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, and in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and melanin; the l form, levodopa, is ...
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD)
A condition that typically begins in childhood or adolescence with progressive difficulty in walking and, in some cases, spasticity and can be successfully treated with drugs. ...
An important neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopamine is classified as a catecholamine (a class of molecules that serve as neurotransmitters and hormones). It is a ...
A copper-containing enzyme catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine simultaneously by O2 to yield norepinephrine, dehydroascorbate, and water; a ...
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ dopamine as their neurotransmitter. [ dopamine + G. ergon, work]
1. Any drug, either stimulating or depressing, administered for its temporary effect, or taken habitually or addictively. 2. To administer or take such a drug. [Dutch, doop, ...
The administration of foreign substances to an individual; often used in reference to athletes who try to stimulate physical and psychological strength.
Johann Christian, Austrian mathematician and physicist, 1803–1853. See D. echocardiography, D. effect, D. phenomenon, D. shift, D. ultrasonography.
A diagnostic instrument ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of fur. Sufferers of this fear avoid fur-bearing animals such as dogs, cats, foxes, beavers and rabbits because fur is repulsive to them. Perhaps ...
P., Italian anatomist, *1872. See D. canal.
H., German physician, *1866. See D. sign.
Maurice L., 20th century Israeli dermatologist. See D.- Chanarin syndrome.
Dorian Gray effect
Sudden aging, an abrupt change from seeming youthfulness to the reality and ravages of age, as can occur naturally or when the effects of plastic surgery and Botox treatments ...
G., 20th century German neurologist. See Pette-D. disease.
Obsolete contraction of deoxyribonuclease. SEE ALSO: streptodornase.
- pancreatic d. a stabilized deoxyribonuclease preparation from beef pancreas; used by inhalation in the ...
Carl, Swiss climatologist, 1865–1942.
An abnormal desire to give presents. [G. doron, gift, + mania, insanity]
Toward or in the direction of the back. [L. dorsum, back, + ad, to]
Pertaining to the back or posterior side of a structure. Dorsal comes from the Latin word " dorsum" meaning the back. The dorsal surface of the hand is the back of the hand, the ...
Dorsal (anatomic orientation)
The back, as opposed to ventral. Some of the dorsal surfaces of the body are the back, buttocks, calves, and the knuckle side of the hand (palm is ventral). For a more complete ...
Marion, U.S. bacteriologist, 1872–1935. See D. culture egg medium.
To draw backward or toward the back. [L. dorsum, back, + duco, pp. ductus, to draw]
Upward movement (extension) of the foot or toes or of the hand or fingers.
Relating to the vertebral column, especially to its dorsal aspect.
Toward the occiput, or back of the head. [L. dorsum, back, + G. kephale, head, + L. ad, to]
Referring to the back in the region of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae.
In a direction from the dorsal to the ventral aspect.
The back or posterior side of a structure. "Dorsum" is the Latin word for the back. Something pertaining to the dorsum is dorsal. The dorsal surface of the hand is the back of ...
1. The giving of medicine or other therapeutic agent in prescribed amounts. 2. The determination of the proper dose of a remedy. Cf.:dose. 3. In nuclear medicine, quantity of ...
1. The quantity of a drug or other remedy to be taken or applied all at one time or in fractional amounts within a given period. Cf.:dosage (2). 2. In nuclear medicine, amount ...
In radiology, the absorbed dose is the amount of energy that is deposited in any material by ionizing radiation. The unit of absorbed dose, the rad, is a measure of energy ...
A device for measuring radiation, especially x-rays. [G. dosis, dose, + metron, measure]
Measurement of radiation exposure, especially x-rays or gamma rays; calculation of radiation dose from internally administered radionuclides.
- thermoluminescence d. the ...
A small spot.
- Gunn dots minute, highly glistening, white or yellowish specks usually seen in the posterior part of the fundus; nonpathologic.
- Horner- Trantas dots ...
The deterioration of previously intact mental powers, common in old age.
Stands for Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course. DOTS is a strategy used to reduce the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases. In DOTS, healthcare workers observe patients as they ...
The structure of DNA with the two strands of DNA spiraling about one other. The double helix looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil. The ...
A medical study in which at least two separate groups receive the experimental medication or procedure at different times, with neither group being made aware of when the ...
1. A combination of two lenses designed to correct the chromatic and spherical aberration. 2. SYN: dipole. 3. Any sequence of two nucleotides in a polynucleotide strand. 4. ...
A stream of water directed at any part of the body or any body cavity, often into the vagina, for cleansing or medicinal purposes. A douche can be with a simple solution of ...
: Using water or a medicated solution to clean the vagina and cervix.
Claude G., English physiologist, 1882–1963. See D. bag.
Beverly, U.S. surgeon, 1891–1975.
James, Scottish anatomist in London, 1675–1742. See D. abscess, D. cul-de-sac, D. ...
Douglas, pouch of
An extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and back wall of the uterus. The term " cul-de-sac," aside from being any "blind pouch or cavity that is closed at one ...
A widened portion of a cavity preparation usually established to increase the retention and resistance form.
An abnormal outward curvature of the vertebrae of upper back. Compression of the front (anterior) portion of the involved vertebrae leads to forward bending of the spine ...
1. A cast gold or preformed metal pin placed into a root canal for the purpose of providing retention for a crown. 2. A preformed metal pin placed in a copper-plated die to ...
John Langdon H., English physician, 1828–1896. See D. syndrome.
A common chromosome disorder due to an extra chromosome number 21 (trisomy 21). Down syndrome causes mental retardation, a characteristic face, and multiple malformations. Down ...
Down syndrome features
Children with Down syndrome have multiple malformations and mental impairment due to the presence of extra material from chromosome 21. Among the more common physical features ...
Development of a refractory or tolerant state consequent upon repeated administration of a pharmacologically or physiologically active substance; often accompanied by an initial ...
Hal, U.S. hematologist, 1877–1959. See D. cell.
Something that grows downward; the process of growing in a downward direction.
- epithelial d. the invasion of surface epithelium into the interior of the eye as a consequence of ...
William B., U.S. orthodontist, 1899–1966. See D. analysis.
Arthur W., U.S. chemist, *1882. See Czapek-D. medium.
A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug similar to pancuronium but without cardiovascular side effect s.
A central nervous system stimulant, advocated but infrequently used as a respiratory stimulant in anesthesia.
An antihypertensive agent that selectively blocks the α1 (postjunctional) subtype of α-adrenergic receptors; resembles prazocin in pharmacologic actions. Prevents the blood ...
A theophyllinelike drug used, though rarely in the U.S., as a bronchodilator in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
An antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius; also used in cytogenetics to produce Q-type chromosome bands. SYN: adriamycin.
Louis, French physiologist, 1811–1863. See D. eminence.
J.B., U.S. gynecologist, *1907. See D. operation.
Robert Walter, English ophthalmologist, 1857–1916. See D. honeycomb choroidopathy.
Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus vaccine. Today the more frequent abbreviation is DTP (for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine).
* * *
Abbreviation for diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus ...
DPT immunization protects from diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus and is given in a series of 5 shots at 2, 4, 6, 18 months of age and 4-6 years of age. ...
Abbreviation for digital radiography.
Abbreviation for dram.
Abbreviation for doctor.
Abbreviation of Doctor of Public Health.
SYN: dram. [G. drachme, an ancient Greek weight, equivalent to about 60 gr]
A parasitic disease caused by the largest parasite that plagues people and bores into their tissues — the guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis. Dracunculiasis is also called ...
A genus of nematodes (superfamily Dracunculoidea) that have some resemblances to true filarial worms; however, adults are larger (females being as long as 1 m), and the ...
1. A current of air in a confined space. 2. A quantity of liquid medicine ordered as a single dose. SYN: draught.
1. The lower or cast side of a denture flask. 2. Any tendency for one moving thing to pull something else along with it.
- solvent d. the influence exerted by a flow of solvent ...
A sugar-coated pill or capsule. [Fr.]
Georg J.N., German physician and pharmaceutical chemist, 1836–1898. See D. test.
Glenn A., U.S. neurologist, *1917. See Shy-D. syndrome.
Heinrich, German manufacturer of industrial and diving respiratory apparatus and anesthesia machines, 1847–1917. See D. respirometer.
1. To remove fluid from a cavity as it forms, e.g., to d. an abscess. 2. A device, usually in the shape of a tube or wick, for removing fluid as it collects in a cavity, ...
Continuous withdrawal of fluids from a wound or other cavity.
- capillary d. d. by means of a wick of gauze or other material.
- closed d. d. of a body cavity via a water- or ...
A unit of weight : 1/8 oz.; 60 gr, apothecaries' weight; 1/16 oz., avoirdupois weight. SYN: drachm. [see drachm]
1. To cover parts of the body other than those to be examined or operated upon. 2. The cloth or materials used for such cover. [M.E., fr. L.L. drappus, cloth]
John William, English chemist, 1811–1882. See D. law.
A narrow sheet placed crosswise on the bed under the patient to assist in moving the patient or in changing soiled bed coverings.
DRE (digital rectal exam)
An exam done to detect abnormalities that can be felt (palpated) from within the rectum. The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels for anything that ...
Mental activity during sleep in which events, thought, emotions, and images are experienced as real.
- anxiety d. a d. (or nightmare) in which morbid fear and anxiety form an ...
In psychoanalysis, the process by which the change from latent to manifest content of a dream is effected.
Thoughts, visions, and other sensations that occupy the mind in sleep. Dreams occur during that part of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs). We have 3 to 5 periods of ...
A saprobic genus of fungi, frequently recovered in the clinical laboratory, characterized by conidia attached to a zigzagged conidiophore. Most species in this genus that cause ...
Fritz E., *1926. See Emery-D. muscular dystrophy.
A young sickle-shaped or crescentic form of a gregarine. [G. drepane, a sickle]
SYN: sickle cell. [G. drepane, sickle, + kytos, a hollow (cell)]
In Great Britain, a surgical assistant whose primary duty is bandaging and dressing wounds.
The material applied, or the application itself of material, to a wound for protection, absorbance, drainage, etc.
- adhesive absorbent d. a sterile individual d. consisting ...
William, U.S. physician, 1890–1969. See D. beat, D. syndrome.
Georges, English pathologist, 1873–1934. See D. formula.
Abbreviation for diagnosis-related group.
1. To drool, slaver, drivel. 2. To fall in drops, as the urine from a distended bladder.
1. A gradual movement, as from an original position. 2. A gradual change in the value of a random variable over time as a result of various factors, some random and some ...
Random movement of a tooth to a position of greater stability.
Slow ocular movements of greater amplitude than flicks, occurring during ocular fixation. SYN: drift movements.
1. To make a hole in bone or other hard substance. 2. An instrument for making or enlarging a hole in bone or in a tooth. [Middle Dutch drillen, to bore]
- bur d. bur.
- dental ...
A device that dentists use to drill into teeth. Primitive dental drills were used in the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1868, American dentist George F. Green added power to ...
A drilling away; scooping out.
- cochlear d. implantation of electrodes in a cochlea in which the lumen of the scala tympani has been obliterated by the deposition of new bone ...
Philip, U.S. industrial hygienist, 1893–1972. See D. respirator.
1. To flow a drop at a time. 2. A flowing in drops.
- alkaline milk d. a variable mixture of sodium bicarbonate in whole milk dripped into the stomach through a small oral or ...
1. In psychoanalysis, a basic compelling urge. 2. In psychology, classified as either innate ( e.g., hunger) or learned ( e.g., hoarding) and appetitive ( e.g., hunger, ...
The induction of a frequency in the electroencephalogram by sensory stimulation at this frequency.
- photic d. a normal EEG phenomenon whereby the frequency of the activity ...
An uncontrollable impulse to wander or travel. [G. dromos, a running, + mania, insanity]
The principal psychoactive substance present in Cannabis sativa, used therapeutically as an antinauseant to control the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. ...
1. To fall, or to be dispensed or poured in globules. 2. A liquid globule. 3. A volume of liquid regarded as a unit of dosage, equivalent in the case of water to about 1 minim. ...
A butyrophenone drug used in neuroleptanalgesia and preanesthetic medication; the pharmacology is similar to that of haloperidol; a dopamine receptor blocker. Exhibits ...
A diminutive drop, such as a particle of moisture discharged from the mouth during coughing, sneezing, or speaking; these may transmit infections to others by their airborne ...
A popular term for a medicine taken in doses measured by d., usually a tincture, or applied by dropping, as an eyewash.
- eye d. See eyewash, ophthalmic solutions, under ...
: An old term for the swelling of soft tissues due to the accumulation of excess water. In years gone by, a person might have been said to have dropsy. Today one would be more ...
All of the genetic information contained in Drosophila, the fruitfly. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as Drosophila have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Death within 24 hours of immersion in liquid, either due to anoxia or cardiac arrest caused by sudden extreme lowering of temperature ( immersion syndrome). SEE ALSO: near d..
A state of impaired awareness associated with a desire or inclination to sleep.
1. Therapeutic agent; any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, alleviation, treatment, or cure of disease. For types or classifications of drugs, see ...
A measure of the physiological response a drug produces. A less active drug produces less response (and visa versa).
Drug caution codes
Abbreviations on medications that indicate caution. While not a part of the historical heritage of ancient prescription abbreviations, drug caution codes provide very valuable ...
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Every prescription written in the United States bears a DEA number, that of the prescribing doctor, the DEA being the Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of ...
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with other drugs, with endogenous physiologic chemical agents ( e.g., MAOI with epinephrine), ...
The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand a drug to which they were once sensitive (and were once stalled or killed outright).
Something capable of acting against infection, by inhibiting the spread of an infectious agent or by killing the infectious agent outright. Anti-infective is a general term that ...
A drug used to treat bacterial infections. The original definition of an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another ...
A drug used to treat fungal infections. Examples of antifungal drugs include miconazole (MONISTAT) and clotrimazole (LOTRIMIN, MYCELEX).
As the name clearly implies, a drug aimed at reducing high blood pressure (hypertension).
A drug used to treat a microbial infection. The term " antimicrobial" is a general one that refers to a group of drugs that includes antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and ...
Something that destroys protozoa or inhibits their growth and ability to reproduce. A few of the protozoa of medical importance include Plasmodium (the cause of malaria); ...
A drug directed against the thyroid gland. The antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole, and propylthiouracil (PTU). These drugs are used to treat hyperthyroidism ...
An agent that kills viruses or suppresses their replication and, hence, inhibits their capability to multiply and reproduce. For example, amantadine (BRAND name: SYMMETREL) is a ...
The term "generic" has several meanings as regards drugs: The chemical name of a drug. A term referring to the chemical makeup of a drug rather than to the advertised brand name ...
A drug requiring a prescription, as opposed to an over-the-counter drug, which can be purchased without one. The word "prescription" comes from the Latin ...
One of the sulfonamides, the sulfa-related antibiotics which are used to treat bacterial and some fungal infections. The first sulfa drug was prontosil. It was discovered by ...
A medication that can inhibit labor, slow down or halt the contractions of the uterus. Tocolytic agents are widely used today to treat premature labor and permit pregnancy to ...
Pertaining to microorganisms that resist or become tolerant to an antibacterial agent.
Old common term for pharmacist.
Drugs during pregnancy, dangerous
A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect). Classes of ...
These drugs, which include angiostatin and Endostatin, halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common ...
A class of drugs that lower cholesterol. There are currently at least 5 statin drugs on the market in the U.S., including: Lovastatin (brand name: MEVACOR), Simvastatin (brand ...
A teratogen is an agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. Teratogens halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (a birth defect). Classes of ...
Sir David, English physician, 1852–1932. See artery of D., D. sign.
Intoxication, usually alcoholic. SEE ALSO: acute alcoholism.
- sleep d. a half-waking condition in which the faculty of orientation is in abeyance, and under the influence ...
Tiny yellow or white deposits in the retina of the eye or on the optic nerve head. The presence of drusen is one of the most common early signs of age-related macular ...
DRVs (Daily Reference Values)
A set of dietary references that applies to fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, sodium, and potassium.
Abbreviation for double-stranded.
Abbreviation for digital subtraction angiography.
The " Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," a comprehensive classification of officially recognized psychiatric disorders, for use by mental health ...
Abbreviation for delirium tremens.
Abbreviation for deoxythymidine.
DT (diphtheria and tetanus) vaccine does not protect from pertussis and is usually reserved for individuals who have had a significant adverse reaction to a DPT shot or who ...
Abbreviation for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine.
Like DPT, DTaP protects from diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus. DTaP is the same as DTP, except that it contains only acellular pertussis vaccine which is ...
Abbreviation for thymidine 5′-diphosphate.
Sugars or sugar derivatives bonded to dTDP.
Abbreviation for delayed-type hypersensitivity.
Abbreviation for thymidine.
Abbreviation for dacarbazine.
Abbreviation for deoxythymidylic acid; thymidine 5′-monophosphate.
Abbreviation for distal tingling on percussion; diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine; and Demerol, Thorazine, and Phenergan, sometimes used as a ...
Abbreviation for diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid.
Abbreviation for deep tendon reflex.
Abbreviation for thymidine 5′-triphosphate.