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Dystonia, focal, due to torticollis
Spasmodic torticollis, or torticollis, is the most common of the focal dystonias. In torticollis, the muscles in the neck that control the position of the head are affected, ...
Dystonia, idiopathic torsion
A form of dystonia known as early-onset torsion dystonia (also called generalized torsion dystonia) begins in childhood around the age of 12. Symptoms typically start in one ...
Dystonia, laryngeal
A voice disorder, also called spasmodic dysphonia, caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx or voice box. People who have spasmodic dysphonia may ...
Dystonia, oromandibular
Oromandibular dystonia affects the muscles of the jaw, lips, and tongue. The jaw may be pulled either open or shut, and
Dystonia, Segawa
An important variant form of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). DRD typically begins in childhood or adolescence with progressive difficulty in walking and, in some cases, with ...
Dystonia, torsion
A form of dystonia known as early-onset torsion dystonia (also called idiopathic or generalized torsion dystonia) begins in childhood around the age of 12. Symptoms typically ...
Dystonia, writer’s cramp
A dystonia that affects the muscles of the hand and sometimes the forearm and only occurs during handwriting. Similar focal dystonias have also been called typist’s cramp, ...
dystonic
Pertaining to dystonia.
dystopia
Faulty or abnormal position of a part or organ. SYN: allotopia, malposition. [dys- + G. topos, place] - pituitary d. failure of union of neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. ...
dystopic
Pertaining to, or characterized by, dystopia. SEE ALSO: ectopic.
dystrophia
SYN: dystrophy. [L. fr. G. dys-, bad, + trophe, nourishment] - d. adiposogenitalis SYN: adiposogenital dystrophy. - d. brevicollis a condition marked by symptoms of d. ...
dystrophic
Relating to dystrophy.
dystrophin
A protein found in the sarcolemma of normal muscle; it is missing in individuals with pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy and in other forms of muscular dystrophy; its role ...
dystrophy
Progressive changes that may result from defective nutrition of a tissue or organ. SYN: dystrophia. [dys- + G. trophe, nourishment] - adiposogenital d. a disorder characterized ...
Dystrophy, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal (APECED)
A genetic autoimmune disease with an extraordinary array of clinical features but characterized most often by at least 2 of the following 3 findings: hypoparathyroidism — ...
Dystrophy, cone
A disease of the cones, the specialized light-sensitive cells that act as photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, providing sharp central vision and color vision. The cone ...
Dystrophy, muscular
One of a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. The muscles of the heart and ...
Dystrophy, myotonic
An inherited disease in which the muscles contract but have decreasing power to relax — this phenomenon is termed myotonia (irritability and prolonged contraction of muscles). ...
dystropin
SYN: dystrophin.
dystropy
Abnormal or eccentric behavior. [dys- + G. tropos, a turning]
dysuria
Difficulty or pain in urination. SYN: dysury. [dys- + G. ouron, urine]
dysuric
Relating to or suffering from dysuria.
dysury
SYN: dysuria.
dysversion
A turning in any direction, less than inversion; particularly d. of the optic nerve head ( situs inversus of the optic disk). [dys- + L. verto, to turn]
E
1. Symbol for exa-; extraction ratio; glutamic acid; energy; electromotive force; glutamyl; internal energy. 2. As a subscript, refers to expired gas; obsolete symbol for ...
e
Symbol for elementary charge; base of natural, or Napierian, logarithms (2.71828...). It is the limit of 1 + (1/n!).
E-cadherin
SYN: uvomorulin.
E-LAM
Abbreviation for endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule.
E. coli
Short for Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally resides in the human colon. E. coli has been studied intensively in genetics and molecular and cell ...
E. coli hemorrhagic diarrhea
Bloody colitis (inflammation of the bowel) caused by E. coli, usually by the strain E. coli 0157:H7. The diarrhea is severe with painful abdominal cramps, gross blood in the ...
E. coli O157:H7
A dangerous form of Escherichia coli, the colon bacillus, a bacterium that normally lives in the human colon. E. coli 0157:H7 is a major health problem, causing hemorrhagic ...
E.B., EB
Abbreviation for elementary bodies (1), under body.
E.N.E.
Abbreviation for ethylnorepinephrine.
E.N.S.
Abbreviation for ethylnorepinephrine.
E0+, E0, Eh
Symbols for oxidation-reduction potential.
E1
Symbol for estrone.
E2
Symbol for estradiol.
Ea
Abbreviation for energy of activation.
EAE
Abbreviation for experimental allergic encephalitis.
Eagle
Harry, U.S. physician and cell biologist, 1905–1992. See E. basal medium, E. minimum essential medium. Watt W., 20th century U.S. otolaryngologist.
Eagle syndrome
Inflammation of the styloid process, a spike-like projection sticking off the base of the skull. The tissues in the throat rub on this structure during the act of swallowing ...
Eales
Henry, English ophthalmologist, 1852–1913. See E. disease.
Ear
The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the ...
Ear canal, self-cleaning
Most of the time the ear canals are self-cleaning, that is, there is a slow and orderly migration of ear canal skin from the eardrum to the outer opening. Old earwax is ...
Ear cleaning (by a doctor)
When so much wax accumulates that it blocks the ear canal (and hearing), your physician may have to wash it out, vacuum it, or remove it with special instruments. Alternatively, ...
Ear cleaning (yourself)
Never put anything smaller than your elbow in your ear! Wax is not formed in the deep part of the ear canal near the eardrum, but only in the outer part of the canal. So when a ...
Ear infection, middle (acute)
Acute middle ear infection, medically called acute otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear. Acute otitis media typically causes fluid in the middle ear accompanied by ...
Ear piercing
The practice of using a needle or needle gun to make holes through the ear lobe or other parts of the ear for wearing jewelry. When done under hygienic conditions, there is ...
Ear pit
Tiny pit in front of the ear: preauricular pit. A minor anomaly of no great consequence in itself. More common in blacks than whites and in females than males. Can recur in ...
Ear puncture
Puncture of the ear drum may be due to an accident for example when something is stuck into the ear. Or it may be due to fluid pressure in the middle ear. Today the ear drum is ...
Ear ringing
Together with other abnormal ear noises, ear ringing is medically called tinnitus. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear, ...
Ear tag
Common minor anomaly, a rudimentary tag of ear tissue, often containing a core cartilage, usually located just in front of the ear (auricle). Therefore also called preauricular ...
Ear thermometer
A thermometer that registers body temperature via the ear canal. The ear thermometer was invented in 1964 by Dr. Theodor H. Benzinger. Dr. Benzinger worked from 1947 to 1970 at ...
Ear tubes
Formally known as tympanostomy tubes, ear tubes are small plastic tubes inserted into the eardrum (the tympanum) to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged period of time. ...
Ear wax
A natural wax-like substance secreted by special glands in the skin on the outer part of the ear canal. It repels water, and traps dust and sand particles. Usually a small amount ...
Ear, cauliflower
An acquired deformity of the external ear to which wrestlers and boxers are particularly vulnerable. The cause is damage due to trauma. When trauma causes a blood clot under the ...
Ear, external
There are three sections of the ear. They are the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The external ear looks complicated but it is functionally the simplest part ...
Ear, foreign object in
A foreign object in the external ear canal. Foreign objects are often placed in the ear by young children or by accident while trying to clean or scratch the ear. There is often ...
Ear, inner
There are three sections of the ear. They are the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The inner ear is far and away the most highly complex. The essential ...
Ear, internal
There are three sections of the ear. They are the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear. The internal ear is far and away the most highly complex. The essential ...
Ear, low-set
A minor anomaly involving an ear situated down below its normal location. Technically, the ear is low-set when the helix (of the ear) meets the cranium at a level below that of a ...
Ear, middle
There are three sections of the ear. They are the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The middle ear consists of the ear drum (the tympanum or tympanic ...
Ear, outer
There are three sections of the ear. They are the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The outer ear looks complicated but it is functionally the simplest part of ...
Ear, slanted
An ear that is slanted more than usual. Technically, an ear is slanted when the angle of the slope of the auricle is more than 15 degrees from the perpendicular. Also called a ...
earache
Pain in the ear. SYN: otalgia, otodynia.
eardrum
The middle ear. Cf.:tympanic membrane. SYN: tympanum.
Earle
Wilton R., U.S. pathologist, 1902–1964. See E. L fibrosarcoma, E. solution.
Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease that runs in families and usually strikes at an unusually early age (with its onset under the age of 60). Mutations in three different genes — the amyloid ...
earpiece
A part of a device inserted into the external auditory canal to deliver sound to the ear.
earplug
Generic term for occlusive devices for the external auditory canal for protection of hearing against noise-induced hearing loss or to prevent water from getting into the ear. SEE ...
earth
1. Soil; the soft material of the land, as opposed to rock and sand. 2. An easily pulverized mineral. 3. An insoluble oxide of aluminum or of certain other elements ...
Earthquake supplies kit
You and your family can cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won't have time ...
earwax
SYN: cerumen.
eat
1. To take solid food. 2. To chew and swallow any substance as one would food. 3. To corrode. [A.S. etan]
Eaton
Lee M., U.S. neurologist, 1905–1958. See E.- Lambert syndrome. Monroe A., U.S. microbiologist, *1904. See E. agent.
Ebbinghaus
Hermann, German, 1850–1909. See E. test.
EBCT (electron beam computerized tomography)
A new (and controversial) noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). EBCT, or Ultrafast CT (as the technique will be termed here) is designed to ...
Eberth
Karl J., German physician, 1835–1926. See E. bacillus, E. lines, under line, E. perithelium.
Ebner
Victor von. See von E..
ebonation
Removal of loose fragments of bone from a wound. [L.]
ébranlement
Twisting a polyp on its stalk to cause atrophy. [Fr.]
Ebstein
Wilhelm, German physician, 1836–1912. See E. anomaly, E. disease, E. sign, Armanni-E. change, Armanni-E. kidney, Pel-E. disease, Pel-E. fever.
EBT
Abbreviation for electron beam tomography.
ebullism
Formation of water vapor bubbles in the tissues brought on by an extreme reduction in barometric pressure; occurs if the body is exposed to pressures above an altitude of 63,000 ...
ebur
A tissue resembling ivory in outward appearance or structure. [L. ivory] - e. dentis SYN: dentine.
eburnation
A change in exposed subchondral bone in degenerative joint disease in which it is converted into a dense substance with a smooth surface like ivory. SYN: bone sclerosis. [L. ...
eburneous
Resembling ivory, especially in color.
eburnitis
Increased density and hardness of dentin, which may occur after the dentin is exposed. [L. eburneus, of ivory, + G. -itis, inflammation]
EBV
Epstein-Barr virus, best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis ("mono"). Infection with EBV is characterized by fatigue and general malaise. Infection with EBV is ...
EC
Abbreviation for Enzyme Commission of the International Union of Biochemistry, used in conjunction with a unique number to define a specific enzyme in the Enzyme Commission 's ...
ec-
Out of, away from. [G.]
écarteur
A type of retractor. [Fr. écarter, to separate]
ecaudate
Tailless. [L. e- priv. + cauda, tail]
ecboline
SYN: ergotoxine.
eccentric
1. Abnormal or peculiar in ideas or behavior. SYN: erratic (1). 2. Proceeding from a center. Cf.:centrifugal (2). 3. SYN: peripheral. [G. ek, out, + kentron, center]
eccentrochondroplasia
Abnormal epiphysial development from eccentric centers of ossification. [G. ek, out + kentron, center, + chondros, cartilage, + plasis, a molding]
eccentropiesis
Pressure exerted from within outward. [G. ek, out, + kentron, center, + piesis, pressure]
ecchondroma
1. A cartilaginous neoplasm arising as an overgrowth from normally situated cartilage, as a mass protruding from the articular surface of a bone, in contrast to enchondroma. 2. ...
ecchondrosis
SYN: ecchondroma.
ecchordosis physaliphora
A notochordal rest of the cranial clivus that may form a small tumor.
ecchymoma
A slight hematoma following a bruise. [G. ek, out, + chymos, juice, + -oma, tumor]
ecchymosis
A purplish patch caused by extravasation of blood into the skin, differing from petechiae only in size (larger than 3 mm diameter). [G. ekchymosis, e., fr. ek, out, + chymos, ...
ecchymotic
Relating to an ecchymosis.
Eccleston
See Paget-E. stain.
eccrine
1. SYN: exocrine (1). 2. Denoting the flow of sweat from skin glands unconnected to hair follicles. [G. ek-krino, to secrete]
eccrinology
The branch of physiology and of anatomy concerned with the secretions and the secreting ( exocrine) glands. [G. ekdrino, to secrete, + logos, study]
eccrisis
1. The removal of waste products. 2. Any waste product; excrement. [G. separation]
eccritic
1. Promoting the expulsion of waste matters. 2. An agent that promotes excretion.
eccyesis
SYN: ectopic pregnancy. [G. ek, out, + kyesis, pregnancy]
ecdemic
Denoting a disease brought into a region from without. [G. ekdemos, foreign, from home, fr. demos, people]
ecdysiasm
A morbid tendency to undress to produce sexual desire in others. [fr. G. ekdyo, to remove one's clothes]
ecdysis
Desquamation, sloughing, or molting as a necessary phenomenon to permit growth in arthropods and skin renewal in amphibians and reptiles. [G. ekdysis, shedding]
ecdysist
A person who engages in ecdysiasm.
ECF
Abbreviation for extracellular fluid.
ECF-A
Abbreviation for eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis.
ECFV
Abbreviation for extracellular fluid volume.
ECG
Abbreviation for electrocardiogram. Abbreviation for electrocardiogram. The K is from "kardio" (in German). * * * Abbreviation for electrocardiogram.
ecgonine
The important part of the cocaine molecule; a topical anesthetic; basis of many coca alkaloids. - e. benzoate SYN: benzoylecgonine.
Echidnophaga gallinacea
The sticktight flea, a serious pest of poultry in subtropical America; also frequently attacks domestic mammals and humans.
echin-
See echino-.
echinate
SYN: echinulate.
echino-, echin-
Prickly, spiny. [G. echinos, hedgehog, sea urchin]
Echinochasmus
A genus of digenetic flukes (family Echinostomatidae), particularly common in wading and fish-eating birds; the species E. perfoliatus var. japonicus is reported as a rare ...
echinococciasis
SYN: echinococcosis.
Echinococcosis
Parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus. There are three forms of Echinococcus that affect humans — E. (Echinococcus) granulosus, E. ...
Echinococcus
A tiny parasitic tapeworm. The larval stage of this tapeworm can cause human disease. There are three forms of Echinococcus that affect humans — E. (Echinococcus) granulosus, ...
echinocyte
A crenated red blood cell. [echino- + G. kytos, cell]
echinoderm
A member of the phylum Echinodermata.
Echinodermata
A phylum of Metazoa that includes starfish, sea urchins, sea lilies, and other classes. All but the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are basically radially symmetrical and most ...
Echinorhynchus
A genus of acanthocephalid (thorny-headed) worms which originally included species now contained in Macracanthorhynchus, Gigantorhynchus, and other genera. [echino- + G. ...
echinosis
A condition in which the red blood cells have lost their smooth outlines, resembling an echinus or sea urchin. [echino- + G. -osis, condition]
Echinostoma
A genus of digenetic flukes (family Echinostomatidae) with characteristic oral spines; widely distributed and parasitic in a broad range of bird and mammal hosts; several species ...
echinostomiasis
Infection of birds and mammals, including humans, with trematodes of the genus Echinostoma.
echinulate
Prickly or spinous. Covered with small spines. SYN: echinate. [Mod. L. echinulus, dim. of L. echinus, hedgehog]
Echis
The saw-scaled or carpet viper, a genus of small (under 1 m), irritable, and alert snakes with a highly toxic venom; they are responsible for numerous snakebite cases with many ...
echo
1. A reverberating sound sometimes heard during auscultation of the chest. 2. In ultrasonography, the acoustic signal received from scattering or reflecting structures or the ...
echo-free
SYN: anechoic.
echoacousia
A subjective disturbance of hearing in which a sound appears to be repeated. [echo + G. akouo, to hear]
echoaortography
Application of ultrasound techniques to the diagnosis and study of the aorta. [echo + aortography]
echocardiogram
The record obtained by echocardiography. See ultrasonography.
Echocardiography
Echocardiography is a diagnostic test which uses ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures. It can measure cardiac output and is a ...
Echocardiography, stress
A supplement to the routine exercise cardiac stress test. During stress echocardiography, the sound waves of ultrasound are used to produce images of the heart at rest and at ...
Echocardiography, transesophageal
A diagnostic test which is done through the esophagus and which employs ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures. Transesophageal ...
echoencephalography
The use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial processes. [echo + encephalography]
echogenic
Pertaining to a structure or medium ( e.g., tissue) that has internal echoes. Cf. hypoechoic, hyperechoic, and anechoic, which refer, respectively, to paucity, abundance, and ...
echogram
A record obtained using acoustic reflection techniques in any one of the various display modes, especially an echocardiogram. SEE ALSO: ultrasonogram. [echo + G. gramma, a ...
echographer
SYN: ultrasonographer.
echographia
A form of agraphia in which one cannot write spontaneously, but can write from dictation or copy. [echo + G. grapho, to write]
echography
SYN: ultrasonography. [echo + G. grapho, to write]
echolalia
Involuntary parrotlike repetition of a word or sentence just spoken by another person. Usually seen with schizophrenia. SYN: echo reaction, echo speech, echophrasia. [echo + G. ...
echolocation
Term applied to the method by which bats direct their flight and avoid solid objects. The creatures emit high-pitched cries that, though inaudible to human ears, are heard by the ...
echomotism
SYN: echopraxia. [echo + L. motio, motion]
echopathy
A form of psychopathology, usually associated with schizophrenia, in which the words ( echolalia) or actions ( echopraxia) of another are imitated and repeated. [echo + G. ...
echophony, echophonia
A duplication of the voice sound occasionally heard during auscultation of the chest. [echo + G. phone, voice]
echophrasia
SYN: echolalia. [echo + phrasis, speech]
echopraxia
Involuntary imitation of movements made by another. See echopathy. SYN: echomotism. [echo + G. praxis, action]
echoscope
Instrument for displaying echoes by means of ultrasonic pulses on an oscilloscope to demonstrate structures lying at depths within the body. [echo + G. skopeo, to view]
echothiophate iodide
A potent organophosphorus compound and cholinesterase inhibitor, used in the eye in the treatment of glaucoma.
Echovirus
A group of viruses found in the gastrointestinal tract. The "echo" part of the name stands for enteric cytopathic human orphan viruses. " Orphan" implied that they were viruses ...
Echovirus 28
Reclassified as Rhinovirus type 1.
Eck
Nikolai V., Russian physiologist, 1849–1917. See E. fistula, reverse E. fistula.
Ecker
Enrique Eduardo., U.S. bacteriologist, 1887–1966. See Rees-E. fluid. Alexander, German anatomist, 1816–1887. See E. fissure.
eclabium
Eversion of a lip. [G. ek, out, + L. labium, lip]
eclampsia
Occurrence of one or more convulsions, not attributable to other cerebral conditions such as epilepsy or cerebral hemorrhage, in a patient with preeclampsia. [G. eklampsis, a ...
eclamptic
Relating to eclampsia.
eclectic
Picking out from different sources what appears to be the best or most desirable. [G. eklektikos, selecting, fr. ek, out, + lego, to select]
eclecticism
1. A now defunct system of medicine that advocated use of indigenous plants to effect specific cures of certain signs and symptoms. 2. A system of medicine practiced by ancient ...
eco-
The environment. [G. oikos, house, household, habitation]
ecoendocrinology
The study of the interactions of endocrine systems with the environment.
ECoG
Abbreviation for electrocorticography.
Ecogenetics
The interaction of genetics with the environment. The genetic disease PKU (phenylketonuria) provides an illustration of ecogenetics. Persons with PKU lack an enzyme to process ...
ecological fallacy
The bias that may occur because an association observed between variables at an aggregate level does not necessarily represent an association that exists at an individual level; ...
ecology
The branch of biology concerned with the total complex of interrelationships among living organisms, encompassing the relations of organisms to each other, to the environment, and ...
econazole
A broad spectrum antifungal agent used in the treatment of tinea pedis and related fungal infections.
Economo
See von E..
economy
System; the body regarded as an aggregate of functioning organs. [G. oikonomia, management of the house, fr. oikos, house, + nomos, usage, law]
Economy class syndrome
The formation of blood clots in veins deep within the legs — deep vein thrombosis — occurring during (or just after) a long airplane flight, especially in economy class ...
ecospecies
Two or more populations of a species isolated by ecologic barriers, theoretically able to exchange genes and interbreed, but partially separated from one another by differences in ...
ecosystem
1. The fundamental unit in ecology, comprising the living organisms and the nonliving elements that interact in a defined region. 2. A biocenosis (biotic community) and its ...
ecotaxis
Migration of lymphocytes “homing” from the thymus and bone marrow into tissues possessing an appropriate microenvironment. [ eco- + G. taxis, order, arrangement]
écouvillon
A brush with firm bristles for freshening sores or abrading the interior of a cavity. [Fr., cleaning brush]
ECP
Abbreviation for eosinophil cationic protein.
ecphyma
A warty growth or protuberance. [G. a pimply eruption]
ECS
Abbreviation for electrocerebral silence.
ECST
ECST stands for the exercise cardiac stress test, the most widely used cardiac (heart) screening test. In an ECST the patient exercises on a treadmill according to a standardized ...
Ecstasy
An illicit (illegal) drug, considered a recreational or party drug. It acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. The chemical name is methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). ...
ecstatic
Relating to or marked by ecstasy.
ecstrophe
SYN: exstrophy.
ECT
Abbreviation for electroconvulsive therapy, electroshock therapy.
ect-
See ecto-.
ectad
Outward. [G. ektos, outside, + L. ad, to]
ectal
Outer; external. [G. ektos, outside]
ectasia, ectasis
Dilation of a tubular structure. [G. ektasis, a stretching] - annuloaortic e. supravalvular dilation of the aorta involving both its wall and the valve ring, which, however, ...
ectental
Relating to both ectoderm and endoderm; denoting the line where these two layers join. SYN: ectoental. [G. ektos, outside, + entos, within]
ectethmoid
SYN: ethmoidal labyrinth. [G. ektos, outside, + ethmoid]
ecthyma
A pyogenic infection of the skin initiated by β-hemolytic streptococci and characterized by adherent crusts beneath which ulceration occurs; the ulcers may be single or ...
ectiris
The outer layer of the iris. [G. ektos, outside, + iris]
ecto-, ect-
Outer, on the outside. SEE ALSO: exo-. [G. ektos, outside]
ectoantigen
Any toxin or other excitor of antibody formation, separate or separable from its source. SYN: exoantigen.
ectoblast
1. SYN: ectoderm. 2. As used by some experimental embryologists, the original outer cell layer from which the primary germ layers are formed; in this sense, synonymous with ...
ectocardia
Congenital displacement of the heart. SYN: exocardia. [ecto- + G. kardia, heart]
ectocervical
Pertaining to the vaginal part of the cervix of the uterus lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
ectochoroidea
SYN: suprachoroid lamina of sclera.
ectocornea
The outer layer of the cornea.
ectocrine
1. Relating to substances, either synthesized or arising by decomposition of organisms, that affect plant life. 2. A compound with e. properties. 3. An ectohormone. ...
ectocyst
The outer layer of a hydatid cyst. [ecto- + G. kystis, bladder]
Ectoderm
One of the three primary germ cell layers (the other two being the mesoderm and endoderm) that make up the very early embryo. The ectoderm is the outermost of the three layers. ...
ectodermal
Relating to the ectoderm. SYN: ectodermic.
Ectodermal dysplasia
A genetic disorder in which there is abnormal development of the skin and associated structures (the hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands). The most dangerous problem occurs in ...
ectodermatosis
SYN: ectodermosis.
ectodermic
SYN: ectodermal.
ectodermosis
A disorder of any organ or tissue developed from the ectoderm. SYN: ectodermatosis.
Ectodermosis erosiva pluriorificialis
More often called the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), this is a systemic (bodywide) disease with a characteristic rash involving the skin and mucous membranes, including the ...
ectoentad
From without inward.
ectoental
SYN: ectental.
ectoenzyme
1. An enzyme that is excreted externally and that acts outside the organism. 2. An enzyme that is attached to the external surface of the plasma membrane of a cell.
ectoethmoid
SYN: ethmoidal labyrinth.
ectogenous
SYN: exogenous. [ecto- + G. -gen, producing]
ectohormone
A parahormonal chemical mediator of ecologic significance which is secreted, largely by an organism (usually an invertebrate) into its immediate environment (air or water); it ...
ectomere
One of the blastomeres involved in formation of ectoderm. [ecto- + G. meros, part]
ectomerogony
The production of merozoites in the asexual reproduction of sporozoan parasites at the surface of schizonts and of blastophores, or by infolding into the schizont, as ...
ectomesenchyme
SYN: mesectoderm (2). [ecto- + G. mesos, middle, + enkyma, infusion]
ectomorph
A constitutional body type or build ( biotype or somatotype) in which tissues originating from the ectoderm predominate; from a morphological standpoint, the limbs predominate ...
ectomorphic
Relating to, or having the characteristics of, an ectomorph.
ectomy
The surgical removal of something. For example, a lumpectomy is the surgical excision of a lump which may be benign or not, tonsillectomy is the removal of the tonsils, a ...
ectopagus
Conjoined twins in which the bodies are joined laterally. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ecto- + G. pagos, something fixed]
ectoparasite
A parasite that lives on the surface of the host body.
ectoparasiticide
An agent that is applied directly to the host to kill ectoparasites. [ ectoparasite + L. caedo, to kill]
ectoparasitism
SYN: infestation.
ectoperitonitis
Inflammation beginning in the deeper layer of the peritoneum which is next to the viscera or the abdominal wall.
ectophyte
A plant parasite of the skin. [ecto- + G. phyton, plant]
ectopia
Congenital displacement or malposition of any organ or part of the body. SYN: ectopy, heterotopia (1). [G. ektopos, out of place, fr. ektos, outside, + topos, place] - e. ...
Ectopia cordis
A type of birth defect in the heart is abnormally located. In ectopia cordis, the heart usually protrudes outside the chest.
Ectopic
In the wrong place. Out of place. An ectopic kidney, for example, is one that is not in the usual location. The term "ectopic" comes from the Greek "ektopis" meaning ...
Ectopic pregnancy
A pregnancy that is not in the uterus. The fertilized egg settles and grows in any location other than the inner lining of the uterus. The large majority (95%) of ectopic ...
ectoplacental
1. Outside, beyond, or surrounding the placenta; in primates, referring especially to the parts of the trophoblast not directly involved in the formation of the placenta. 2. In ...
ectoplasm
The peripheral, more viscous cytoplasm of a cell; it contains microfilaments but is lacking in other organelles. SYN: exoplasm. [ecto- + G. plasma, something formed]
ectoplasmatic, ektoplasmic, ektoplastic
Relating to the ectoplasm.
ectopy
SYN: ectopia.
ectoretina
SYN: pigmented layer of retina.
ectosarc
The outer membrane, or ectoplasm, of a protozoon. [ecto- + G. sarx, flesh]
ectoscopy
An obsolete method of diagnosis of disease of any of the internal organs by a study of movements of the abdominal wall or thorax caused by phonation. [ecto- + G. skopeo, to ...
ectosteal
Relating to the external surface of a bone. [ecto- + G. osteon, bone]
ectostosis
Ossification in cartilage beneath the perichondrium, or formation of bone beneath the periosteum. [ecto- + G. osteon, bone, + -osis, condition]
ectothrix
A sheath of spores ( conidia) on the outside of a hair. [ecto- + G. thrix, hair]
ectotoxin
SYN: exotoxin.
ectozoon
An animal parasite living on the surface of the body. [ecto- + G. zoon, animal]
ectro-
Congenital absence of a part. [G. ektrosis, miscarriage]
ectrocheiry, ectrochiry
Total or partial absence of a hand. [ ectro- + G. cheir, hand]
Ectrodactyly
The congenital absence of all or part of one or more fingers or toes. The term ectrodactyly has been applied to a variety of malformations of the fingers or toes. It is probably ...
ectrodactyly, ectrodactylia, ectrodactylism
Congenital absence of all or part of one or more fingers or toes. There are several varieties and the pattern of inheritance may be autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance ...
ectrogenic
Relating to ectrogeny.
ectrogeny
Congenital absence or defect of any bodily part. [ ectro- + G. -gen, producing]
ectromelia
1. Congenital hypoplasia or aplasia of one or more limbs. 2. A disease of mice caused by the e. virus, a member of the family Poxviridae; characterized by gangrenous loss of ...
ectromelic
Pertaining to, or characterized by, ectromelia.
ectropion, ectropium
A rolling outward of the margin of a part, e.g., of an eyelid. [G. ek, out, + trope, a turning] - atonic e. e. of the lower eyelid following paralysis of the orbicularis oculi ...
ectropody
Total or partial absence of a foot. [ ectro- + G. pous, foot]
ectrosyndactyly
Congenital abnormality marked by the absence of one or more digits and the fusion of others. [ ectro- + G. syn, together, + daktylos, finger]
ectylurea
A mild obsolete sedative used in the treatment of nervous tension and anxiety.
ectype
Extreme somatotype, such as ectomorph ( longitype) or endomorph (brachytype). [G. ek, out, + typos, stamp, model]
ecuresis
A condition in which urinary excretion and intake of water act to produce an absolute dehydration of the body. SEE ALSO: emuresis. [G. ek, out, + ouresis, urination]
eczema
Generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin, particularly with vesiculation in the acute stage, typically erythematous, edematous, papular, and crusting; followed ...
Eczema, allergic contact
Also called allergic contact dermatitis, this is a red, itchy, weepy reaction where the skin has come into contact with a substance that the immune system recognizes as foreign, ...

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