The branch of medicine dealing with the brain in all its relations. [encephalo- + G. logos, study]
Herniation of brain substance. SYN: cerebroma.
Abnormal softness of the cerebral parenchyma often due to ischemia or infarction. SYN: cerebromalacia. [encephalo- + G. malakia, softness]
SYN: meningoencephalitis. [encephalo- + G. meninx, membrane, + -itis, inflammation]
An apparatus for indicating on the skull the location of the cortical centers. [encephalo- + G. metron, measure]
Inflammation of both the brain and the spinal cord. Encephalomyelitis can be caused by a variety of conditions that lead to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Among the ...
Congenital defect in the skull, usually in the occipital region, and cervical vertebrae with herniation of the meninges and neural tissue. [G. enkephalos, brain, + myelon, ...
Any disease of both brain and spinal cord. [G. enkephalos, brain, + myelon, marrow, + pathos, suffering]
- carcinomatous e. SYN: paraneoplastic e..
- epidemic myalgic e. a ...
Associated encephalitis and myocarditis; often caused by a viral infection such as in poliomyelitis.
That portion of the cerebrospinal axis contained within the cranium, composed of the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. [G. enkephalos, brain, fr. en, in, + ...
A dangerous condition with symptoms similar to those of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), of which it may be a variant. It is associated with lithium toxicity.
Any disorder of the brain. SYN: cerebropathia, cerebropathy, encephalopathia, encephalosis. [encephalo- + G. pathos, suffering]
- bilirubin e. SYN: kernicterus.
Encephalopathy, mitochondrial (MELAS)
MELAS is the acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Strokelike episodes. MELAS is a form of dementia. It is caused by mutations in the genetic material ...
Archaic term for purulent inflammation of the brain. [encephalo- + G. pyosis, suppuration]
Developmental failure of closure of the rostral part of the neural tube. [encephalo- + G. schisis, fissure]
A sclerosis, or hardening, of the brain. SEE ALSO: cerebrosclerosis. [encephalo- + G. sklerosis, hardening]
Any instrument used to view the interior of a brain abscess or other cerebral cavity through an opening in the skull. [encephalo- + G. skopeo, to view]
Examination of the brain or the cavity of a cerebral abscess by direct inspection.
Dissection or incision of the brain. [encephalo- + G. tome, incision]
A benign cartilaginous growth starting within the medullary cavity of a bone originally formed from cartilage; enchondromas may distend the cortex, especially of small bones, and ...
A condition characterized by multiple enchondromas — benign masses of cartilage growing within bones. The enchondromas can deform and shorten a limb and predispose to a ...
An enclosure; a detached mass of tissue enclosed in tissue of another kind; seen especially in the case of isolated masses of gland tissue detached from the main gland. [Fr. fr. ...
The first stage in the memory process, followed by storage and retrieval, involving processes associated with receiving or briefly registering stimuli through one or more of the ...
Inability to control the elimination of stool (fecal incontinence). Encopresis can have a variety of causes, including inability to control the anal sphincter muscle or ...
In conjoined twins, a form of fetal inclusion in which the smaller parasite lies partly or wholly within the cranial cavity of the larger autosite. [G. en, in, + kranion, skull] ...
Acronym for equivalent normal child unit, that amount of information from any source (linkage analysis, parental, and collateral phenotypes, biochemistry of the carrier state, ...
Encapsulated by a membranous bag. [G. kystis, bladder]
The condition of being or becoming encysted.
An extremity, or the most remote point of an extremity.
- acromial e. of clavicle [TA] the flattened lateral e. of the clavicle that articulates with the acromion and is ...
1. Occurring at the end of diastole, immediately before the next systole, as in e. pressure. 2. Interrupting the final moments of diastole, barely premature, as in e. ...
SYN: axon terminals, under terminal.
Guinea worm disease, a parasitic illness caused by infection with the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis), the largest parasite known to plague people. Guinea worm disease is ...
The terminal part of the tail of a spermatozoon consisting of the axoneme and the flagellar membrane.
Unequal conjoined twins in which the parasitic member is included in the body of the host. [ end- + G. adelphos, brother]
A genus of amebae parasitic in invertebrates; originally described from cockroaches. [endo- + G. amoibe, change]
Inflammation of the intima of a blood vessel. SYN: endoangiitis, endovasculitis. [endo- + G. angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation]
- e. obliterans inflammation of the intima ...
Inflammation of the intima of the aorta. SYN: endo- aortitis.
An operation to clean out an artery and restore normal blood flow through the artery. An endarterectomy is basically a "Rotorooter" procedure. It removes diseased material from ...
Inflammation of the intima of an artery. SYN: endoarteritis.
- bacterial e. implantation and growth of bacteria with formation of vegetations on the arterial wall, such as may ...
Within the ear. [endo- + L. auris, ear]
A drug effective against both endoparasites and ectoparasites, e.g., the macrolide antibiotic avermectin. SEE ALSO: ivermectin. [endoparasite + ectoparasite + -cide]
Obsolete term for an endemic disease.
Present in a community at all times but in relatively low frequency. Something that is endemic is typically restricted or peculiar to a locality or region. For example, malaria is ...
Murine typhus, an acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus, caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia ...
Denoting a temporary large increase in the number of cases of an endemic disease.
Referring to a chemical reaction that takes place with absorption of energy from its surroundings ( i.e., a positive change in Gibbs free energy). Cf.:exergonic. [endo- + G. ...
In or through the skin; denoting a method of treatment, as by inunction; the remedy produces its constitutional effect when absorbed through the skin surface to which it is ...
Any eruptive disease of the mucous membrane.
1. A termination or conclusion. 2. A nerve e..
- annulospiral e. one of two types of sensory nerve e. associated with a neuromuscular spindle (the other being the flower-spray ...
Shigeru, Japanese bacteriologist, 1869–1937. See E. agar, E. medium.
Prefixes indicating within, inner, absorbing, or containing. SEE ALSO: ento-. [G. endon, within]
A glucanohydrolase acting on internal glycosidic bonds ( E.G., α-amylase).
Simple catarrhal inflammation, limited more or less strictly to the mucosal surface of the vermiform appendix.
Auscultation of the thoracic organs, especially the heart, by means of a stethoscopic tube passed into the esophagus or into the heart.
A cephalometric and craniometric point located in the midline at the most posterior point of the anterior border of the foramen magnum on the contour of the foramen; it is ...
Electrocardiography with the exploring electrode within the chambers of the heart. SEE ALSO: intracardiac catheter.
Inflammation of the endocardium. SYN: encarditis.
- abacterial thrombotic e. SYN: nonbacterial thrombotic e..
- acute bacterial e. a type of severe bacterial e. caused by ...
The lining of the interior surface of the heart chambers. The endocardium consists of a layer of endothelial cells and an underlying layer of connective tissue.
* * *
Within one of the body cavities. [endo- + G. koilia, cavity, ventricle]
1. Within any cervix, specifically within the cervix of the uterus. SYN: intracervical. 2. Relating to the endocervix.
: The removal of tissue from the inside of the cervix using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette.
The mucous membrane of the cervical canal.
SYN: intracartilaginous. [endo- + G. chondros, cartilage]
Any bone that develops in and replaces cartilage. The cartilage is partially or entirely destroyed by the process of calcification. The cartilage is then resorbed (reabsorbed), ...
Simple catarrhal inflammation of the colon.
1. Within the cranium. 2. Relating to the endocranium. SYN: encranial, entocranial.
The lining membrane of the cranium, or dura mater of the brain. SYN: entocranium.
1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion. Cf.:paracrine. 2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless ...
The study of the medical aspects of hormones and their associated diseases and conditions. A medical endocrinologist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and ...
Obsolete term for a tumor with endocrine tissue that retains the function of the parent organ, usually to an excessive degree.
Literally, a disease of an endocrine gland. A medical term for a hormone problem. For example, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, etc.
* * *
A disorder in the function of an ...
Treatment of disease by the administration of extracts of endocrine glands. [ endocrine + G. therapeia, medical treatment]
Within a cycle or ring; e.g., the six carbon atoms of the benzene ring in toluene. Cf.:exocyclic.
The inner layer of a hydatid cyst.
Obsolete term for inflammation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. [endo- + G. kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation]
Internalization of substances from the extracellular environment through the formation of vesicles formed from the plasma membrane. There are two forms: (a) fluid phase ...
The innermost of the three primary germ layers of the embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, e.); from it is derived the epithelial lining of the primitive gut tract and the epithelial ...
An x-ray tube that may be placed within a cavity of the body; an archaic device.
X-ray visualization by means of an endodiascope; an archaic procedure. [endo- + G. dia, through, + skopeo, to view]
A field of dentistry concerned with the biology and pathology of the dental pulp and periapical tissues, and with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and ...
One who specializes in the practice of endodontics. SYN: endodontologist.
1. A trophozoite formed by endodyogeny. 2. SYN: merozoite. [endo- + G. dys, two, + kytos, cell]
A process of asexual development seen among certain coccidia, such as Toxoplasma and Frenkelia, in which no separate nuclear division occurs, as in schizogony; the two ...
Obsolete term for inflammation of the intestinal mucous membrane. [endo- + G. enteron, intestine, -itis, inflammation]
1. SYN: intracellular enzyme. 2. An enzyme that catalyzes an endohydrolysis.
Obsolete term for inflammation of the internal lining of the esophagus.
Application of an alternating electric current to the interior of any cavity of the body. See fulguration.
Application of a direct electric current to the interior of any cavity of the body. See fulguration.
Reproduction by conjugation between sister cells, the descendants of one original cell. [endo- + G. gamos, marriage]
Obsolete term for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach. [endo- + G. gaster, stomach, + -itis, inflammation]
In microbial genetics, the recipient cell's genome. [endo- + genote]
Inside. For example, endogenous cholesterol is cholesterol that is made inside the body and is not in the diet.
* * *
Originating or produced within the organism or one of its ...
A protein on the surface of endothelial cells that binds to transforming growth factor-β.
The medial of the two segments constituting the incisive bone. See mesognathion. [endo- + G. gnathos, jaw]
An obsolete procedure for closure, by sutures, of the interior lining of a hernial sac.
A genus of small nonpathogenic amebae parasitic in the large intestine of humans and other animals. [endo- + G. leimax, a meadow or garden]
A calcified body found in the pulp chamber of a tooth; may be composed of irregular dentin (true denticle) or due to ectopic calcification of pulp tissue (false denticle). ...
The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear; e. resembles intracellular fluid in composition (potassium is the main positively-charged ion). SYN: ...
SYN: endolymph. [endo- + L. lympha, a clear fluid]
Production of merozoites in the asexual reproduction of sporozoan protozoa by a process originating in the interior of the schizont (as contrasted with ectomerogony); observed ...
Removal of the lining of the womb. Removing the uterine lining decreases menstrual flow or stops it completely. The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus (womb), the ...
A procedure for sampling the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Endometrial biopsy is done to learn the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding (most often), determine the ...
A condition characterized by overgrowth of the lining of the uterus. Hyperplasia means overgrowth. The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus.
Circumscribed mass of ectopic endometrial tissue in endometriosis. [ endometrium + -oma, tumor]
In endometriosis, cells that normally grow inside the uterus (womb), instead grow outside the uterus. Summary: Endometriosis is very common; the cause — and why some women have ...
Also known as adenomyosis (pronounced ad-den-o-mi-o-sis), this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the ...
Also known as adenomyosis (pronounced ad-den-o-mi-o-sis), this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the ...
Inflammation of the endometrium. The endometrium is the inner layer of the womb (uterus).
* * *
Inflammation of the endometrium. [ endometrium + -itis, inflammation]
The uterine lining; the cells that line the uterus (the womb); the inner layer of the uterus. This tissue is shed monthly in response to the hormonal changes of the menstrual ...
Denoting an external stimulus capable of producing a response of the uterus, specifically the endometrium. [endo- + G. metra, uterus, + trope, a turning]
A constitutional body type or build ( biotype or somatotype) in which tissues that originated in the endoderm prevail; from a morphological standpoint, the trunk predominates ...
Relating to, or having the characteristics of, an endomorph.
Radiotelemetering capsule for studying the interior of the gastrointestinal tract. [endo- + L. motor, mover, + Fr. sonde, sounding line]
An order of Ascomycota that includes the yeasts. SYN: Saccharomycetales.
Inflammation of both endocardium and myocardium; endemic in East Africa.
Sepsis involving the tissues of the uterus. [endo- + G. mys, muscle, + metra, uterus, + -itis, inflammation]
The fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber. [endo- + G. mys, muscle]
The innermost connective tissue supportive structure of nerve trunks, that surrounds both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers; consists principally of ground substance, ...
An enzyme that cleaves a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) at specific internal sites in the nucleotide base sequence.
* * *
An enzyme (phosphodiesterase) that cleaves the internal ...
endonuclease S1 Aspergillus
An enzyme cleaving RNA or DNA to 5′-ended mono- or oligonucleotides; prefers single-stranded polynucleic acids. SYN: deoxyribonuclease S1.
endonuclease Serratia marcescens
A nuclease (a nucleate oligonucleotidohydrolase) that forms oligonucleotides ending in 5′-phosphates from RNA and DNA; hydrolyzes both double-stranded and single-stranded ...
A minute unstainable spot near the center of a nucleolus.
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of a peptide chain at points well within the chain, not near termini; e.g., pepsin, trypsin. Cf.:exopeptidase. SYN: proteinase.
Simultaneous inflammation of the heart muscle and of the endocardium and pericardium. SYN: pancarditis. [endo- + G. peri, around, + mys, muscle, + kardia, heart, + -itis, ...
A peroxide (–O–O–) group that bridges two atoms that are both parts of a larger molecule.
Inflammation of the intima of a vein. [endo- + G. phleps (phleb-), vein, + -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the tissues within the eyeball. [endo- + G. ophthalmos, eye, + -itis, inflammation]
- granulomatous e. a diffuse, chronic inflammation of intraocular tissues.
Tremulousness of any intraocular structure, especially of an implanted lens (pseudophakodonesis). [endo- + ophthalmo- + G. doneo, to shake]
A plant parasite living within another organism. [endo- + G. phyton, plant]
1. Pertaining to an endophyte. 2. Referring to an infiltrative, invasive tumor.
The inner or medullary part of the cytoplasm, as opposed to the ectoplasm, containing the cell organelles. SYN: entoplasm.
Former name for endosome. [endo- + G. plastos, formed]
Asexual reproduction in which more than two offspring are formed within the parent organism and in which two or possibly more nuclear divisions occur before merozoite formation ...
The process or state of duplication of the DNA content of the nuclei without accompanying spindle formation or cytokinesis, resulting in a polyploid nucleus. SYN: endomitosis. ...
An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) done from inside the rectum. To do such as MRI, a surface coil within an inflated latex balloon can be positioned in the rectum. The MRI ...
A form of polyploidy or polysomy by redoubling of chromosomes, giving rise to four-stranded chromosomes at prophase and metaphase.
One of the body's own painkillers, an opioid (morphine-like) chemical produced by the body that serves to suppress pain. Endorphins are manufactured in the brain, spinal cord, ...
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ an endorphin as their neurotransmitter. [endorphin + G. ergon, work]
Opioid peptides originally isolated from the brain but now found in many parts of the body; in the nervous system, e. bind to the same receptors that bind exogenous opiates. A ...
SYN: spinal dura mater. [endo- + G. rhachis, the spine]
A sac or bag used in laparoscopic surgery in which tissue is placed to facilitate removal or morcellation. SYN: endobag.
Aberrant mucous membrane in the ovary or elsewhere consisting of ciliated tubal mucosa without stroma of endometrial type.
Inflammation of the lining membrane of the eustachian or the fallopian tube. [endo- + G. salpinx (salping-), tube, + -itis, inflammation]
The mucosa of the fallopian tube. [endo + G. salpinx, tube]
The endoplasm of a protozoan. SYN: entosarc. [endo- + G. sarx (sark-), flesh]
: A lighted optical instrument used to get a deep look inside the body and examine organs such as the throat or esophagus. An endoscope can be rigid or flexible. Specialized ...
Endoscopic gastrostomy, percutaneous (PEG)
A surgical procedure for placing a feeding tube without having to perform an open laparotomy (operation on the abdomen). The aim of PEG is to feed those who cannot swallow. PEG ...
A specialist trained in the use of an endoscope.
Examination of the interior of a canal or hollow viscus by means of a special instrument, such as an endoscope. [see endoscope]
- peroral e. visual examination of interior ...
A common type of endoscopy is upper endoscopy, also called esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). In this procedure, a thin flexible instrument is advanced through the mouth to ...
The internal bony framework of the body; the skeleton in its usual context as distinguished from exoskeleton.
A more or less central body in the vesicular nucleus of certain Feulgen-negative (DNA-) protozoa ( e.g., trypanosomes, parasitic amebae, and phytoflagellates), with the ...
Ultrasonography performed using an ultrasound transducer mounted on or passed through a fiberoptic endoscope.
A sonographic study carried out by transducers inserted into the body as miniature probes in the esophagus, urethra, bladder, vagina, or rectum.
A storage tissue found in many seeds that nourishes the embryo of a plant.
1. A resistant body formed within the vegetative cells of some bacteria, particularly those belonging to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. 2. A fungus spore borne within a ...
Endostatin is a piece (a fragment) of a protein, collagen 18, found in all blood vessels. This fragment is normally secreted by tumors. It appears to halt the process of ...
Inflammation of the endosteum or of the medullary cavity of a bone. SYN: central osteitis (2), perimyelitis. [endo- + G. osteon, bone, + -itis, inflammation]
A benign neoplasm of bone tissue in the medullary cavity of a bone. SYN: endostoma. [endo- + G. osteon, bone, + -oma, tumor]
A stethoscopic tube used in endoauscultation. [endo- + G. stethos, chest, + skopeo, to examine]
A layer of cells lining the inner surface of bone in the central medullary cavity. SYN: medullary membrane, perimyelis. [endo- + G. osteon, bone]
The fine connective tissue surrounding secondary fascicles of a tendon. [endo- + L. tendon, tendon, + -eus, adj.; the whole, in its neuter form, used substantively]
Relating to the endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the inside of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, the heart, and body cavities. By ...
A 21-amino acid peptide originally derived from endothelial cells. It is an extremely potent vasoconstrictor. Three different gene products have been identified, e. 1, e. 2, and ...
Generic term for a group of neoplasms, particularly benign tumors, derived from the endothelial tissue of blood vessel s or lymphatic channels; endotheliomas may be benign or ...
A layer of flat cells lining especially blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart. [endo- + G. thele, nipple]
- e. of anterior chamber [TA] a single layer of large, squamous ...
An endotherm is a warm-blooded animal (such as homo sapiens). Another term for us warm-blooded creatures is homeotherm. An endotherm or homeotherm is as opposed to a ...
Denoting a chemical reaction during which heat ( enthalpy) is absorbed. Cf.:exothermic (1). [endo- + G. therme, heat]
Fungal spores ( conidia) invading the interior of a hair shaft; there is no conspicuous external sheath of spores, as there is with ectothrix. [endo- + G. thrix, hair]
Presence in the blood of endotoxins, which, if derived from Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, may cause a generalized Shwartzman phenomenon with shock.
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin. 2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral ...
A flexible plastic tube that is put in the mouth and then down into the trachea (the airway). The doctor inserts the tube under direct vision with the help of a laryngoscope. The ...
Genitourinary operative procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic) performed through instruments. These may be cystoscopic, pelviscopic, celioscopic, laparoscopic, percutaneous, or ...
- hemorrhagic e. endothelial and medial hyperplasia of placental blood vessel s with thrombosis, fragmentation, and diapedesis of red blood cells resulting ...
The ending of a motor nerve fiber in relation to a skeletal muscle fiber.
- motor e. the large and complex end-formation by which the axon of a motor neuron establishes synaptic ...
SYN: ependyma. [G. a garment]
The atomic arrangement –C(OH)=C(OH)– produced by proton migration from the CH of a —CHOH group that is attached to a –CO– group to the oxygen of the –CO– group ...
A rectal injection for clearing out the bowel, or administering drugs or food. [G.]
- air contrast e. a radiographic double contrast e. in which air is introduced after coating ...
: A series of x-rays of the lower intestine (colon) and rectum that are taken after the patient is given an enema with a white, chalky solution that contains barium. The barium ...
An appliance used to give an enema.
A potent volatile inhalation anesthetic that is nonflammable and nonexplosive.
Abbreviation for electronystagmography.
This term in obstetrics refers to the sensation that a pregnant woman feels when the baby drops. This is the time when the presenting (the lowermost) part of the fetus descends ...
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is wholly or partly within the abdomen of the larger autosite. [G. en, in, + gaster, belly]
Guido, German surgeon, *1876. See E. disease.
Theodor W., German physiologist, 1843–1909. See E. basal knobs, under knob.
A vaccine against hepatitis B (hep B) to stimulate the bodys immune system to produce antibodies against the hep B virus.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles.
- biomedical e. application of e. principles to obtain solutions to biomedical problems.
- dental ...
Josef, Austrian physician, 1835–1915. See E. sinus.
To take in by a spheroidal body; said of the ingestion of bacteria and other foreign bodies by the phagocytes.
The process of inclusion by a spheroidal body, such as by a phagocyte.
Absolutely filled; distended with fluid. SEE ALSO: congested, hyperemic. [O. Fr. fr. Mediev. L. gorgia, throat, narrow passage, fr. L. gurges, a whirlpool]
Distention with fluid or other material. SEE ALSO: congestion, hyperemia.
In the mnemic hypothesis, a physical change or memory trace made on the central nervous system of an organism as a result of experience or the repetition of stimuli. [G. en, in, ...
1. The act of augmenting. 2. In immunology, the prolongation of a process or event by suppressing an opposing process.
- acoustic e. a manifestation of increased echo amplitude ...
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. [M.E. enhauncen, raise, increase, fr. O. Fr. enhaucier, fr. L.L. inalto, fr. altus, high, + -er, agent suffix]
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ an enkephalin as their neurotransmitter. [enkephalin + G. ergon, work]