The study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.
Epidemiology focused specifically upon patients. Epidemiology is the study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.
: The upper or outer layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Under the ...
Inflammation of the epidermis or superficial layers of the skin.
Faulty growth or development of the epidermis. [epidermis + G. dys-, bad, + plasis, a molding]
- e. verruciformis [MIM*226400] a rare inherited disease with numerous flat warts ...
1. Resembling epidermis. 2. A cholesteatoma or other cystic tumor arising from aberrant epidermal cells. [epidermis + G. eidos, appearance]
: A type of lung cancer in which the cells are flat and look like fish scales. Also called squamous cell carcinoma.
A condition in which the epidermis is loosely attached to the corium, readily exfoliating or forming blisters. [epidermis + G. lysis, loosening]
- e. bullosa [MIM*131800] a group ...
A genus of fungi, separated by Sabouraud from Trichophyton on the basis that it never invades the hair follicles, whose macroconidia are clavate and smooth walled. The only ...
A skin disease affecting only the epidermis. SYN: epidermidosis.
Movement towards the epidermis, as in the migration of T lymphocytes into the epidermis in mycosis fungoides. [epidermis + G. trope, a turning]
A projector by which images are reflected by a mirror through a lens, or lenses, onto a screen, using reflected light for opaque objects and transmitted light for translucent ...
Operative removal of the epididymis. [ epididymis + G. ektome, excision]
A structure within the scrotum attached to the backside of the testis. The epididymis is a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature and transport ...
Inflammation of the epididymis, a structure within the scrotum attached to the backside of the testis. The epididymis is a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to ...
Simultaneous inflammation of epididymis and testis. [ epididymis + G. orchis, testis]
Surgical repair of the epididymis. [ epididymis + G. plastos, formed]
Incision into the epididymis, as in preparation for epididymovasostomy or for drainage of purulent material. [ epididymis + G. tome, a cutting]
Surgical removal of the epididymis and vas deferens, usually proximal to its entry into the inguinal canal. [ epididymis + vasectomy]
Surgical anastomosis of the vas deferens to the epididymis. [ epididymis + vasostomy]
Upon (or outside) the dura mater. SYN: peridural.
An anesthetic injected into the epidural space surrounding the fluid-filled sac (the dura) around the spine which partially numbs the abdomen and legs.
Radiographic visualization of the epidural space following the regional instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium; obsolete technique.
Upon the surface of a fascia, denoting a method of injecting drugs in which the solution is put on the fascia lata instead of injected into the substance of the muscle.
Pain in the epigastric region. [ epigastrium + G. algos, pain]
The part of the abdominal wall above the umbilicus (belly button). The hypogastrium is the part of the abdominal wall below the umbilicus. The abdominal wall can thus be ...
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is attached to the larger autosite in the epigastric region. See conjoined twins, under twin.
1. Development of offspring from a zygote. Cf.:preformation theory. 2. Regulation of the expression of gene activity without alteration of genetic structure. [ epi- + G. ...
Excision of the epiglottis. [ epiglottis + G. ektome, excision]
The flap that covers the trachea during swallowing so that food does not enter the lungs. Not everything in medicine is perfectly logical. The name epiglottis was compounded from ...
Inflammation of the epiglottis, which may cause respiratory obstruction, especially in children; frequently due to infection by Haemophilus influenzae type b. SYN: ...
A very rapidly progressive infection causing inflammation of the epiglottis (the flap that covers the trachea) and tissues around the epiglottis that may lead to abrupt ...
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller, incomplete parasite is attached to the larger autosite at the lower jaw. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ epi- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Upon the hyoid bone; denoting certain accessory thyroid glands lying above the geniohyoid muscle.
Modification of refractive error by application of a donor cornea to the anterior surface of the patient's cornea from which epithelium has been removed. SYN: epikeratophakic ...
A contact lens attached to the corneal stroma to replace the epithelium. [ epi- + G. keras, horn, + prosthesis, an addition]
Upon or above a basement membrane. [ epi- + L. lamella, dim. of lamina, a thin metal plate]
To extract a hair; to remove the hair from a part by forcible extraction, electrolysis, or loosening at the root by chemical means. Cf.:depilate. [L. e, out, + pilus, a hair]
Removal of body hair, including the hair root, by means of electrical device, tweezer, or wax. Epilation may be performed by a dermatologist, but is more commonly done for ...
1. Having the property of removing hair; relating to epilation. SYN: depilatory (1), psilotic (2). SEE ALSO: decalvant. 2. SYN: depilatory (2).
The connective tissue sheath of nerve fibers near their termination. [ epi- lemma, husk]
A tumor resulting from hyperplasia of tissue derived from the true epiblast. [ epi- + G. lepis, rind, + -oma, tumor]
SYN: epilepsy. [G.]
- e. partialis continua 1. a form of epilepsy marked by repetitive clonic muscular contractions with or without major convulsions; 2. simple partial motor ...
(seizure disorder): When nerve cells in the brain fire electrical impulses at a rate of up to four times higher than normal, this causes a sort of electrical storm in the brain, ...
A brief alteration in movement, sensation or nerve function caused by abnormal electrical activity in a localized area of the brain. Seizures of this type typically cause no ...
Epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic
A form of epilepsy that occurs between the ages of eight and 26, most commonly in the teenage years. It is characterized by jerking (myoclonic) movements of the arms and upper ...
A seizure that affects only one part of the brain. Symptoms will depend on which part is affected: one part of the body, or multiple body parts confined to one side of the body, ...
Epilepsy, petit mal
A form of epilepsy in which only partial (petit mal, or minor) seizures are seen with very brief, unannounced lapses in consciousness. A petit mal seizure involves a brief loss ...
Epilepsy characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the temporal lobe of the brain. This activity does not cause grand mal seizures, but rather causes unusual behaviors and ...
Relating to, characterized by, or suffering from epilepsy.
Resembling epilepsy; denoting certain convulsions, especially of functional nature. SYN: epileptiform. [G. epilepsia, seizure, epilepsy, + eidos, resemblance]
Upon the lower jaw. [ epi- + L. mandibulum, mandible]
Increasing steadily until an acme is reached, then declining; said of a fever. [G. epakmastikos, coming to a height]
Term replacing “crithidial stage,” to avoid confusion with the insect-parasitizing flagellates of the genus Crithidia. In the e. stage the flagellum arises from the ...
Prolonged and profuse menstruation occurring at any time, but most frequently at the beginning and end of menstrual life.
Too frequent menstruation, occurring at any time, but particularly at the beginning and end of menstrual life.
One of two molecules (having more than one chiral center) differing only in the spatial arrangement about a single chiral atom; e.g., α-d-glucose and α-d-galactose (with ...
A class of enzymes catalyzing epimeric changes.
The dorsal part of the myotome. See myotome (3). [ epi- + G. meros, part]
The hooklike anchoring structure at the anterior end of a cephaline gregarine sporozoan; it is left embedded in tissues when the rest of the cephalont is freed in the lumen of ...
A microscope with a condenser built around the objective; used for the investigation of opaque, or only slightly translucent, minute specimens. SYN: opaque microscope.
Regeneration of a part of an organism by growth at the cut surface. [ epi- + G. morphe, shape]
Incision of the sheath of a muscle. [ epimysium + G. tome, a cutting]
The fibrous connective tissue envelope surrounding a skeletal muscle. SYN: perimysium externum. [ epi- + G. mys, muscle]
A substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland. The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) ...
SYN: suprarenal gland. [ epi- + G. nephros, kidney]
The outermost supporting structure of peripheral nerve trunks, consisting of a condensation of areolar connective tissue; subdivided into those layers that surround the whole ...
One of the components of the otic capsule of some vertebrates; in the mammal the petrosal or petrous temporal bone incorporates the various otic elements seen in lower ...
1. Usable as a dusting powder. 2. A dusting powder. [G. epi-passo, to sprinkle over]
SYN: nasopharynx. [G. epi, on, over, + pharynx]
A symptom appearing during the course of a disease, not of usual occurrence, and not necessarily associated with the disease.
An overflow of tears upon the cheek, due to imperfect drainage by the tear-conducting passages. SYN: tearing, watery eye (1). [G. a sudden flow, fr. epi, on, + phero, to bear]
1. Premature union of the epiphysis with the diaphysis, resulting in cessation of growth. 2. An operative procedure that partially or totally destroys an epiphysis and may ...
Loosening or separation, either partial or complete, of an epiphysis from the metaphysis of a bone. [ epiphysis + G. lysis, loosening]
Any disorder of an epiphysis of the long bones. [ epiphysis + G. pathos, suffering]
The growth area near the end of a bone.
* * *
A part of a long bone developed from a center of ossification distinct from that of the shaft and separated at first from the latter ...
Omentum. SEE ALSO: omento-. [G. epiploon]
Rarely used term for hernia of the omentum. [ epiplo- + G. kele, hernia]
Natural product that inhibits topoisomerase II. SEE ALSO: etoposide. [ epi- + Podophyllum, genus name of botanical source, + toxin]
In the neighborhood of the pterion.
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller, incomplete parasite is attached to the buttock of the larger autosite. See pygomelus, conjoined twins, under twin. [ epi- + G. ...
A thin membrane that covers the sclera (the white of the eye). " Epi-" is a prefix from the Greek that means "on, upon, at, by, near, over, on top of, toward, against, among." ...
1. Upon the sclera. 2. Relating to the episclera.
Inflammation of the episclera, a thin membrane that covers the sclera (the white of the eye). Episcleritis is typically benign, easily treated with topical antiinflammatory ...
The vulva. SEE ALSO: vulvo-. [G. episeion, pubic region]
Repair of an incised or a ruptured perineum and lacerated vulva or repair of a surgical incision of the vulva and perineum. [ episio- + G. perinaion, perineum, + rhaphe, a ...
Plastic surgery of the vulva. [ episio- + G. plastos, formed]
Repair of a lacerated vulva or an episiotomy. [ episio- + G. rhaphe, a stitching]
Narrowing of the vulvar orifice. [ episio- + G. stenosis, narrowing]
A surgical procedure for widening the outlet of the birth canal to facilitate delivery of the baby and to avoid a jagged rip of the perineum (the area between the anus and the ...
An important event or series of events taking place in the course of continuous events e.g., an e. of depression.
- acute schizophrenic e. SYN: acute schizophrenia.
- e. of care ...
An extrachromosomal element ( plasmid) that may either integrate into the bacterial chromosome of the host or replicate and function stably when physically separated from the ...
Congenital (at birth) malformation in which the opening of the urethra (from whence comes the urinary stream) is on the dorsum (topside) of the penis. Hypospadias is the ...
Upon the vertebral column or spinal cord, or upon any structure resembling a spine.
1. The formation of a pellicle or scum on the surface of a liquid, especially as on standing urine. 2. Phenotypic interaction of non-allelic genes. 3. A form of gene ...
Medical term for nosebleed. The nose is a part of the body that is very rich in blood vessels (vascular) and is situated in a vulnerable position on the face. As a result, any ...
Epistaxis, treatment of
To stop epistaxis (a nosebleed), you should: 1. Pinch all the soft parts of the nose together between your thumb and index finger. 2. Press firmly toward the face - compressing ...
The study of knowledge and rules of evidence involved. Traditionally a branch of philosophy, it is now coming to be used also as a discipline incorporated in, and in some respects ...
Love, especially excessive, of knowledge. [G. episteme, knowledge, + philos, fond]
1. Over or on the sternum. 2. Relating to the episternum.
SYN: manubrium of sternum. [ epi- + L. sternum, chest]
A fold of conjunctiva arising on the tarsal surface of the lid and losing itself in the skin close to the medial angle of the eye. [ epi- + G. tarsos, flat mat, edge of eyelid]
The growth of one crystal in one or more specific orientations on the substrate of another kind of crystal, with a close geometric fit between the networks in contact; seen in the ...
The white fibrous sheath surrounding a tendon. SYN: epitenon. [L.]
A small dorsomedial area of the thalamus corresponding to the habenula and its associated structures, the stria medullaris of the thalamus, pineal gland, and habenular ...
Shedding of any surface epithelium, but especially of that lining the intestine. [epithelium + G. allaxis, exchange]
Relating to or consisting of epithelium.
Epithelial basement corneal dystrophy
A disorder in which the cornea (the normally clear front window of the eye) shows grayish fingerprint lines, geographic map-like lines, and dots (or microcysts) on examination ...
Formation of epithelium over a denuded surface. SYN: epithelization.
An in vitro tissue culture epithelial cell. [epithelium + G. kytos, cell]
Resembling or having some of the characteristics of epithelium. [epithelium + G. eidos, resemblance]
1. An epithelial neoplasm or hamartoma of the skin, especially of skin appendage origin. 2. Obsolete term for a carcinoma of the skin derived from squamous, basal, or adnexal ...
Disease involving epithelium. [epithelium + G. pathos, suffering]
- acute multifocal placoid pigment e. an acute disease manifested by rapid loss of vision, and multifocal, ...
Proliferation of epithelial cells, as seen in ducts of the breast in fibrocystic disease.
The outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin, and mucous membranes that communicate with the outside of the body. By contrast ...
An external application, such as a poultice, but not a plaster or ointment. [G. epithema, a cover]
Characterizing term or name. [G. epithetos, added, fr. epi- + tithemi, to place]
- specific e. in bacteriology, the second part of the name of a species; it is not, by itself, a ...
The simplest form of an antigenic determinant, on a complex antigenic molecule, which can combine with antibody or T cell receptor. [ epi- + -tope]
- shared e. SYN: ...
A toxoid that has less affinity for specific antitoxin than that manifested by the toxin.
SYN: periderm. See dome cell. [ epi- + G. trichion, dim. of thrix, (trich-), hair]
SYN: medial epicondyle of humerus. [ epi- + L. trochlea, a pulley, block, contr. fr. G. trochilia]
The occurrence of lymph node swelling or pulmonary infiltration in an area near a focus of pulmonary tuberculosis or of enlarged bronchial glands.
Above, or in the upper part of, the tympanic cavity or membrane.
Inflammation of tissues around or near the cecum. See appendicitis. [ epi- + G. typhlon, cecum, + -itis, inflammation]
Living as a parasite on the skin surface.
SYN: epizootiology. [ epi- + G. zoon, animal, + logos, study]
An animal parasite living on the body surface. [ epi- + G. zoon, animal]
An epidemic outbreak of disease in an animal population, with the implication often that it may extend to humans. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the CDC) ...
Epidemiology of disease in animal populations. SYN: epizoology. [ epi- + G. zoon, animal, + logos, study]
Rarely used term for the removal of all contaminated tissue in infected wounds. [F. picking, cleaning]
A sulfur-containing organophosphate-anticholinsterase used as an insecticide and acaricide.
Abbreviation for exclusive provider organization.
A hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. EPO is a glycoprotein (a protein with a sugar attached to it). Human EPO has a ...
A test of the hormone EPO (erythropoietin) in blood. The EPO level can indicate bone marrow disorders, kidney disease, or EPO abuse. Testing EPO blood levels is of value if: ...
Recombinant human erythropoietin, a powerful stimulator of red blood cell synthesis. Often used in patients with anemia and in those undergoing renal transplants and AZT ...
Infection involving the proximal nail fold.
1. The thin, condensed, eleidin-rich layer of epidermis that precedes and initially covers the nail plate in the embryo. It normally degenerates by the eighth month except at the ...
Something named after someone. For example, a condition called Shiels syndrome might be named after someone named Shiel who discovered it or described and clearly delineated ...
1. Relating to an eponym. 2. An eponym.
A collection of rudimentary tubules in the mesosalpinx between the ovary and the uterine tube; composed of two portions, the longitudinal duct of epoöphoron and the transverse ...
Referring to an outbreak of disease in a bird population. [ epi- + G. ornithos, bird + -ic]
Chemical term describing an oxygen atom bound to two linked carbon atoms Generally, any cyclic ether, but commonly applied to a 3-membered ring; specifically, a three-membered ...
August, Associate of Leonard S. Fosdick. See Fosdick-Hansen-E. test.
Abbreviation for electron paramagnetic resonance.
Abbreviation for exophthalmos-producing substance.
EPS: Stands for E
lectroPhysiologic Study, a test of the electrical conduction system of the heart (the system that generates the heart beat). EPS is done by threading thin plastic tubes ...
Fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, ε.
Abbreviation for excitatory postsynaptic potential.
Alois, German pediatrician, 1849–1918. See E. disease, E. pearls, under pearl, E. sign, E. symptom.
Michael Anthony, English virologist, *1921. See E.-Barr virus.
A virus, abbreviated EBV, best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis ("mono"). Infection with EBV is characterized by fatigue and general malaise. Infection with EBV ...
A nonspecific exophytic gingival mass. [G. epoulis, a gumboil]
- congenital e. of newborn a congenital benign nodular tumor of the alveolar ridge, of unknown histogenesis; ...
A gingival mass that resembles an epulis.
Abbreviation for equivalent.
A statement expressing the equality of two things, usually with the use of mathematical or chemical symbols. [L. aequare, to make equal]
- alveolar gas e. the e. defining the ...
A line encircling a globular body, equidistant at all points from the two poles; the periphery of a plane cutting a sphere at the midpoint of, and at right angles to, its axis. ...
Situated, like the earth's equator, equidistant from each end.
Equal in heat value. SEE ALSO: isodynamic. [L. aequus, equal, + calor, heat]
A weakly estrogenic steroid isolated from urine of pregnant mares. [L. equa, mare]
1. The act of maintaining an equilibrium or balance. 2. The act of exposing a liquid, e.g., blood or plasma, to a gas at a certain partial pressure until the partial pressures ...
1. The condition of being evenly balanced; a state of repose between two or more antagonistic forces that exactly counteract each other. 2. In chemistry, a state of apparent ...
An estrogenic steroid occurring in the urine of pregnant mares. [L. equa, mare]
Containing an equal number of moles or having the same molarity, as in two or more substances.
Containing an equal number of molecules or molecular entities, as in two or more solutions.
Relating to, derived from, or resembling the horse, mule, ass, or other members of the genus Equus. [L. equinus, fr. equus, horse]
An abnormal and persistent fear of horses. Sufferers of equinophobia experience undue anxiety even when a horse is known to be gentle and well trained. They usually avoid horses ...
1. The property of an element or radical of combining with or displacing, in definite and fixed proportion, another element or radical in a compound. 2. The point in a ...
1. Equal in any respect. 2. That which is equal in size, weight, force, or any other quality to something else. 3. Having the capability to counterbalance or neutralize each ...
Abbreviation for endoplasmic reticulum.
Referring to disease, the termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment; global e. has been ...
Eino, Finnish anatomist, 1924–1984. See E. fluorescence stain.
Wilhelm H., German neurologist, 1840–1921. See E. disease, E. palsy, E. paralysis, E.- Charcot disease, Duchenne-E. paralysis.
Abbreviation for effective renal blood flow.
A rare earth (lanthanide) element, atomic no. 68, atomic wt. 167.26. [from Ytterby, a village in Sweden]
Endoscopic Retrograde CholangioPancreatography, a procedure to look for diseases of the liver, bile ducts and pancreas. A flexible tube is put down the throat, through the ...
Jakob, Austrian physician, 1874–1937. See E. disease, E. tumor.
Hugo, German chemist, 1862–1910. See E. reagent.
The condition of erectile tissue when filled with blood, which then becomes hard and unyielding; denoting especially this state of the penis. [L. erectio, fr. erigo, pp. erectus, ...
When the penis fills with blood and is rigid. The penis contains two chambers, called the corpora cavernosa, which run the length of the organ, are filled with spongy tissue, ...
1. One who or that which raises or makes erect. 2. Denoting specifically certain muscles having such action. SYN: arrector. [Mod. L.]
Morbid fear of deserted places or of solitude. [G. eremia, solitude, + phobos, fear]
Morbid fear of blushing. [G. ereuthos, blushing, + phobos, fear]
ERG stands for electroretinography, a test in which the electrical potentials generated by the retina of the eye are measured when it is stimulated by light. In an ERG, an ...
1. Any form of activity, especially mental. 2. The total of functions and reactions of an individual. [G. work]
Aversion to work of any kind. [G. ergasia, work, + phobos, fear]
Rarely used term for debility or any morbid symptoms due to overexertion. [G. ergasia, work, + astheneia, weakness, disease]
SYN: granular endoplasmic reticulum. [G. ergaster, a workman, + plasma, something formed]
SYN: lysergic acid amide.
Activated ergosterol, the vitamin D of plant origin; it arises from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, which is cleaved at the 9,10 bond and develops a double bond between ...
An instrument for recording both the degree of muscular force and the amount of the work accomplished by muscular contraction. [ ergo- + G. dynamis, force, + grapho, to write]
An apparatus for recording graphically muscular aptness as shown in the ability to counterbalance variable resistances. [ ergo- + G. aisthesis, sensation, + grapho, to record]
An instrument for recording the amount of work done by muscular contractions, or the amplitude of contraction. [ ergo- + G. grapho, to write]
- Mosso e. an instrument consisting ...
Relating to the ergograph and the record made by it.
A class of drugs with prominent agonistic or antagonistic actions on dopamine receptors. Agents belonging to this group include bromocriptine, pergolide, and lisuride.
SYN: dynamometer. [ ergo- + G. metron, measure]
- e. maleate SYN: ergonovine maleate.
The science of making things fit people instead of asking people to fit things. Ergonomics uses knowledge from anatomy, mechanics, physiology and psychology to utilize human ...
An alkaloid from ergot; on hydrolysis it yields d-lysergic acid and l-2-aminopropanol; stimulates uterine contractions. SYN: ergobasine, ergometrine, ergostetrine.
- e. ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of work. Sufferers of ergophobia experience undue anxiety about the workplace environment even though they realize their fear is irrational. ...
An alkaloid from ergot with actions similar to those of ergotamine.
The most important of the provitamins D2; ultraviolet irradiation converts e. to lumisterol, tachysterol, and ergocalciferol; main sterol in yeast, ergot, and molds. SYN: ...
Ergot could be called a "cereal killer" for it comes from cereals such as rye and wheat and is quite capable of killing someone. A fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that contaminates ...
C33H35N5O5; an alkaloid from ergot, used for the relief of migraine; it is a potent stimulant of smooth muscle, particularly of the blood vessel s and the uterus, and produces ...
The betaine of a sulfur-containing derivative of histidine, present in blood and other mammalian tissue and in ergot. SYN: thiolhistidylbetaine, thioneine.
Ergotism could be called a "cereal killer" for its cause, ergot, comes from cereals such as rye and wheat and is quite capable of killing someone. A fungus (Claviceps purpurea) ...