The prototype antiestrogen that inhibits the effects of estrogen at its specific cellular receptors; the two most widely structurally related antiestrogens are clomiphene ...
A hemostatic agent. SYN: cyclonamine, etamsylate.
CH3CH3; a constituent of natural and “bottled” gases.
A transferase that catalyzes the reaction of CDP-ethanolamine with a 1,2-diacylglycerol to yield CMP and a phosphatidylethanolamine; a key step in phospholipid biosynthesis. ...
1. Any organic compound in which two carbon atoms are independently linked to a common oxygen atom, thus containing the group –C–O–C–. SEE ALSO: epoxy. 2. Loosely used ...
1. Relating to or containing ether. 2. Dissolved in an ether. [G. aitherios, etherial, fr. aither, the upper air]
Administration of diethyl ether to produce anesthesia.
Relating to ethics; in conformity with the rules governing personal and professional conduct.
The branch of philosophy that deals with the distinction between right and wrong, with the moral consequences of human actions. [G. ethikos, arising from custom, fr. ethos, ...
A sensitive fluorochrome that binds to DNA; used in cytochemistry and electrophoresis.
- e. trichloride SYN: trichloroethylene.
A radiopaque medium formerly used for lympangiography and hysterosalpingography.
A second-line antituberculosis drug. Side effects are common, the most common manifestations are gastrointestinal.
A methionine analog and antagonist, differing in the presence of an S-ethyl group in place of the S-methyl group.
An orally effective semisynthetic steroid that has biological effects similar to those of progesterone. SYN: ethindrone, pregneninolone.
Combining form denoting: 1. Ethmoid. 2. The ethmoid bone. [G. ethmos, sieve]
Relating to the ethmoid bone and the cranium as a whole.
See e. bone. SYN: os ethmoidale [TA]. [G. ethmos, sieve, + eidos, resemblance]
An irregularly shaped bone that provides the floor of the front part of the skull and the roof of the nose. The ethmoid bone consists of two masses of thin plates enclosing air ...
A cephalometric point in the anterior cranial fossa located at the lowest sagittal point of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.
Removal of all or part of the mucosal lining and bony partitions between the ethmoid sinuses. [ ethmo- + G. ektome, excision]
Relating to the ethmoid and the nasal bones.
The conchae of the ethmoid bone; the superior and middle conchae; occasionally a third, the supreme concha, exists.
A social group characterized by a distinctive social and cultural tradition maintained from generation to generation, a common history and origin and a sense of identification ...
The tendency to evaluate other groups according to the values and standards of one's own ethnic group, especially with the conviction that one's own ethnic group is superior to ...
The study of specific human cultures. The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of human cultures. Ethnography sprang from social anthropology and ...
The science that compares human culture and/or races; cultural anthropology.
The study of differences in response to drugs based on varied ethnicity; pharmacogenetics.
The study of animal behavior. [G. ethos, character, habit, + logos, study]
An antianxiety agent. SYN: ethoxybutamoxane.
The study of drug effects on behavior, relying on observation and description of species-specific elements (acts and postures during social encounters). SEE ALSO: ...
An anticholinergic agent with some antihistaminic and ganglionic blocking activity. SYN: profenamine hydrochloride.
An anticonvulsant used in the control of absence (petit mal) epilepsy; bone marrow damage and aplastic anemia may occasionally occur.
An anticonvulsant used in the treatment of generalized tonic clonic epilepsy.
The monovalent radical, CH3CH2O–.
A diuretic related chemically and pharmacologically to acetazolamide.
The hydrocarbon radical, CH3CH2–.
- e. alcohol SYN: alcohol (2).
- e. aminobenzoate SYN: benzocaine.
- e. biscoumacetate an anticoagulant chemically related to ...
: A substance used in making latex paints and textiles. The US government removed ethyl acrylate from its list of potential cancer-causing agents in 2000. Although ethyl ...
A compound in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group of ethanol is replaced by a metallic atom, usually sodium or potassium; e.g., C2H5ONa, sodium e..
C2H5AsCl2; a blister agent used in World War I; irritating to the respiratory tract.
An explosive constituent of ordinary illuminating gas; hastens ripening of fruit.
- e. oxide a fumigant, used for cold sterilization of surgical instruments. SYN: oxirane.
Compound used in antiknock gasolines. Severe skin irritant; may cause blistering. Inhalation causes delayed pulmonary lesions. Prolonged exposure may also result in liver and ...
Ethylene glycol poisoning
Poisoning from ethylene glycol (a clear, colorless, odorless liquid with a sweet taste) that can produce dramatic and dangerous toxicity. Ethylene glycol is found most commonly ...
A chemical widely used in the health care industry to sterilize medical devices and also used to make other chemicals. In the year 2000 the US government upgraded ethylene oxide ...
A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniacal odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a ...
A chelating agent used to remove multivalent cations from solution as chelates, and used in biochemical research to remove Mg2+, Fe2+, etc., from reactions affected by such ions. ...
The ethyl ether of morphine; an antispasmodic, antitussive, and narcotic analgesic, used locally as an irritant lymphagogue in chronic catarrhal middle ear disease, ...
A semisynthetic orally effective steroid with biological effects that largely resemble those of progesterone; in addition, it is weakly estrogenic and androgenic; administered ...
The monovalent radical HCΞC–. SYN: acetenyl, ethinyl.
A drug that affects bone resorption, used in the treatment of Paget disease, heterotopic ossification, and hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Used as a calcium regulator, usually as the salt etidronate disodium.
1. Prefix used with (for example) cholane to indicate replacement of the C-17 side chain by H; thus, etiocholane is the 5β isomer of androstane. 2. Combining form meaning ...
A metabolite of adrenocortical and testicular hormones, and an important urinary 17-ketosteroid; produces fever when given to human beings.
Of a causal nature. [G. aitia, cause, + genesis, production]
Subjected to, or characterized by, etiolation.
1. Paleness or pallor resulting from absence of light, as in persons confined because of illness or imprisonment, or in plants bleached by being deprived of light. 2. The ...
The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder. The word "etiology" is mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the ...
Relating to specific lesions concerned with the cause of a disease. [G. aitia, cause, + pathos, disease]
Consideration of the cause of an abnormal state or finding. [G. aitia, cause, + pathology]
A porphyrin derivative characterized by the presence on each of the four pyrrole rings of one methyl group and one ethyl group; four isomeric forms are thus possible.
Directed against the cause; denoting a remedy that attenuates or destroys the causal factor of a disease. [G. aitia, cause, + trope, a turning]
An intraluminal amebicide similar to teclozan and diloxanide.
A potent intravenous hypnotic used in anesthesia.
A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin; a mitotic inhibitor used in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors, small cell lung cancer, and other cancers.
A narcotic analgesic, having a potency about 1,000 times greater than morphine; used in tranquilizer darts.
Abbreviation for electron transport particles, under particle.
A retinoid used in the treatment of severe recalcitrant psoriasis.
: Abbreviation for environmental tobacco smoke — namely, smoke generated from the sidestream (the burning end) of a cigarette, pipe or cigar and the exhaled mainstream smoke ...
Good, well; opposite of dys-, caco-. [G.]
Genes having different nucleotide substitutions at the same position. Cf.:heteroalleles.
An obsolete name for an order of bacteria that contained simple, undifferentiated, rigid cells which were either spheres or straight rods. It contained motile ( peritrichous) and ...
A genus containing more than 40 species of anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile bacteria containing straight or curved Gram-positive rods which usually occur singly, in pairs, or ...
The science of hygienic living. [eu- + G. biotikos, relating to life]
The dried leaves of E. globulus (family Myrtaceae), the blue gum or Australian fever tree.
- e. oil the volatile oil distilled with steam from the fresh leaf of E. globulus or ...
A state in which the arterial carbon dioxide pressure is optimal. SEE ALSO: normocapnia. [eu- + G. kapnos, vapor]
SYN: eukaryote. [eu- + G. karyon, kernel, nut]
Ammonium caseinate prepared by passing ammonia gas over finely powdered dry casein; added as a concentrated food to bouillon, chocolate, etc.
A condition in which free hydrochloric acid exists in normal amount in the gastric juice. [eu- + cholohydric (acid) + -ia]
A normal state of the bile as regards quantity and quality. [eu- + G. chole, bile]
1. SYN: orthochromatic. 2. Characteristic of euchromatin.
The parts of chromosomes that, during interphase, are uncoiled dispersed threads and not stained by ordinary dyes; metabolically active, in contrast to the inert ...
One of three trichurid nematode genera, commonly referred to as Capillaria.
1. Obsolete term for homeostasis. 2. Obsolete term for a condition of reduced susceptibility to the adverse effects of certain drugs, articles of diet, etc. [G. eukrasia, good ...
Normal free sweating. [eu- + G. diaphoresis, perspiration]
Ordinary mild thirst. [eu- + G. dipsa, thirst]
Former term for the protozoan flagellates now included in the subphylum Mastigophora.
Literally, meaning normal genes, eugenics aims to improve the genetic constitution of the human species by selective breeding. The use of Albert Einstein's sperm to conceive a ...
The belief that the human species can be improved through selective breeding.
Obtained from oil of cloves; used in dentistry with zinc oxide as an analgesic and as a base for impression materials; also used in perfumery as a substitute for oil of cloves. ...
A widespread genus of photosynthesizing free-living fresh water flagellates (family Euglinidae). [eu- + G. glene, eyeball]
- E. gracilis an abundant species sometimes used in ...
A family of green (phytomonad) flagellates ( subphylum Mastigophora, class Phytomastigophorea).
That fraction of the serum globulin that is soluble in isotonic salt solutions and less soluble in (NH4)2SO4 solution than the pseudoglobulin fraction.
A normal blood glucose concentration. SYN: normoglycemia. [eu- + G. glykys, sweet, + haima, blood]
Denoting, characteristic of, or promoting euglycemia. SYN: normoglycemic.
An abnormality that is limited to the teeth and their immediate alveolar supports. SYN: eugnathic anomaly. [eu- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Normal ability to synthesize sensory stimuli. [eu- + G. gnosis, perception]
A term used to indicate that the growth of a bacterial culture is rapid and relatively luxuriant; used especially in reference to the growth of cultures of the human tubercle ...
An order of gregarines ( subclass Gregarinia), reproducing only by sporogony, in which schizogony is absent; they are parasites of annelids and arthropods. [eu- + L. gregarius, ...
Normal state of body water content; absence of absolute or relative hydration or dehydration.
A superkingdom of organisms characterized by eukaryotic cells; acellular members ( kingdom Protoctista) are characterized by a single eukaryotic unit; more complex ( ...
An organism that consists of one or more cells with a nucleus and other well-developed compartments. People are eukaryotes. Eukaryotes include all organisms except bacteria, ...
Pertaining to or characteristic of a eukaryote. SYN: eucaryotic.
Hard keratin present in hair, wool, horn, nails, etc.
Normal movement. [eu- + G. kinesis, movement]
Albert, German neurologist, 1840–1917. See E. disease.
The most abundant type of human melanin, found in brown and black skin and hair; cross-linked polymers of 5,6-dihydroxyindoles, usually linked to proteins; levels are decreased ...
Graduation of the strength of nerve impulses to match the need. [G. moderation, goodness of meter]
Preservation of the natural form of a cell. [eu- + G. morphe, shape]
The true fungi. [eu- + G. mykes, fungus]
Mycetoma caused by fungi. Cf.:actinomycetoma.
Microscopic animal forms, frequently known as slime animals, that consist of an irregular semifluid mass of multinucleated ameboid protoplasm; although grouped as a class of the ...
A male individual whose testes have been removed or have never developed. [G. eunouchos, chamberlain, fr. eune, bed, + echmacr; o, to have]
1. The state of being a eunuch; absence of the testes or failure of the gonads to develop or function with consequent lack of reproductive and sexual function and of ...
Resembling, or having the general characteristics of, a eunuch; usually indicating the physical habitus of a male in whom hypogonadism occurred before puberty. [G. eunouchos, ...
A state in which testes are present but fail to function normally; may be of gonadal or pituitary origin. SYN: eunuchism (2), male hypogonadism.
- hypergonadotropic e. e. of ...
1. A pleasant odor. 2. Normal olfaction. [eu- + G. osme, smell]
A medium for mounting histologic specimens, composed of sandarac, eucalyptol, paraldehyde, camphor, and phenyl salicylate.
A genus of nonpathogenic flukes (family Echinostomatidae), several species of which have been reported from the intestines of humans. [eu- + G. paryphe, a border]
Good digestion. [G., fr. eu, well, + pepsis, digestion]
Digesting well; having a good digestion.
A peptide containing normal peptide bonds (between α-carboxyl groups and α-amino groups). Cf.:isopeptide, peptide. [G. eu-, normal, usual + peptide]
Literally meaning "normal appearing," euphenics aims to improve the outcome of a genetic disease by altering the environment. An illustration: children born with the genetic ...
A species of plant (family Euphorbiaceae); the dried herb used in asthma, coryza and other respiratory affections, in angina pectoris, and as an antispasmodic. SYN: ...
Elevated mood. Euphoria is a desirable and natural occurrence when it results from happy or exciting events. An excessive degree of euphoria that is not linked to events is ...
1. Having the capability to produce a sense of well-being. 2. An agent with such a capability. SYN: euphoretic.
The state of cells or tissue that is normal or typical for that particular type. [eu- + G. plasso, form]
1. Relating to euplasia. 2. Healing readily and well. [G. euplastos, easily molded; eu, well, + plastos, formed]
The normal number of chromosomes for a species. In humans, the euploid number of chromosomes is 46 with the notable exception of the unfertilized egg and sperm in which it is ...
The state of a cell containing whole haploid sets. [eu- + G. -ploos, -fold]
Easy, free respiration; the type observed in a normal individual under resting conditions. [G. eupnoia, fr. eu, well, + pnoia, breath]
Normal ability to perform coordinated movements. [eu- + G. praxis, a doing]
A genus of moths. The hairs of the cocoon and caterpillar of the species E. chrysorrhoea, the brown-tail moth, cause caterpillar dermatitis. [eu- + G. proktos, rump]
Harmonious body relationships of the separate organs. [eu- + G. rhythmos, rhythm]
An element of the rare earth (lanthanide) group, atomic no. 63, atomic wt. 151.965. [L. Europa, Europe]
Broad, wide; opposite of steno-. [G. eurys, wide]
A congenital anomaly characterized by sagging of the lateral aspect of the lower eyelid away from the eye. [ eury- + G. blepharon, eyelid]
Having an abnormally broad head; sometimes used in reference to a brachycephalic head. [ eury- + G. kephale, head]
The condition of having a wide jaw. [ eury- + G. gnathos, jaw]
The extremity, on either side, of the greatest transverse diameter of the head; a point used in craniometry. [G. eurys, broad]
Wide-eyed. See blepharodiastasis. [ eury- + G. ops, eye]
Having a thick-set body. [ eury- + G. soma, body]
An instrument for showing on a screen an enlarged image from a microscope. [eu- + G. skopeo, to view]
SYN: Simulium. [eu- + L. simulo, to simulate]
Described by or attributed to Eustachio.
The tube that runs from the middle ear to the pharynx. The function of the Eustachian tube is to protect, aerate and drain the middle ear (and mastoid). Occlusion of the ...
Bartolommeo E., Italian anatomist, 1524–1574. See eustachian catheter, eustachian cushion, eustachian tonsil, tuba eustachiana, eustachian tube, eustachian tuber, ...
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eustachian tube.
Normal strength. [eu- + G. sthenos, strength]
Nematode found in fish, amphibians, and reptiles; human infections, manifested by gastrointestinal symptoms, are rare and related to consumption of raw fish; larvae are pinkish ...
Former name for Dioctophyma. [eu- + G. strongylos, rounded]
A condition in which the cardiac systole is normal in force and time. [eu- + systole]
1. Easily melted; denoting specifically mixtures of certain chemical compounds that have a lower melting point than any of their individual ingredients; e.g., a solid, such as ...
The word "euthanasia" comes straight out of the Greek — "eu", goodly or well + " thanatos", death = the good death — and for 18th-century writers in England that was what ...
The active acceleration of a "good" death by use of drugs etc, whether by oneself or with the aid of a doctor. The word " euthanasia" comes from the Greek — "eu", goodly or ...
The science concerned with establishing optimum living conditions for plants, animals, or humans, especially through proper provisioning and environment. [G. eutheneo, to thrive]
A subclass of mammals, excluding monotremes and marsupials, having a placenta through which the young are nourished. [eu- + G. therion, animal]
At an optimal temperature. [eu- + G. thermos, warm]
1. Joyfulness; mental peace and tranquility. 2. Moderation of mood, not manic or depressed. [eu- + G. thymos, mind]
Relating to, or characterized by, euthymia.
The state of having normal thyroid gland function. As opposed to hyperthyroid (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroid (underactive thyroid).
A condition in which the thyroid gland is functioning normally, its secretion being of proper amount and constitution.
A modified ophthalmoscope, now seldom used, with which the site of excentric fixation may be dazzled by a bright light while the true fovea is simultaneously shielded by an ...
SYN: normotonic (1). [eu- + G. tonos, tone]
A normal growth of healthy hair. [eu- + G. thrix, hair]
A state of normal nourishment and growth. SYN: eutrophy. [G. fr. eu, well, + trophe, nourishment]
Relating to, characterized by, or promoting eutrophia.
Normal water content or volume of a given compartment; e.g., extracellular e..
Abbreviation for electron- volt.
1. Promoting an excretion, especially of the bowels. 2. An agent that increases excretion, especially a cathartic.
To accomplish evacuation. [L. e-vacuo, pp. -vacuatus, to empty out]
1. Removal of material, especially wastes from the bowels by defecation. 2. SYN: stool (2). 3. Removal of air from a closed vessel; production of a vacuum.
Evacuation supplies kit
You and your family can cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won't have time ...
A mechanical evacuant; an instrument for the removal of fluid or small particles from a body cavity, or of impacted feces from the rectum.
- Ellik e. a special instrument with ...
Protrusion of some part or organ from its normal position. [L. e, out, + vagina, sheath]
Systematic, objective assessment of the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives.
Of short duration. [L. e, out, + vanesco, to vanish]
Herbert M., U.S. anatomist and physiologist, 1882–1971. See E. blue.
Robert S., U.S. physician, 1912–1974. See E. syndrome.
A diazo dye used for the determination of the blood volume on the basis of the dilution of a standard solution of the dye in the plasma after its intravenous injection; it binds ...
To cause or undergo evaporation. SYN: volatilize.
1. A change from liquid to vapor form. 2. Loss of volume of a liquid by conversion into vapor. SYN: volatilization. [L. e, out, + vaporo, to emit vapor]
The act of escaping, avoiding, or feigning.
- macular e. SYN: horror fusionis.
Evening primrose oil
A natural source of essential fatty acids (EFOs). Evening primrose oil contains a higher level of arachnoidic acid than some other EFO sources, so people with seizure disorders ...
sentinel e. a type of clinical indicator used to monitor and appraise the quality of care, indluding events that require immediate attention.
In pharmacology, an adverse event is any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug.
1. Protrusion of omentum and/or intestine through an opening in the abdominal wall. SYN: evisceration (4). 2. Removal of the contents of the abdominal cavity. [L. e, out, + ...
A turning outward, as of the eyelid or foot. [L. e-everto, pp. -versus, to overturn]
To turn outward or turn inside out. To evert the foot is to move its forepart away from the midline of the body. To evert a hollow organ is to turn it inside out. From the Latin ...
1. SYN: emasculation. 2. Loss or absence of the masculine, with acquisition of feminine characteristics; a type of effemination. 3. Delusional belief of a man that he has ...
1. SYN: exenteration. 2. The process wherein tissue or organs that usually reside within a body cavity are displaced outside that cavity usualy through a traumatic disruption ...
Evisceration of the eye with division of the optic nerve. [L. eviscero, to disembowel, + G. neuron, nerve, + tome, a cutting]
Induction of a particular tissue produced by the action of an evocator during embryogenesis. [L. evoco, pp. evocatus, to call forth, evoke]
A factor in the control of morphogenesis in the early embryo.
The continuing process of change, especially in reference to natural selection. Charles Darwin (1809-82) noted that successful species produce more offspring in each generation ...
Biologic evolution was contrasted with cultural (social) evolution in 1968 by A.G. Motulsky who pointed out that biologic evolution is mediated by genes, shows a slow rate of ...
Evolutionarily conserved gene
A gene that has remained essentially unchanged throughout evolution. Conservation of a gene indicates that it is unique and essential. There is not an extra copy of that gene ...