Treatment of disease by means of an exclusive or nearly exclusive milk diet. SYN: lactotherapy.
A polysaccharide that yields galacturonic acid on hydrolysis; a constituent of some pectins.
The rhizome of Alpinia offcinarum (family Zingiberaceae); an aromatic stimulant and carminative. SYN: Chinese ginger. [Mediev. L. galanga, mild ginger, fr. Chinese]
Nikolay Fedorovich, Russian hygienist, *1893. See G. reflex.
An alkaloid derived from Caucasian snowdrops (a white flower of early spring) Galanthus woronowii (family Amaryllidaceae); from Narcissus spp. An alkaloid with ...
1. [NA] A structure shaped like a helmet. 2. SYN: epicranial aponeurosis. 3. A form of bandage covering the head. 4. SYN: caul (1). [L. a helmet]
- g. aponeurotica [TA] ...
Domenico, Italian physician, 1686–1775. See G. glands, under gland.
Incision of the galea aponeurotica. [ galea + G. tome, incision]
Riccardo, Italian surgeon, 1886–1952. See G. fracture.
Greek physician and philosopher (born about 129 AD, died about 210 AD) known among other things for his discovery of blood in human arteries and for his dissection of the human ...
Galen, Galenius, Galenos
Claudius, Greek physician and medical scientist in Rome, c. 130–201 A.D. See G. anastomosis, G. nerve, veins of G., under vein, great vein of G..
SYN: lead sulfide. [L.]
Relating to Galen or to his theories.
1. Herbs and other vegetable drugs, as distinguished from the mineral or chemical remedies. 2. Crude drugs and the tinctures, decoctions, and other preparations made from them, ...
An abnormally large and persistent fear of sharks. Sufferers from this phobia experience anxiety even though they may be safe on a boat or in an aquarium or on a beach. Hollywood ...
1. SYN: bile. 2. An excoriation or erosion. 3. SYN: nutgall. [A.S. gealla]
Louis, French physician, 1875–1957. See G. phenomenon.
A pear-shaped receptacle on the inferior surface of the liver, in a hollow between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe; it serves as a storage reservoir for bile. SYN: vesica ...
This condition, also known as agenesis (failure of development) of the gallbladder, occurs in approximately one out of every 1,000 people. Gallbladder agenesis is an isolated ...
This is a condition in which the gallbladder fails to develop. This happens in approximately one out of every 1,000 people. Gallbladder agenesis is an isolated finding in more ...
Structurally related to fluorescein and used as an aniline dye indicator, turning rose red above pH 6.6, yellowish brown below pH 4. SYN: pyrogallolphthalein.
Usually made from tannic acid or nutgalls; used locally as an astringent, for the same purpose as tannic acid.
William E., Canadian surgeon, 1882–1959. See G. transplant.
An order of birds embracing the pheasant, turkey, and chicken. [L. gallus, a cock, + forma, form]
Pertaining to the order Galliformes. [L. gallinaceus, fr. gallina, a hen]
A rare metal with the atomic weight of 69. There are several isotopic forms of gallium that differ from it in atomic weight. One is gallium-68 which is produced by cyclotrons ...
A cyclotron-produced radionuclide with a half-life of 3.260 days and major gamma ray emissions of 93, 185, and 300 keV; used in the citrate form as a tumor- and ...
A positron emitter with a radioactive half-life of 1.130 h.
A blue phenoxazin dye used as a stain for nucleic acid s after boiling with chrome alum, which is applicable for quantitative cytophotometric determination of these moieties.
A measure of U.S. liquid capacity containing 4 quarts, 231 cu. in., or 8.3293 pounds of distilled water at 20°C; it is the equivalent of 3.785412 L. The British imperial g. ...
A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious ...
A concretion in the gallbladder or a bile duct, composed chiefly of a mixture of cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, occasionally as a pure stone composed ...
Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. There can be just one large stone, hundreds of tiny ...
Gallstones and ERCP
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) is a diagnostic procedure done to look for diseases of the liver, bile ducts and pancreas. A flexible tube is put down the ...
A mixture of microscopic particulate matter in bile, also called biliary sludge, that occurs when particles of material precipitate from bile. (Bile is the fluid that is made ...
A genus of gallinaceous birds including G. domestica, the domestic chicken. [L. g., a cock]
Abbreviation for gut-associated lymphoid tissue.
Lack of the enzyme called GALT (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase) which causes the genetic metabolic disease galactosemia, one of the diseases in many newborn screening ...
Sir Francis, English scientist, 1822–1911. See G. delta, G. system of classification of fingerprints, under fingerprint, G. law, G. whistle.
Galton, Sir Francis
English advocate of eugenics, the idea of improving the physical and mental makeup of the human species by selective parenthood. Galton coined the word " eugenics" to denote ...
Attributed to or described by Sir Francis Galton.
Luigi, Italian physician and anatomist, 1737-1798. See galvanism.
Pertaining to galvanism. SYN: voltaic.
1. Direct current electricity produced by chemical action, as by a battery. 2. Oral manifestations of direct current electricity occurring when dental restorations with ...
Application of direct current ( galvanic) electricity, as in galvanizing (electroplating).
Prefix denoting electrical, primarily direct current. [see galvanism]
A form of electrocautery using a wire heated by a galvanic current.
The capability of a muscle of contracting under the stimulus of a galvanic (direct) current.
An instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current.
- d'Arsonval g. a sensitive g. consisting of a moving coil suspended in a permanent magnetic field between ...
Denoting the effect of the application of a galvanic (direct) current to a muscle.
Esthesiometry by means of a sharp-pointed electrode through which a feeble direct current passes to the cathode applied to an indifferent part.
An instrument for detecting the presence of a galvanic current. [ galvano- + G. skopeo, to view]
An operation in which direct electric current is utilized.
Treatment of disease by application of direct ( galvanic) current.
1. SYN: electrotonus. 2. Tonic muscular contraction in response to a galvanic stimulus. [ galvano- + G. tonos, tension]
A trihydroxybufadienolide, present in the venoms of toads (family Bufonidae), which chemically and pharmacologically resembles digitalis. SYN: gamabufagin, gamabufogenin.
An extract from the leaves of Uncaria (Ourouparia) gambier (family Rubiaceae); an astringent. Commercial g. is known as terra japonica.
A contest, physical or mental, conducted according to set rules, played for amusement or for a stake. [M.E. fr. O.E. gamen]
- language g. in philosophy, all the operations and ...
The sperm or the egg. Each human gamete normally has 23 chromosomes, the haploid number of chromosomes, half the number of chromosomes contained in most types of cells.
* * *
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
: A technique in which the male and female germ cells required to begin formation of a human embryo are injected into a woman's fallopian tubes of the female for fertilization. ...
A gamete. [G. gametes, husband, gamete, wife, fr. gameo, to marry]
An agent destructive of gametes, specifically the malarial gametocytes. [ gameto- + L. caedo, to kill]
A cyst formed around a pair of united gregarine gamonts in which gametes are produced. [ gameto- + G. kystis, bladder]
A cell capable of dividing to produce gametes, e.g., a spermatocyte or oocyte. SYN: gamont. [ gameto- + G. kytos, cell]
The development and production of the male and female germ cells required to form a new individual. The male and female germ cells are called gametes. The gametes in human males ...
A stage in the sexual cycle of sporozoans in which gametes are formed, often by schizogony. SYN: gametogonia, gamogony. [ gameto- + G. gone, a begetting]
Pertaining to certain biologic features that resemble those characteristic of gametes or reproductive cells.
Promoting or causing karyogamy or true conjugation. [ gameto- + G. kinesis, movement]
The disappearance of the male or female element in zygosis. SYN: gamophagia. [ gameto- + G. phago, to eat]
An abnormal and persistent fear of being married. Sufferers of gametophobia experience undue anxiety even though they may rationally realize that the married state itself poses no ...
Joseph Sampson, British surgeon, 1828–1886. See G. tissue.
Relating to or derived from sexual union; usually used as a suffix. [G. gamikos, pert. to marriage]
1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet, γ. 2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 10−9 T. [G.]
gamma benzene hexachloride
One of the purified isomers of hexachlorobenzene which is used as a scabicide and pediculicide applied topically to the skin in various lotions, creams, and shampoos; GBH can ...
A major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood. Also called immunoglobulin G (IgG).
A type of radiosurgery (radiation therapy) machine that acts by focusing low-dosage gamma radiation from many sources on a precise target. Areas adjacent to the target receive ...
Mispronunciation of, or trouble articulating, the “g” sound. [G. gamma, equivalent of the letter g]
A subfamily of Herpesviridae containing Epstein-Barr virus and others that cause lymphoproliferation.
A primary disturbance in immunoglobulin synthesis.
- benign monoclonal g. SYN: monoclonal g. of undetermined significance.
- biclonal g. a g. in which the serum contains two ...
Carlos, Italian physician, 1896–1950. See G. disease, G.- Favre bodies, under body, Gandy-G. bodies, under body, G.- Gandy bodies, under body, G.- Gandy nodules, under nodule.
SYN: sexual reproduction. [G. gamos, marriage, + genesis, production]
SYN: gametocyte. [G. gamos, marriage, + on (ont-), being]
Morbid fear of marriage. [G. gamos, marriage, + phobos, fear]
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of opportunistic cytomegalovirus infections.
Charles, French physician, *1872. See Gamna-G. bodies, under body, Gamna-G. nodules, under nodule, G.- Gamna bodies, under body, G.- Nanta disease.
An extract of the flowers of Cannabis sativa (Indian hemp or hashish) which grows in India, Persia, and Arabia. SEE ALSO: cannabis.
A region located at the base of the brain composed of 4 clusters of neurons, or nerve cells. This area of the brain is responsible for body movement and coordination. The groups ...
Having the form or appearance of a ganglion. SYN: ganglioform.
An embryonic cell from which develop ganglion cells. [ganglion + G. blastos, germ]
A rare lesion that contains neuronal (ganglion) cells in a sparse glial stoma. SYN: central ganglioneuroma. [ganglion + G. kytos, cell, + -oma, tumor]
A rare tumor composed of a glioma component and an atypical neuronal (ganglion) cell component; in younger patients often associated with seizures.
The dissolution or breaking up of a ganglion.
- percutaneous radiofrequency g. g. produced by radiofrequency currents applied to a ganglion by a needle passed through the skin. ...
The celebrated 2nd century Greek physician Galen ((c. 130-201 A.D.) who lived and worked in Rome first used the word ganglion to denote a nerve complex. Ganglion still is used ...
Excision of a ganglion. [ganglion + G. ektome, excision]
A tumor of mixed cellular type, with elements of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma.
A benign neoplasm composed of mature ganglionic neurons, in varying numbers, scattered singly or in clumps within a relatively abundant and dense stroma of neurofibrils and ...
1. Inflammation of a lymphatic ganglion. 2. Inflammation of a nerve ganglion. SYN: gangliitis.
Making an opening into a ganglion (2). [ganglion + G. stoma, mouth]
A pharmacologic compound that paralyzes an autonomic ganglion, usually for a relatively short period of time. [ganglion + G. plege, stroke, shock]
A glycosphingolipid chemically similar to cerebrosides but containing one or more sialic (N-acetylneuraminic or N-glycolylneuraminic) acid residues; found principally in nerve ...
Any disease characterized, in part, by the abnormal accumulation within the nervous system of specific gangliosides, e.g., GM2 g., Tay-Sachs disease, caused by hexosaminidase A ...
A destructive ulceration beginning on the soft palate and extending thence to the hard palate, nasopharynx, and nose, resulting in mutilating cicatrices. The disease, so far as ...
The death of body tissue due to the loss of blood supply to that tissue, sometimes permitting bacteria to invade it and accelerate its decay. The word "gangrene" comes from the ...
William F., U.S. physiologist, *1924. See Lown-G.- Levine syndrome.
Siegbert J.M., German psychiatrist, 1853–1931. See G. commissure, G. syndrome, nucleus basalis of G..
Samuel G., U.S. surgeon, 1869–1944. See G. clamp.
A frame housing the x-ray tube, collimators, and detectors in a CT machine, with a large opening into which the patient is inserted; a mechanical support for mounting a device to ...
Carol F.L., 17th century German anatomist. See G. accessory bundle, G. muscle.
William, U.S. cardiologist, *1919. See Swan-G. catheter.
1. A hiatus or opening in a structure. 2. An interval or discontinuity in any series or sequence. 3. (G) A period in the cell cycle.
- g. 1 (G1) in the somatic cell cycle, the ...
William, Canadian dermatologist, *1908. See Sulzberger-G. disease, Sulzberger-G. syndrome.
Eldon J., U.S. geneticist, *1909. See G. syndrome.
F.H. See G.- Diamond syndrome.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-negative, nonsporeforming, nonencapsulated, nonmotile, pleomorphic bacteria with Gram-variable rods.
- G. vaginalis a ...
An inherited (genetic) syndrome with characteristic features including (1) neurologically: mental retardation and aphasia (lack of speech); (2) limbs: adducted (clasped) thumbs, ...
1. To rinse the fauces with fluid in the mouth through which expired breath is forced to produce a bubbling effect while the head is held far back. 2. A medicated fluid used ...
From the French gargouille (waterspout), the word conveys the often-grotesque image of the medieval cathedral gargoyle. The term gargoylism was once applied to a condition today ...
Maurice, French physician, 1812–1878. See G. pessary.
Hugh G., British neurologist 1903–1967. See Marinesco-G. syndrome.
M., U.S. physician, 1848–1926. See G. triangle.
- g. oil a volatile oil from the bulb or entire plant of Allium sativum (family Liliaceae); contains diallyl disulfide and allyl propyl disulfide; has been ...
Carl, Swiss surgeon, 1857–1928. See Garré disease, Garré osteomyelitis.
August, German physician, 1848–1934. See G. method, G. vein phenomenon, G. tonometer.
Herman T., Danish anatomist and surgeon, 1785–1827. See G. canal, G. cyst, G. duct.
Abbreviation for group A streptococci, under streptococcus.
1. A thin fluid, like air, capable of indefinite expansion but convertible by compression and cold into a liquid and, eventually, a solid. 2. In clinical practice, a liquid ...
Gas chromatography (GC)
A type of automated chromatography (a technique used to separate mixtures of substances) in which the mixture to be analyzed is vaporized and carried by an inert gas through a ...
The primary function of the lungs involving the transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into the blood and the transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the exhaled air.
The complaint referred to as "intestinal gas" is a common one and the discomfort can be quite significant. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by burping or passing it ...
Nitrous oxide, a gas capable of causing general anesthesia. Today nitrous oxide is sometimes given in the company of other anesthetic agents but is no longer used as the sole ...
Walter H., English physiologist, 1847–1914. See G. bridge, G. clamp.
A calibrated instrument or vessel for measuring the volumes of gases. SEE ALSO: spirometer.
Measurement of gases; determination of the relative proportion of gases in a mixture.
John D.M., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1928. See Irvine-G. syndrome.
Johann L., Austrian anatomist, 1723–1765. See gasserian ganglion.
Relating to or described by Johann L. Gasser.
Poisoning by irrespirable or otherwise noxious gases.
Henri, French biologist, *1915. See Lennox-G. syndrome.
1. SYN: stomach. 2. Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment. [G. g., belly]
A family of botflies (or warble flies) that produce enteric myiasis in members of the horse family (genus Gasterophilus), in rhinoceroses (genus Gyrostigma), and in elephants ...
SYN: stomach ache. [ gastr- + G. algos, pain]
Excision of a part or all of the stomach. [ gastr- + G. ektome, excision]
- Hofmeister g. hofmeister operation in which a portion of the stomach is removed and a retrocolic ...
Relating to the stomach. SYN: gastricus.
: A condition in which the stomach muscles shrink and become weak. It results in a lack of digestive juices. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach.
A surgically implanted device used to help a person lose weight. In a surgical procedure, a band is placed around the upper part of the stomach, creating a small pouch that can ...
Cancer of the stomach, the major organ that holds food for digestion. Worldwide, stomach cancer is the second most frequent cancer and the second leading cause of death from ...
Gastric emptying study
A gastric emptying study evaluates the emptying of food from the stomach. For a gastric emptying study, a patient eats a meal in which the solid food, liquid food or both are ...
A surgical procedure that converts the upper part of the stomach into a very small pouch by stapling portions of the stomach together, forcing an obese person to eat only tiny ...
A hole in the lining of the stomach corroded by the acidic digestive juices which are secreted by the stomach cells. Ulcer formation is related to H. pyloridus bacteria in the ...
An alternative term for a human peptidase now termed pepsin C. It is present in the gastric juices of most vertebrates.
A gastrin-secreting tumor associated with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
Hormones secreted in the pyloric-antral mucosa of the mammalian stomach that stimulate secretion of HCl by the parietal cells of the gastric glands; there are three main types: ...
Inflammation, especially mucosal, of the stomach. [ gastr- + G. -itis, inflammation]
- alkaline reflux g. an inflammation of the gastric mucosa believed to be caused by ...
Unequal conjoined twins in which an acephalous parasite is attached to the abdomen of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + G. a- priv. + kephale, head]
Loss of albumin into the stomach. [gastro- + albumin, + G. rhoia, flow]
An included amorphous parasitic twin within the abdomen of the autosite. [gastro- + G. amorphos, unshapely]
Obsolete term for loss of tone in the stomach musculature. [gastro- + G. atonia, languor]
Excessive proliferation of mucus by the stomach. [gastro- + blennorrhea]
Hernia of a portion of the stomach. [gastro- + G. kele, hernia]
Excessive continuous gastric secretion. [gastro- + G. chronos, time (chronic), + rhoia, a flow]
SYN: g. (muscle). [G. gastroknemia, calf of the leg, fr. gaster (gastr-), belly, + kneme, leg]
Displacement downward of stomach and colon. [gastro- + G. kolon, colon, + ptosis, a falling]
Establishment of a communication between stomach and colon usually secondary to gastric ulcer disease or a malignant process in either the colon or stomach. [gastro- + G. kolon, ...
A species of trematode sometimes found in the intestinal canals of humans in India, Southeast Asia, and China; its normal host is the pig. SYN: Gastrodiscus hominis. [gastro- + ...
Visualization of the interior of the stomach and duodenum by a gastroscope. [gastro- + duodenum, + G. skopeo, to view]
Establishment of a communication between the stomach and the duodenum. [gastro- + duodenum + G. stoma, mouth]
SYN: stomach ache. [gastro- + G. odyne, pain]
Inflammation of the stomach and the intestines. Can cause nausea and vomiting and/or diarrhea. Gastroenteritis has numerous causes
* * *
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of ...
Inflammatory disease involving the stomach and intestines. [gastro- + G. enteron, intestine, + kolon, colon, + -itis, inflammation]
Formation of direct communication between the stomach and the large and small intestines, usually secondary to gastric ulcer disease or a malignant process in either the colon or ...
: A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the digestive system.
* * *
A specialist in gastroenterology.
The medical specialty concerned with the function and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, including stomach, intestines, and associated organs. [gastro- + G. enteron, ...
Any disorder of the alimentary canal. [gastro- + G. enteron, intestine, + pathos, suffering]
Operative repair of defects in the stomach and intestine. [gastro- + G. enteron, intestine, + plasso, to form]
Downward displacement of the stomach and a portion of the intestine. [gastro- + G. enteron, intestine, + ptosis, a falling]
Establishment of a new opening between the stomach and the intestine, either anterior or posterior to the transverse colon. SYN: gastroenteroanastomosis. [gastro- + G. enteron, ...
Section into both stomach and intestine. [gastro- + G. enteron, intestine, + tome, incision]
Relating to the stomach and the greater omentum (epiploon).
Relating to both stomach and esophagus. [gastro- + G. oisophagos, gullet (esophagus)]
SYN: esophagogastrostomy. [gastro- + G. oisophagos, gullet (esophagus), + stoma, mouth]
Anastomosis between two parts of the stomach usually to bypass an area of narrowing. SYN: gastroanastomosis.
An instrument for recording graphically the movements of the stomach. SYN: gastrokinesograph. [gastro- + G. graphe, a writing]
Relating to the stomach and the liver. [gastro- + G. hepar (hepat-), liver]
Excretion into the stomach of a large amount of watery fluid containing neither hydrochloric acid, chymosin nor pepsin ferments. [gastro- + G. hydor, water, + rhoia, a flow]
Inflammation of the alimentary canal in which the stomach and ileum are primarily involved.
A surgical joining of stomach to ileum; most commonly used in the treatment of severe obesity.
Establishment of a direct communication between the stomach and the jejunum. SYN: gastronesteostomy. [gastro- + jejunum G. stoma, mouth]
SYN: gastrograph. [gastro- + G. kinesis, motion, + graphe, a writing]
SYN: gastrosplenic. [gastro- + L. lien, spleen]
A concretion in the stomach. SYN: gastric calculus. [gastro- + G. lithos, stone]
Presence of one or more calculi in the stomach. [gastro- + G. lithos, stone + -iasis, condition]
The branch of medicine concerned with the stomach and its diseases. [gastro- + G. logos, study]
Division of perigastric adhesions. [gastro- + G. lysis, loosening]
Softening of the walls of the stomach. [gastro- + G. malakia, softness]
1. Enlargement of the stomach. 2. Enlargement of the abdomen. [gastro- + G. megas (megal-), large]
A condition in which an individual has a supernumerary limb attached to the abdomen. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + G. melos, a limb]
Excessive secretion of mucus in the stomach. SYN: myxorrhea gastrica. [gastro- + G. myxa, mucus, + rhoia, a flow]
SYN: gastrojejunostomy. [gastro- + G. nestis, jejunum, + stoma, mouth]
Conjoined twins united at the abdomen. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + -pagus]
Unequal conjoined twins in which the incomplete parasite is attached to, or within, the abdomen of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin.
Gastroparesis is a medical condition in which the muscle of the stomach is paralyzed by a disease of either the stomach muscle itself or the nerves controlling the muscle. As a ...
Any disease of the stomach. [gastro- + G. pathos, disease]
- hypertrophic hypersecretory g. nodular thickenings of gastric mucosa with acid hypersecretion and frequently peptic ...
Gastropathy, hypoproteinemic hypertrophic
Also known as Menetrier disease, this is a premalignant disorder of the stomach characterized by overgrowth of the stomach lining (gastric mucosa), nausea and vomiting and ...
Attachment of the stomach to the abdominal wall or diaphragm. [gastro- + G. pexis, fixation]
Relating to the stomach and the diaphragm. [gastro- + G. phren, diaphragm]
1. Operative treatment of a defect in the stomach or the production of a gastric tube at the lower esophagus that uses the stomach wall for the reconstruction. 2. The producing ...
An operation for reducing the size of the stomach by suturing a longitudinal fold with the peritoneal surfaces in apposition. SYN: gastroptyxis, gastrorrhaphy (2), stomach ...
Common name for members of the class Gastropoda.
A class of the phylum Mollusca that includes the snails, whelks, slugs, and limpets. [gastro- + G. pous (pod-), foot]
Downward displacement of the stomach. SYN: bathygastry, descensus ventriculi, ventroptosis, ventroptosia. [gastro- + G. ptosis, a falling]
SYN: gastroplication. [gastro- + G. ptyxis, a fold]