Слова на букву extr-hemi (2629) Medical dictionary
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Слова на букву extr-hemi (2629)

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gastropyloric
Relating to the stomach as a whole and to the pylorus.
gastrorrhagia
Hemorrhage from the stomach. SYN: gastric hemorrhage. [gastro- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]
gastrorrhaphy
1. Suture of a perforation of the stomach. 2. SYN: gastroplication. [gastro- + G. rhaphe, a stitching]
gastrorrhea
Excessive secretion of gastric juice or of mucus ( gastromyxorrhea) by the stomach. [gastro- + G. rhoia, a flow]
gastrorrhexis
A tear or bursting of the stomach. [gastro- + G. rhexis, a bursting]
Gastroschisis
A birth defect in which there is a separation in the abdominal wall. Through this opening protrudes part of the intestines which are not covered by peritoneum (the membrane that ...
Gastroscope
: A flexible, lighted instrument that is put through the mouth and esophagus to view the stomach. Tissue from the stomach can be removed through the gastroscope. * * * An ...
gastroscopic
Relating to gastroscopy.
gastroscopy
Inspection of the interior of the stomach through an endoscope.
gastrospasm
Spasmodic contraction of the walls of the stomach.
gastrosplenic
Relating to the stomach and the spleen. SYN: gastrolienal.
gastrostaxis
Rarely used term for oozing of blood from the mucous membrane of the stomach. [gastro- + G. staxis, trickling]
gastrostenosis
Diminution in size of the cavity of the stomach. [gastro- + G. stenosis, narrowing]
gastrostogavage
SYN: gavage (1).
gastrostolavage
Lavage of the stomach through a gastric fistula.
Gastrostomy
A surgical opening into the stomach. This opening may be used for feeding usually via a feeding tube called a gastrostomy tube. This can also be done by percutaneous endoscopic ...
Gastrostomy, percutaneous endoscopic (PEG)
A surgical procedure for placing a feeding tube without having to perform an open laparotomy (operation on the abdomen). The aim of PEG is to feed those who cannot swallow. PEG ...
gastrothoracopagus
Conjoined twins united at thorax and abdomen. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + G. thorax, chest, + pagos, something fixed]
gastrotome
A knife for incising the stomach.
gastrotomy
Incision into the stomach. [gastro- + G. tome, incision]
gastrotonometer
An apparatus used in gastrotonometry.
gastrotonometry
The measurement of intragastric pressure. [gastro- + G. tonos, tension, + metron, measure]
gastrotoxic
Poisonous to the stomach.
gastrotoxin
A cytotoxin specific for the cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach.
gastrotropic
Affecting the stomach. [gastro- + G. tropikos, turning]
gastroxia
Rarely used term for gastroxynsis. [gastro- + G. oxys, keen, acid]
gastroxynsis
Rarely used term for intermittent excessive secretion of the gastric juice. [gastro- + G. oxyno, to make sharp, acid]
gastrula
The embryo in the stage of development following the blastula; in lower forms with minimal yolk, it is a simple double-layered structure consisting of ectoderm and endoderm ...
gastrulation
Transformation of the blastula into the gastrula; the development and invagination of the embryonic germ layers.
Gatch
Willis D., U.S. surgeon, 1878–1961. See G. bed.
gate
1. To close an ion channel by electrical ( e.g., membrane potential) or chemical ( e.g., neurotransmitter) action. 2. Action of a special nerve fiber to block the transmission ...
gatekeeper
A health professional, typically a physician or nurse, who has the first encounter with a patient and who thus controls the patient's entry into the health care system.
gating
1. In a biologic membrane, the opening and closing of a channel, believed to be associated with changes in integral membrane proteins. 2. A process in which electrical signals ...
Gaucher
Philippe C.E., French physician, 1854–1918. See G. cells, under cell, G. disease, pseudo- G. cell.
Gaucher disease
A series of 5 diseases due to deficient activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of glucocerebroside in tissues of the body. The 5 types of Gaucher ...
Gaucher disease, type 1
The most common and best known form of Gaucher disease. It affects the spleen, liver, and bone marrow and spares the brain. The symptoms include enlargement of the spleen ...
Gaucher disease, types 2-5
A series of disease due to glucocerebrosidase deficiency and accumulation of glucocerebroside in cells. By comparison with type 1 Gaucher disease, these are far less frequent ...
Gauer
Otto Hans, German physiologist, 1909–1979. See Henry-G. response.
gauge
A measuring device. SYN: gage. - bite g. SYN: gnathodynamometer. - Boley g. a caliper-type g. graduated in millimeters used to measure the thickness of various dental ...
gaultheria oil
SYN: methyl salicylate.
gaultherin
A glycoside from the bark of several species of Betula (birch); it yields methyl salicylate, d-glucose, and d-xylose on hydrolysis.
gauntlet
A glove. See bandage.
Gauss
Johann K.F., German physicist, 1777–1855. See g., gaussian curve, gaussian distribution. Karl J., German gynecologist, 1875–1957. See G. sign.
gauss
A unit of magnetic field intensity, equal to 10−4 T. [J.K.F. G.]
Gaussel
Amans, French physician, 1871–1937. See Grasset-G. phenomenon.
gaussian
Relating to or described by Johann K.F. Gauss. See g. curve.
gauze
A bleached cotton cloth of plain weave, used for dressings, bandages, and absorbent sponges; petrolatum g. is saturated with petrolatum. [Fr. gaze, fr. Ar. gazz, raw silk] ...
gavage
1. Forced feeding by stomach tube. SYN: gastrogavage, gastrostogavage. 2. Therapeutic use of a high-potency diet administered by stomach tube. [Fr. gaver, to gorge fowls]
Gavard
Hyacinthe, French anatomist, 1753–1802. See G. muscle.
Gay
A person who is homosexual, especially a male homosexual. The word "gay" in this regard may denote the homosexual individual or the lifestyle, particularly a male homosexual ...
Gay suicide risk
High rates of suicide have consistently been reported among homosexuals, particularly among adolescents and young adults. A 1989 report concluded that " gay youth are 2 to 3 ...
Gay-Lussac
Joseph L., French naturalist, 1778–1850. See Gay-Lussac equation, Gay-Lussac law.
gaze
The act of looking steadily at an object. - conjugate g. movement of both eyes with the visual axes parallel. - dysconjugate g. failure of the eyes to turn together in the same ...
GBG
Abbreviation for gonadal steroid-binding globulin.
GBH
Abbreviation for gamma benzene hexachloride.
GC
Abbreviation for the guanine and cytosine base pair in polynucleic acids.
Gd
Symbol for gadolinium.
GDB
The Genome Database (GDB), the official central repository for genomic mapping data resulting from the Human Genome Initiative. Established at Johns Hopkins University in ...
GDP
Abbreviation for guanosine 5′-diphosphate.
GDPmannose phosphorylase
SYN: mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (GDP).
Ge
Symbol for germanium.
Gedoelstia
A genus of nasal botflies (family Oestridae) that includes the species G. cristata and G. haessleri which parasitize wildebeest, hartebeeste, and other African antelopes, and may ...
gedoelstiosis
Infection of herbivores and, rarely, humans with larvae of flies of the genus Gedoelstia, causing ophthalmomyiasis in humans. SYN: bulging eye disease.
Gehrig
Henry Louis, U.S. baseball player; 1903–1941, victim of Lou G. disease. See Lou G. disease.
Geigel
Richard, German physician, 1859–1930. See G. reflex.
Geiger
Hans, German physicist, 1882–1945. See G.- Müller counter, G.- Müller tube.
gel
1. A jelly, or the solid or semisolid phase of a colloidal solution. SYN: gelatum. 2. To form a g. or jelly; to convert a sol into a g.. [Mod. L. gelatum] - colloidal g. a ...
Gel electrophoresis
The process in which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA fragments) can be separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them while ...
gelate
SYN: gelatinize.
gelatin
A derived protein formed from the collagen of tissues by boiling in water; it swells up when put in cold water, but dissolves only in hot water; used as a hemostat, plasma ...
gelatinase
Pepsin B; a metalloproteinase that hydrolyzes gelatin and a number of types of collagen. See pepsin.
gelatiniferous
Producing or containing gelatin or having a gel-like quality. [ gelatin + L. fero, to bear]
gelatinization
Conversion into gelatin or a substance resembling it.
gelatinize
1. To convert into gelatin. 2. To become gelatinous. SYN: gelate.
gelatinoid
SYN: gelatinous (2).
gelatinous
1. Pertaining to or characteristic of gelatin. 2. Jellylike or resembling gelatin. SYN: gelatinoid.
gelation
1. In colloidal chemistry, the transformation of a sol into a gel. 2. The solidification of a liquid by cold temperatures.
gelatum
SYN: gel (1). [Mod. L.]
Gélineau
Jean Baptiste Edouard, French physician, 1859–1906. See G. syndrome.
Gelineau syndrome
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Named for a French neurologist, JBE Gelineau (1859-1906). Also known as narcolepsy. The ...
Gell
Philip G.H., British immunologist. See G. and Coombs reactions, under reaction.
Gellé
Marie-Ernst, French otologist, 1834–1923. See Gellé test.
Gellerstedt
Nils, *1896. See Ceelen-G. syndrome.
gelosis
An extremely firm mass in tissue (especially in a muscle), with a consistency resembling that of frozen tissue. [L. gelo, to freeze, congeal, + G. -osis, condition]
gelsemine
A crystallizable alkaloid derived from gelsemium (yellow jasmine); a mydriatic and central nervous system stimulant. [Mod. L. gelsemium, fr. Pers. yasmin, jasmine]
gelsolin
An actin-binding protein; a Ca2+-triggered actin-filament-severing protein; hence, it has roles in locomotion, secretion, and endocytosis.
Gély
Jules A., French surgeon, 1806–1861. See G. suture.
gem-
Prefix denoting twin substitutions on a single atom; e.g., the g.-dimethyl substitution on carbon-4 of lanosterol. [L. geminus, twin]
Gemella
A genus of motile, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria (family Streptococcaceae) that occur singly or in pairs, with flattened adjacent sides. They are ...
gemellology
The study of twins and the phenomenology of twinning. [L. gemellus, twin-born, + G. logos, study]
gemellus
SYN: inferior g. (muscle), superior g. (muscle). [L. dim. of geminus, twin]
gemfibrozil
An antihyperlipidemic agent.
geminate
Occurring in pairs. SYN: geminous. [L. gemino, pp. -atus, to double, fr. geminus, twin]
gemination
Embryologic partial division of a primordium. For example, g. of a single tooth germ results in two partially or completely separated crowns on a single root. [L. geminatio, a ...
geminous
SYN: geminate.
gemistocyte
SYN: gemistocytic astrocyte. [G. gemistos, loaded, fr. gemizo, to fill, + -cyte]
gemistocytoma
SYN: gemistocytic astrocytoma.
gemma
Any budlike or bulblike body, especially a taste bud or end bulb. [L. bud]
gemmation
A form of fission in which the parent cell does not divide, but puts out a small budlike process ( daughter cell) with its proportionate amount of chromatin; the daughter cell ...
gemmule
1. A small bud that projects from the parent cell, and finally becomes detached, forming a cell of a new generation. 2. SYN: dendritic spines, under spine. [L. gemmula, dim. of ...
gen-
Being born, producing, coming to be. [G. genos, birth]
gena
SYN: cheek. [L.]
genal
Relating to the gena, or cheek.
gender
Category to which an individual is assigned by self or others, on the basis of sex. Cf.:sex, g. role.
Gene
The basic biological unit of heredity. A segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to contribute to a function. An official definition: According to the official ...
Gene amplification
Making multiple copies of a gene. Repeated copying of a gene. Gene amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell ...
Gene deletion
The total loss (or absence) of a gene. Gene deletion plays a role in birth defects and in the development of cancer.
Gene duplication
An extra copy of a gene. Gene duplication is a key mechanism in evolution. Once a gene is duplicated, the identical genes can undergo changes and diverge to create two different ...
Gene expression
A highly specific process in which a gene is switched on at a certain time and "speaks out." A gene communicates by expressing its code. When the gene is expressed, the ...
Gene family
A group of genes related in structure and often in function. The genes belonging to a gene family are descended from an ancestral gene. For example, the hemoglobin genes of ...
gene library
A haphazard assembly of cloned DNA fragments inside of a vector which may contain genetic information about a species.
Gene mapping
The process of determining the relative positions of genes on a chromosome (or another piece of DNA) and the distances between the genes in linkage units or in physical units.
Gene markers
Detectable genetic traits or distinctive segments of DNA that serve as landmarks for a target gene. Markers are on the same chromosome as the target gene. They must be near enough ...
Gene pool
The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time.
Gene product
The RNA or protein that results from the expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is a measure of the degree of gene activity.
Gene silencing
A mechanism by which cells shut down large sections of chromosomal DNA. Gene silencing is done by incorporating the DNA to be silenced into a form of DNA called heterochromatin ...
Gene testing
Testing a sample of blood (or another fluid or tissue) for evidence of a gene. The evidence can be biochemical, chromosomal, or genetic. The aim is to learn whether a gene for a ...
Gene transfer
The insertion of unrelated genetic information in the form of DNA into cells. There are different reasons to do gene transfer. Perhaps foremost among these reasons is the ...
Gene, candidate
Any gene thought likely to cause a disease. The gene may be a candidate because it is located in a particular chromosome region suspected of being involved in the disease or its ...
Gene, evolutionarily conserved
A gene that has remained essentially unchanged throughout evolution. Conservation of a gene indicates that it is unique and essential. There is not an extra copy of that gene ...
Gene, marker
A detectable genetic trait or segment of DNA that can be identified and tracked. A marker gene can serve as a flag for another gene, sometimes called the target gene. A marker ...
Gene, Med1 DNA repair
A gene that codes for one of the key enzymes involved in repairing DNA. The DNA in genes is constantly mutating and being repaired. This repair process is controlled by special ...
Gene, regulatory
A gene that regulates the expression of other genes. A regulatory gene is a nosy gene whose prime preoccupation is to horn in on other genes and control the rate at which they ...
Gene, suicide
A gene whose expression in a cell is lethal for that cell. Suicide genes form the basis of a strategy for making cancer cells more vulnerable, more sensitive to chemotherapy. The ...
Gene, Y-linked
A gene on the Y chromosome. (Y-linkage is analogous to X-linkage (the presence of a gene on the X chromosome) in that it says a gene is on one of the sex chromosomes.) It has ...
Gene, zygotic lethal
A gene that is lethal (fatal) for the zygote, the cell formed by the union of a sperm (male sex cell) and an ovum (female sex cell). The zygote would normally develop into an ...
genealogy
1. Heredity. 2. The explicit assembly of the descent of a person or family; it may be of any length. [G. genea, descent, + logos, study]
genera
Plural of genus.
General paresis
Progressive dementia and generalized paralysis due to chronic inflammation of the covering and substance of the brain (meningoencephalitis). General paresis is a part of late ...
generalist
A general physician or family physician; a physician trained to take care of the majority of diseases not requiring surgery, sometimes including obstetrics.
generalization
1. Rendering or becoming general, diffuse, or widespread, as when a primarily local disease becomes systemic. 2. The reasoning by which a basic conclusion is reached, which ...
generalized
Involving the whole of an organ, as opposed to a focal or regional process.
generate
1. To produce. 2. To procreate. [L. genero, pp. -atus, to beget]
generation
1. SYN: reproduction (1). 2. A discrete stage in succession of descent; e.g., father, son, and grandson are three generations. [L. generatio, fr. genero, pp. -atus, to ...
generational
Pertaining to generations, i.e., the discrete staging in genealogic descent.
generative
Pertaining to the process of generating.
generator
An apparatus for conversion of chemical, mechanical, atomic, or other forms of energy into electricity. [g., a begetter, producer] - aerosol g. a device for producing airborne ...
generic
1. Relating to or denoting a genus. 2. General. 3. Characteristic or distinctive. [L. genus (gener-), birth]
generic name
1. In chemistry, a noun that indicates the class or type of a single compound; e.g., salt, saccharide (sugar), hexose, alcohol, aldehyde, lactone, acid, amine, alkane, ...
Generic name, drug
The term " generic name" has several meanings as regards drugs: The chemical name of a drug. A term referring to the chemical makeup of a drug rather than to the advertised brand ...
Genes
The basic biological units of heredity. Segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to contribute to a function. An official definition: According to the official ...
Genes, breast cancer susceptibility
Inherited factors that predispose to breast cancer. Put otherwise, these genes make one more susceptible to the disease and so increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Two ...
genesial
Relating to generation.
genesiology
The branch of science concerned with generation or reproduction. [G. genesis, generation, + logos, study]
genesis
An origin or beginning process; also used as combining form in suffix position. [G.]
genetic
Pertaining to genetics; genetical.
Genetic code
The instructions in a gene that tell the cell how to make a specific protein. A, T, G, and C are the "letters" of the DNA code. They stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, ...
Genetic counseling
An educational counseling process for individuals and families who have a genetic disease or who are at risk for such a disease. Genetic counseling is designed to provide ...
Genetic counselor
A health professional with a specialized graduate degree and experience in the areas of medical genetics and counseling. Genetic counselors enter the field from a variety of ...
Genetic infantile agranulocytosis
Children born with this condition lack neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection). These children suffer frequent infections from bacteria ...
Genetic meltdown
A genomic crisis due to an extraordinarily high rate of mutation, a phenomenon known to occur in viruses and perhaps in other organisms. For example, the antiviral agent ...
Genetic screening
Testing a population to identify individuals at risk for a genetic disease or for transmitting it. Newborns may be screened for PKU (phenylketonuria), Jews for the gene for ...
Genetic transport disease
Within the body, many molecules are able to pass across the membranes that surround cells. These molecules can accomplish this feat due to specific transport systems. These ...
Genetic transposition
The ability of genes to change position on chromosomes, a process in which a transposable element is removed from one site and inserted into a second site in the DNA. Genetic ...
geneticist
A specialist in genetics.
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruitfly genetics, etc. Human ...
genetotrophic
Relating to inherited individual distinctions in nutritional requirements. [G. genesis, origin, + trophe, nourishment]
Geneva Convention
An international agreement formed at meetings in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864 and 1906, relating (among medical subjects) to the safeguarding of the wounded in battle, of those ...
Geneva lens measure
See under measure.
Gengou
Octave, French bacteriologist, 1875–1957. See G. phenomenon, Bordet-G. potato blood agar, Bordet-G. bacillus, Bordet-G. phenomenon, Bordet and G. reaction.
genial, genian
SYN: mental (2). [G. geneion, chin]
genicula
Plural of geniculum.
genicular
Commonly used to mean genual.
geniculate
1. Bent like a knee. SYN: geniculated. 2. Referring to the geniculum of the facial nerve, denoting the ganglion there present. 3. Denoting the lateral or medial g. body. [L. ...
geniculated
SYN: geniculate (1).
geniculum
1. [TA] A small genu or angular kneelike structure. 2. A knotlike structure. [L. dim. of genu, knee] - g. canalis facialis [TA] SYN: g. of facial canal. - g. of facial canal ...
genioglossus
SYN: g. (muscle). [G. geneion, chin, + glossa, tongue]
geniohyoid
SYN: g. (muscle).
geniohyoideus
SYN: geniohyoid (muscle). [G. geneion, chin, + hyoeides, y-shaped, hyoid]
genion
The tip of the mental spine, a point in craniometry. [G. geneion, chin]
genioplasty
Surgical correction of the bony contour of the chin. [G. geneion, chin, cheek, + plastos, formed]
Genital
Pertaining to the external and internal organs of reproduction. (Not to be confused with genetic.) * * * 1. Relating to reproduction or generation. 2. Relating to the primary ...
Genital herpes
A viral infection transmitted through intimate contact with the moist mucous linings of the genitals. This contact can involve the mouth, the vagina or the genital skin. The ...
Genital wart
Warts confined primarily to the moist skin of the genitals or around the anus. These warts are due to viruses belonging to the family of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) which are ...
Genitalia
The male or female reproductive organs. The genitalia include internal structures, such as the ovaries, and external structures, such as the penis. * * * The organs of ...
Genitalia, female internal
The internal genital structures of the female include the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus (womb) and the vagina. The ovaries or "egg sacs" are a pair of female ...
genitality
In psychoanalysis, a term referring to the genital components of sexuality ( i.e., the penis and vagina), as opposed, for example, to orality and anality.
genitals
SYN: genitalia. [see genitalia]
genitocrural
SYN: genitofemoral.
genitofemoral
Relating to the genitalia and the thigh; denoting the g. nerve. SYN: genitocrural.
genitourinary
Relating to the organs of reproduction and urination. SYN: urinogenital, urinosexual, urogenital.
Genitourinary (GU)
Pertaining to the genital and urinary systems.
genius
1. Markedly superior intellectual or artistic abilities or exceptional creative power. 2. A person so endowed. 3. In psychology, an individual who ranks in the top 1% of all ...
genius epidemicus
The influence, atmospheric, telluric, or cosmic, or the combination of any two or three, regarded by the ancients as the cause of epidemic and endemic diseases. [Mod. L.]
Gennari
Francesco, Italian anatomist, 1750–1795. See G. band, G. stria, line of G., stripe of G..
genoblast
The nucleus of the fertilized ovum.
genocopy
A genotype at one locus that produces a phenotype which at some levels of resolution is indistinguishable from that produced by another genotype; e.g., two types of ...
genodermatology
Study of the hereditary aspects of cutaneous disorders. [G. genos, birth, descent, + derma, skin, + logos, theory]
genodermatosis
A skin condition of genetic origin.
Genome
All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism. Humans and many other higher animals actually have two ...
Genome annotation
The process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a ...
Genome Database
The Genome Database (GDB) is the official central repository for genomic mapping data resulting from the Human Genome Initiative. It was established at Johns Hopkins ...
Genome Research Institute, National Human (NHGRI)
One of the newest of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NHGRI’s mission in formal terms is to “support the NIH component of the Human Genome Project, a worldwide ...
Genome, Arabidopsis thaliana
All of the genetic information contained in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant belonging to the mustard family. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as Arabidopsis have ...
Genome, C. elegans (roundworm)
All of the genetic information contained in the roundworm C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as C. elegans have been studied ...
Genome, Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm)
All of the genetic information contained in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as C. elegans have been studied ...
Genome, cholera
The genome of the bacterium called Vibrio cholerae that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The ...
Genome, chromosomal
All of the genetic information in the chromosomes of an organism. For humans, that is all of the DNA contained in our normal complement of 46 rod-like chromosomes in virtually ...
Genome, Drosophila
All of the genetic information contained in Drosophila, the fruitfly. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as Drosophila have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Genome, fruitfly
All of the genetic information contained in Drosophila, the fruitfly. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as Drosophila have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Genome, Haemophilus influenzae
This bacterial genome was the first in an independent organism to be sequenced and assembled. Haemophilus influenzae has been a useful model organism, opening the door to ...
Genome, human
All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the DNA in a person. Humanity’s DNA has been called "the treasury of human inheritance." The human ...
Genome, mitochondrial
All of the genetic information contained in the chromosome of the mitochondrion, a structure located in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus of the cell. The nucleus houses the ...
Genome, mouse
All of the genetic information contained in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number ...
Genome, Mus musculus
All of the genetic information contained in Mus musculus, the laboratory mouse. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number of ...
Genome, mustard Arabidopsis thaliana
All of the genetic information contained in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant belonging to the mustard family. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as Arabidopsis ...
Genome, plague
All of the DNA (the genome) of the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes the plague, consisting of four rings of DNA — a large circular chromosome made up of 4,653,728 bases ...
Genome, rice
The first commercially important plant to have its genome sequenced. This feat, completed early in 2001, is particularly important because rice is a staple food for a large ...
Genome, roundworm C. elegans
All of the genetic information contained in the roundworm C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as C. elegans have been studied ...
Genome, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)
All of the genetic information contained in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as yeast have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Genome, Vibrio cholerae
The genome of the bacterium that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The Vibrio cholerae genome ...
Genome, yeast
All of the genetic information contained in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as yeast have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Genome, Yersinia pestis
All of the DNA (the genome) of the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes the plague, consisting of four rings of DNA — a large circular chromosome made up of 4,653,728 bases ...
Genomic
Pertaining to the genome, all of the genetic information possessed by any organism. There are, for instance, the human genome, the elephant genome, the mouse genome, the yeast ...
Genomic imprinting
The phenomenon of parent-of-origin gene expression. The expression of a gene depends upon the parent who passed on the gene. For instance, two different disorders – ...
Genomic library
A collection of clones made from a set of randomly generated overlapping DNA fragments representing the entire genome of an organism. As a molecular genetic sequel to John ...
Genomic segment
A region of the genome; it encompasses objects described as loci or probes. Genomic segments can range in size from points to regions as large as an entire chromosome. There are ...
genomics
Study of the structure of the genome of particular organisms, including mapping and sequencing. - functional g. the study of expressed genes in organisms, including the identity ...
Genomics, structural
The study of the proteome, the three-dimensional structures of thousands upon thousands of proteins, in fact, all of the proteins produced by a species. In the Human Genome ...
Genoplasty
A technology that uses the repair mechanisms normally present in cells to repair gene defects. In genoplasty, a short oligonucleotide fragment is introduced into the cell to ...
genospecies
A group of organisms in which interbreeding is possible, as evidenced by genetic transfer and recombination.
genote
In microbial genetics, an element of recombination in which one of the pair is not a complete chromosome; commonly used as a suffix ( e.g., endogenote, exogenote, F g.). [gene ...
genotoxic
Denoting a substance that by damaging DNA may cause mutation or cancer. [gene + toxic]
Genotoxin
A poisonous substance which damages DNA. A genotoxin can cause mutations in DNA (and so be a mutagen), it can trigger cancer (and so be a carcinogen), or it can cause a birth ...
Genotype
The genotype is the genetic constitution (the genome) of a cell, an individual or an organism. The genotype is distinct from its expressed features, or phenotype. The genotype of ...
genotypic
SYN: genotypical.
genotypical
Relating to the genotype. SYN: genotypic.
gentamicin
A broad spectrum antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class, obtained from Micromonospora purpurea and M. echinospora, that inhibits the growth of both Gram-positive and ...
gentian root
See gentian.
gentian violet
An unstandardized dye mixture of violet rosanilins: it is also used topically as an antiinfective. See crystal violet.
gentian, gentian root
The dried rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea (family Gentianaceae), an herb of southern and central Europe; a simple bitter.
gentianophil, gentianophile
Staining readily with gentian violet. SYN: gentianophilous. [gentian + G. philos, fond]
gentianophilous
SYN: gentianophil.
gentianophobic
Not taking a gentian violet stain, or taking it poorly. [gentian + G. phobos, fear]
gentiobiase
SYN: β-d-glucosidase.
gentiobiose
A disaccharide containing two d-glucopyranose molecules linked β-1,6; a structural moiety in many compounds ( E.G., amygdalin). SYN: amygdalose.
gentisic acid
This compound is chemically related to salicylate and aspirin (acetylsalicylate) and shares with the latter agent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. A metabolite of ...
Genu
The Latin word for the knee. When the knee is referred to in medicine, it is just called the knee. However, the word "genu" is also used in medicine as in: genu recurvatum ...
genual
Relating to the knee. [L. genu, knee]
genus
In natural history classification, the taxonomic level of division between the family, or tribe, and the species; a group of species alike in the broad features of their ...
genyantrum
SYN: maxillary sinus. [G. genys, cheek, + antron, cave]
geo-
The earth, soil. [G. ge, earth]
geode
A cystlike space (or spaces) with or without an epithelial lining, observed radiologically in subarticular bone, usually in arthritic disorders. [Fr., fr. L. geodes, precious ...
geomedicine
The science concerned with the influence of climatic and environmental conditions on health and disease. SYN: nosochthonography, nosogeography.
geopathology
The study of disease in relation to regions, climates, and other environmental influences.
geophagia, geophagism, geophagy
The practice of eating dirt or clay. SYN: dirt-eating. [ geo- + G. phago, to eat]
geophilic
Terrestrial, soil inhabiting. [ geo- + G. philos, love, attraction, + -ic]
Geophilus
A genus of centipedes, characterized by very large numbers of legs (47–67 pairs); includes G. californius, G. rubens, and G. umbraticus, in the U.S.
Georgi
Walter, German bacteriologist, 1889–1920. See Sachs-G. test.
geotaxis
A form of positive barotaxis in which there is a tendency to growth or movement toward or into the earth. SYN: geotropism. [ geo- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement]
geotrichosis
An opportunistic systemic hyalohyphomycosis caused by Geotrichum candidum; ascribed symptoms are diverse and suggestive of secondary or mixed infections. [ geo- + G. thrix, ...
Geotrichum
A genus of yeastlike fungi that produce arthroconidia but rarely blastoconidia. G. candidum was once thought to cause infection in humans.
geotropism
SYN: geotaxis. [ geo- + G. trope, a turning]
gephyrin
A protein in the ataxia telangiectasia mutation–related family, essential for glycine receptor clustering on neuronal membranes.
Gephyrophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of crossing bridges. Sufferers of this phobia experience undue anxiety even though they realize their fear is irrational. Their fear may result ...
gepirone
A nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic which resembles buspirone both chemically and pharmacologically. Acts on serotonergic receptors rather than benzodiazepine receptors. Lacks ...
geraniol
An olefinic terpene alcohol that is the principal constituent of oil of rose and oil of palmarosa; also found in many other volatile oils, such as citronella and lemon grass. ...
geranyl pyrophosphate
A key intermediate in the biosynthesis of sterols, dolichols, ubiquinone, and prenylated proteins.
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate
A key intermediate in the biosynthesis of many terpenes; the key substrate for introducing the geranylgeranyl group into proteins.
Gerascophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of growing old. Sufferers of this fear experience undue anxiety about aging even though they may be in good health—physically, economically and ...
geratology
SYN: gerontology.
Gerbich antigen
See under antigen.
Gerbode
Frank, U.S. cardiothoracic surgeon, 1907–1984. See G. defect.
GERD
Abbreviation for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Gerdy
Pierre N., French surgeon, 1797–1856. See G. fibers, under fiber, G. fontanelle, G. hyoid fossa, G. ligament, G. interatrial loop, G. tubercle.

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