A great Greek physician (c.460-377BC) who worked on the island of Cos, founded a medical school there, and today is regarded as the "Father of Medicine." Hippocrates developed a ...
Hippocrates of Cos
Greek physician, called the “Father of Medicine,” circa 460–377 B.C. See hippocratic facies, hippocratic fingers, under finger, Hippocratic nails, under nail, ...
Relating to, described by, or attributed to Hippocrates.
One of the oldest binding documents in history, the Oath written by Hippocrates is still held sacred by physicians: to treat the ill to the best of one's ability, to preserve a ...
A system of medicine, attributed to Hippocrates and his disciples, based on the imitation of nature's processes in the therapeutic management of disease.
An abnormal and persistent fear of horses. Sufferers of this fear experience undue anxiety even when a horse is known to be gentle and well trained. They usually avoid horses ...
The excretion of an abnormally large amount of hippuric acid in the urine.
A detoxification and excretory product of benzoate found in the urine of humans and many herbivorous animals; used therapeutically in the form of its salts (hippurates of ...
Intermittent pupillary dilation and constriction, independent of illumination, convergence, or psychic stimuli. [G. hippos, horse, from a fancied suggestion of galloping ...
Offensive odor of the axillae. [L. hircus, goat]
1. The odor of the axillae. 2. [TA] SYN: axillary hairs, under hair. 3. SYN: tragus (1). [L. he-goat]
Julius, German ophthalmologist, 1843–1925. See H. method.
Isador, U.S. dentist, 1881–1965. See H. canals, under canal.
Harald, Danish physician, 1830–1916. See H. disease.
A congenital abnormality (birth defect) of the bowel in which there is absence of the ganglia (nerves) in the wall of the bowel. Nerves are missing starting at the anus and ...
Relating to or characterized by hirsutism. [L. hirsutus, shaggy]
SYN: hirsutism. [Mod. L. fr. L. hirsutus, shaggy]
Having an overabundance of hair. A person with hirsutism is said to be hirsute (pronounced hir-suit). Hirsutism is the Roman way of saying hairy. It comes from the Latin ...
Having or resembling fine hairs; term describing the filamentous protein polysaccharide coating of microvilli. See glycocalyx. [L. hirtus, hairy, shaggy]
An agent that kills leeches. [L. hirudo, leech, + caedo, to kill]
An anti-clotting agent that prevents blood clots from traveling through the blood stream to clog up a vessel (thromboembolic complications). Hirudin is the active principle in the ...
The leeches, a class of worms (phylum Annelida) with flat, segmented bodies, a sucker at the posterior end, and often a smaller sucker at the anterior end; they are predatory on ...
A condition resulting from leeches attaching themselves to the skin or being taken into the mouth or nose while drinking. [L. hirudo, leech, + G. -iasis, condition]
1. The process of rendering the blood noncoagulable by the injection of hirudin. 2. The application of leeches.
A genus of leeches (class Hirudinea, family Gnathobdellidae). Species previously used in medicine are: H. australis, Australian leech; H. decora, American leech; H. interrupta ...
Wilhelm, Jr., German physician, 1863–1934. See H. band, H. bundle, H. bundle electrogram, H. spindle, Kent-H. bundle, H.- Tawara system.
Wilhelm, Sr., Swiss anatomist and ...
This is a parasite (louse-borne) disease that was first recognized in the trenches of World War I and so was called trench fever. It is estimated to have affected more than a ...
This is a parasite (louse-borne) disease that was first recognized in the trenches of World War I and so was called trench fever. It is estimated to have affected more than a ...
Philip, U.S. bacteriologist, 1868–1913. See H. stain.
Substance that plays a major role in many allergic reactions. Histamine dilates blood vessels and makes the vessel walls abnormally permeable.
* * *
A vasodepressor amine ...
A distinctive syndrome of headaches, also known as cluster headache or migrainous neuralgia. The common pattern of cluster headache is termed “episodic” and is ...
Indicating the absence of the normal response to histamine, especially in speaking of true gastric anacidity.
The presence of histamine in the circulating blood. [ histamine + G. haima, blood]
The excretion of histamine in the urine. [ histidine + G. ouron, urine]
The aldehyde analog of histidine (–CHO replacing –COOH).
α-Amino-β-(4-imidazolyl)propionic acid; the l-isomer is a basic amino acid found in most proteins. It is a nutritionally essential amino acid in mammals.
- h. ammonia- lyase an ...
A metabolic disorder characterized by speech defects, growth deficiency, and mild mental retardation in some patients; associated with elevation of blood histidine level and ...
The radical of histidine produced by removal of a hydrogen from a nitrogen atom; prefixed by Nα, Nτ, or Nπ.
The alcohol analog of histidine (–COOH becomes –CH2OH).
Excretion of considerable amounts of histidine in the urine; frequently observed in later months of pregnancy, and in histidinemia.
Tissue, especially connective tissue. [G. histion, web (tissue)]
A tissue-forming cell. SYN: histoblast. [ histio- + G. blastos, germ]
A type of white blood cell, also called a macrophage, that is created by the bone marrow. They usually stay in place, but when histiocytes are stimulated by infection or ...
Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis
A disorder, also called Kikuchi disease, that typically causes "swollen glands" in the neck (cervical lymphadeniopathy) together with fever or flu-like symptoms. Laboratory test ...
A tumor composed of histiocytes. [ histio- + G. kytos, cell, + -oma, tumor]
- fibrous h. SYN: dermatofibroma. See dermatofibroma.
- generalized eruptive h. a rare recurring ...
A rare but potentially deadly disorder with similarities to cancer, in which histiocytes start to multiply and attack the person’s own tissues or organs. The result can be ...
A disease in which histiocytes start to multiply and attack the tissues or organs of the patient. The disease usually affects children age 2 to 5, less often older children and ...
A form of histiocytosis that affects lipid (fat) storage. Also known as Niemann- Pick disease, Erdheim-Chester disease.
Histiocytosis in which the histiocytes actually become cancerous. Treatment is by radiation and chemotherapy, and in some cases bone-marrow transplantation. See also ...
A variant of histiocytosis in which the lymph nodes are the main site of histiocyte proliferation. The sinuses become filled with and distended by masses of histiocytes. See ...
Tissue. [G. histos, web (tissue)]
Relating to the structure of blood vessel s, especially in terms of their function. SYN: histangic. [ histo- + G. angeion, vessel]
A state of immunologic similarity (or identity) that permits successful homograft transplantation.
The prefix histo- means tissue. The term histocompatible is literally tissue compatible. If a donor and recipient are histocompatible (like identical twins), a transplant will ...
Fluorescence of the tissues under exposure to ultraviolet rays following the injection of a fluorescent substance or as a result of a natural fluorescing substance.
The origin of a tissue; the formation and development of the tissues of the body. SYN: histogeny. [ histo- + G. genesis, origin]
Formed by the tissues; e.g., the h. cells in an exudate arising from proliferation of the fixed tissue cells. SYN: histiogenic. [ histo- + G. -gen, producing]
1. A graphic columnar or bar representation to compare the magnitudes of frequencies or numbers of items. 2. Graphical representation of the frequency distribution of a variable, ...
1. Resembling in structure one of the tissues of the body. 2. Sometimes used with reference to the histologic structure of a neoplasm derived from and consisting of a single, ...
A state of immunologic dissimilarity of tissues sufficient to cause rejection of a homograft when tissue is transplanted from one individual to another; implies a difference in ...
One who specializes in the science of histology. SYN: microanatomist.
The study of the form of structures seen under the microscope. Also called microscopic anatomy, as opposed to gross anatomy which involves structures that can be observed with ...
Disintegration of tissue. [ histo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
A benign neoplasm in which the cytologic and histologic elements are closely similar to those of normal tissue from which the neoplastic cells are derived. SYN: histioma. [ ...
The quantitative measurement and characterization of microscopical images using a computer; manual or automated digital image analysis typically involves measurements and ...
One of a number of simple proteins (often found in the cell nucleus) that contains a high proportion of basic amino acid s, are soluble in water, dilute acids, and alkalies, and ...
SYN: periarterial sympathectomy. [ histo- + G. ektome, excision]
A law of the development and structure of the tissues of the body. [ histo- + G. nomos, law]
The excretion of histone in the urine, as observed in certain instances of leukemia, febrile illnesses, and wasting diseases. [ histone + G. ouron, urine]
Abnormal embryonic development or growth of tissue. [ histogenesis + pathogenesis]
The science or study dealing with the cytologic and histologic structure of abnormal or diseased tissue. SYN: pathologic histology.
The microscopic study of tissues in relation to their functions.
A fungus found worldwide. In the USA, it is so common in the Midwest that in parts of Kentucky and Tennessee nearly 90% of adults show evidence of exposure (with a positive ...
A dimorphic fungus species of worldwide distribution that causes histoplasmosis in humans and other mammals; its ascomycetous state is Ajellomyces capsulatum. The organism's ...
An antigenic extract of Histoplasma capsulatum, used in immunological tests for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis; also used in skin test surveys of populations to determine the ...
An infectious granuloma caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.
A disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Most people with histoplasmosis have no symptoms. However, histoplasma can cause acute or chronic lung disease and ...
Radiography of tissue, specifically microscopic sections; usually microradiography.
Breakdown of tissue by some agency other than infection. [ histo- + G. rhexis, rupture]
An account of how and when a person met developmental milestones, such as walking and talking. For adults, information on social-emotional development may be included. Used ...
The family structure and relationships within the family, including information about diseases in family members. The family history is often recorded in a family pedigree ...
In medicine, the patient's past and present which may hopefully contain clues helpful to their health past, present, and future. The medical history, being an account of all ...
An account of a patient that puts his illness or behavior in context. It may include aspects of the patient’s developmental, family, and medical history, as well as relevant ...
SYN: microtome. [ histo- + G. tome, cut]
That part of the Class II major histocompatibility molecule that interacts with the T cell receptor. [ histo- + -tope]
Relating to poisoning of the respiratory enzyme system of the tissues.
The part of the nutrition of the embryo derived from cellular sources other than blood. Cf.:embryotroph, hemotroph.
Providing nourishment for or favoring the formation of tissue. [ histo- + G. trophe, nourishment]
Attracted toward the tissues; denoting certain parasites, stains, and chemical compounds. [ histo- + G. tropikos, turning]
Living in the tissues outside of a cell body; denoting certain parasitic protozoa. [ histo- + G. zoikos, relating to an animal]
A gene that has no selective advantage, or may even be harmful, but that nevertheless temporarily becomes widespread because it is closely linked and coupled with a highly ...
Eduard, German psychiatrist, 1838–1907. See H. girdle.
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus.
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus-1.
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus-2. See human immunodeficiency virus.
: A raised, itchy area of skin that is usually a sign of an allergic reaction. It can be rounded or flat-topped but is always elevated above the surrounding skin. It reflects ...
Abbreviation for human glandular kallikrein 3.
Abbreviation for Health Level 7, a medical informatics standard that facilitates communication among different digital systems.
The major human histocompatibility system. HLA-typing is done before transplantation to determine the degree of histocompatibility. HLA is an acronym for Human Leukocyte ...
An antibody to a premelanosome glycoprotein found to be present in melanomas and other tumors derived from melanocytes.
Abbreviation for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.
Abbreviation for human menopausal gonadotropin.
Abbreviation for β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA.
Abbreviation for hypothetical mean organism; health maintenance organization.
Abbreviation for hexametazime or hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime.
Abbreviation for hypothetical mean strain.
Symbol for nitrogen mustard. See nitrogen mustards, under mustard.
Abbreviation for heterogeneous nuclear RNA.
Having a noisy voice. [A.S. has]
Nicholaus van, Dutch anatomist and physician, 1632–1678. See H. gemmules, under gemmule, H. nodules, under nodule, H. valves, under valve.
Alfred E., German psychiatrist, 1865–1943. See H. bundle, H. tract.
Abbreviation for high osmolar contrast medium. SYN: HOCA.
Hugh L., U.S. gynecologist, 1796–1873. See H. pessary.
Alan L., British physiologist and Nobel laureate, *1914. See Goldman-H.- Katz equation.
Thomas, British physician, 1798–1866. See H. disease, H.-Key murmur, non-H. lymphoma. ...
A type of lymphoma, a cancer that develops in the lymph system, part of the body's immune system. Because there is lymph tissue in many parts of the body, Hodgkin disease can ...
Joseph, British physician, 1788–1869. See H. disease.
In embryology, obsolete term for a metameric segment of the neural tube with its pair of nerves and their branches. [G. hodos, path, + neuron, nerve, + meros, part]
Morbid fear of traveling. [G. hodos, path, + phobos, fear]
A bisbenzimidazole dye employed in cytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy as a sensitive indicator of DNA in chromosomes, specifically constitutive heterochromatin.
Reinhard J.C., German parasitologist, 1893–1973. See Splendore-H. phenomenon.
The hollow in the cytoplasm of a cell that lodges the nucleus. [Ger. court]
J. Isfred I., U.S. gynecologist, 1878–1961. See H. cell.
Albert, German surgeon, 1859–1907. See H. operation.
August Wilhelm, German chemist, 1818–1892. See Frei-Hoffmann reaction, H. violet.
Friedrich (Fredericus), German physician, 1660–1742. Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at ...
Franz von, German surgeon, 1867–1926. See H. operation, H.- Pólya anastomosis.
Franz, German biochemist, 1850–1922. See H. series, H. gastrectomy.
Lawrence, British mathematician, *1895. See H. number.
D.S., U.S. molecular biologist, *1925. See Grunstein-H. assay, H. box.
Related to genes located on the Y chromosome. [G. holos, entire, + aner, human male]
Inheritance of genes on the Y chromosome. Since only males normally have a Y chromosome, Y-linked genes can only be transmitted from father to son. It has often been said that ...
Inflammation of all or a great number of the joints. [G. holos, entire, + arthron, joint, + -itis, inflammation]
Luther, English anatomist, 1815–1905. See H. line.
hole in retina
A break in the continuity of the sensory retina, permitting separation between the retinal pigment epithelium and sensory retina.
A hole in the macula, the tiny oval area made up of millions of nerve cells located at the center of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision. The eye contains a ...
1. The principle that an organism, or one of its actions, is not equal to merely the sum of its parts but must be perceived or studied as a whole. 2. The approach to the study of ...
Pertaining to the characteristics of holism or h. psychologies.
Mortiz, Austrian surgeon, 1852–1920. See H. ligament.
Franklin, U.S. physiologist, 1899–1966. See H. test.
Robert W., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1913. See H. plaques, under plaque.
R. See H. junction, H. structure.
A concavity or depression.
- Sebileau h. depression between the inferior aspect of the tongue and the sublingual glands.
Sir Gordon M., English neurologist, 1876–1965. See H.- Adie pupil, H.- Adie syndrome, Stewart-H. sign.
Oliver Wendell. American physician, 1809–1894, identified the mode of ...
Alarik Frithiof, Swedish physiologist, 1831–1897. See H. wool test.
Emil A., Swedish histologist, 1866–1922. See Holmgrén-Golgi canals, under canal.
An element of the lanthanide group, atomic no. 67, atomic wt. 164.93032. [L. Holmia, for Stockholm]
Whole, entire, complete. [G. holos]
An enzyme catalyzing transfer of the 4′-phosphopantetheinyl residue from coenzyme A to a serine of apo-ACP (acyl carrier protein) to form holo-ACP, releasing adenosine ...
A separate, grossly defective twin lacking a heart of its own, its blood supply being dependent on a shunt from the placental circulation of a more nearly normal twin; a placental ...
A congenital skull defect in which bones of the vault are absent. [ holo- + G. a- priv. + kranion, skull]
Complete absence of cranium and brain. [ holo- + G. an- priv. + enkephalos, brain]
Denoting the involvement of the entire ( isolecithal or moderately telolecithal) ovum in cleavage. [ holo- + G. blastos, germ]
One of several enzymes that biotinylate other proteins ( e.g., carboxylases); a deficiency of h. will result in organic acidemia.
Denoting a fetus with a complete head but having deficiencies in other body parts. [ holo- + G. kephale, head]
Relating to the entire spinal cord, extending from the cervicomedullary junction to the conus medullaris.
See h. gland. [ holo- + G. krino, to separate]
Relating to or occupying the entire diastolic period.
Endemic in the entire population, as trachoma in the villages of Saudi Arabia.
A complete enzyme, i.e., apoenzyme plus coenzyme, cofactor, metal ion, and/or prosthetic group.
A congenital malformation in which a cleft extends the entire length of the abdomen. [ holo- + G. gaster, belly, + schisis, cleaving]
A three-dimensional image produced by wavefront reconstruction and recorded on a photographic plate. [ holo- + G. gramma, something written]
Related to characters manifest only in females. [ holo- + G. gyne, woman]
Possessing flagella over the entire surface. [ holo- + G. mastix, whip]
Pertaining to a member of the Holometabola, a series of insect orders in which complex or complete metamorphosis is found. [ holo- + G. metabole, change]
Infectious outbreak due to exposure of a group of persons to an agent that affects or is common to all members of the group. [holo + C. miantos, defiled, fr. miaino. to defile, + ...
Rarely used term for attainment or reestablishment of physical wholeness. [ holo- + G. morphosis, shaping]
Having a plantlike mode of obtaining nourishment; denoting certain photosynthesizing protozoans, e.g., Euglena. [ holo- + G. phyton, plant]
A disorder characterized by the failure of the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) to develop. During normal development, the forebrain is formed and the face begins ...
A complete protein; I.E., apoprotein plus metal ion and/or prosthetic group.
Spina bifida of the entire spinal column. SYN: araphia, rachischisis totalis. [ holo- + G. rhachis, spine, + schisis, fissure]
A compound containing one or more identical, glycosidically linked carbohydrates.
Holoprosencephaly associated with arrhinencephaly. [ holo- + telencephalon]
A class of highly toxic sulfated steroid glycosides secreted by sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea).
Possessing cilia over the entire surface. [ holo- + G. thrix, hair]
Animal-like in mode of obtaining nourishment, lacking photosynthetic capacity; denoting certain protozoans, in distinction to others that are holophytic. [ holo- + G. zoon, ...
Mary, 20th century English cardiologist. See H.-Oram syndrome.
Norman, U.S. biophysicist, 1914–1983. See H. monitor.
A type of portable heart monitor. The Holter monitor is a small portable electrocardiogram (ECG) device worn in a pouch around the neck or waist. It keeps a record of the ...
Carsten, British surgeon, 1810–1901. See H. hernia.
Guido, Austrian radiologist, 1872–1931. See H. unit.
Having a flattened head. [G. homalos, level, + kephale, head]
A genus of flies the larvae of which sometimes infect human or animal intestines. [G. homalos, even, + myia, a fly]
Rarely used term for normal urine flow. [G. homalos, level, + ouron, urine]
John, U.S. surgeon, 1877–1954. See H. sign.
An anticholinergic, mydriatic, and cycloplegic agent; available as the hydrobromide and the methylbromide. SYN: mandelytropine, tropine mandelate.
Having all the axes alike, as a sphere. [G. homos, the same, + axis]
Sir Everard, English surgeon, 1756–1832. See H. lobe.
The same, alike. SEE ALSO: homo- (1). [G. homoios, similar]
A short stretch of nucleotides (DNA or RNA) with an almost identical base sequence in all genes that contain that stretch. Homeoboxes occur in many organisms from fruit flies to ...
Of similar shape, but not necessarily of the same composition. [ homeo- + G. morphe, shape]
1. Relating to homeopathy. SYN: homeotherapeutic (1). 2. Denoting an extremely small dose of a pharmacologic agent that theoreticaly mimics the symptoms produced by the ...
A medical practitioner of homeopathy. SYN: homeopath.
A system of therapy founded in the 19th century based on the concept that disease can be treated with drugs (in minute doses) thought capable of producing the same symptoms in ...
The formation of new tissue of the same character as that already existing in the part. SYN: homoioplasia. [ homeo- + G. plasis, a molding]
The set of processes by which imbalances and other defects in ontogeny are corrected before development is completed. SYN: ontogenic homeostasis, waddingtonian homeostasis. [ ...
Formation of a body part having characteristics normally found in a related or homologous part at another location in the body. [ homeo- + G. -osis, condition]
1. The state of equilibrium (balance between opposing pressures) in the body with respect to various functions and to the chemical compositions of the fluids and tissues. 2. The ...
A homeotherm is a warm-blooded animal (such as homo sapiens). Another term for us warm-blooded creatures is endotherm. Those of us who are homeotherms or endotherms are as ...
Pertaining to, or having the essential characteristic of, homeotherms. Cf.:poikilothermic, heterothermic. SYN: hemathermal, hemathermous, hematothermal, homeothermal, ...
Pertaining to or characterized by homeosis.
Obsolete term for normal metabolism and its results. [G. homos, same, + ergon, work]
The killing of one human being by another. [L. homo, man, + caedo, to kill]
The primate family, which includes modern humans (Homo sapiens) and several fossil groups.
A superfamily of the Primates including the anthropoid apes and humans. Divided into the families Pongidae ( anthropoid apes) and Hominidae (humans). [L. homo (homin-), man, + ...
The genus of primates that includes humans. [L. man]
- H. sapiens modern human beings. [L. wise man]
1. Combining form meaning the same, alike; opposite of hetero-. SEE ALSO: homeo-. 2. In chemistry, prefix used to indicate insertion of one more carbon atom in a chain ( i.e., ...
Combining form from the Greek "homos" meaning "same." The opposite is hetero- from the Greek "heteros" meaning different. For example, there is heterogeneous and homogeneous, ...
A homolog of arginine having an additional methylene group.
A compound resembling biotin except for the substitution of an oxygen atom for the sulfur and the presence of an additional CH2 group in the side chain; an active biotin ...
Developing from a single type of tissue. [ homo- + G. blastos, germ]
N2-(4-Aminobutyryl)-l-histidine; a constituent of the brain formed from l-histidine and γ-aminobutyric acid.
An inborn error in metabolism in which homocarnosine levels are elevated, particularly in the cerebral spinal fluid.
Having the same center; denoting rays that meet at a common focus. Cf.:heterocentric (1).
1. SYN: synchronous. 2. Occurring at the same age in each generation. [ homo- + G. chronos, time]
An inherited disorder associated with elevated urinary levels of homocitrulline.
Denoting an anastomosis between branches of the same arterial trunk, as distinguished from heterocladic. [ homo- + G. klados, a branch]
An amino acid produced by the body, usually as a byproduct of consuming meat. Homocysteine is made from another amino acid, methionine, and then in turn is converted into other ...
The disulfide resulting from the mild oxidation of homocysteine; an analog of cystine.
Presence of an excess of homocystine in the plasma, as in homocystinuria.
A genetic disease due to an enzyme deficiency. Among other events, there is a buildup of the amino acid homocystine. Progressive mental retardation is common in untreated cases. ...
Having an affinity for cells of the same or a closely related species. [ homo- + G. kytos, cell, + trope, a turning toward]