The largest genus (family Hymenolepididae) of tapeworms in the order Cyclophyllidea; especially common parasites of rodents, shrews, and aquatic birds. [G. hymen, membrane, + ...
The branch of anatomy and physiology concerned with the membranes of the body. [G. hymen, membrane, + logos, study]
An order of insects, including bees, wasps, and ants, characterized by locked pairs of membranous wings and high development of social or colonial behavior. [G. hymen, membrane, ...
Obsolete procedure of suturing the hymen in order to close the vagina. [G. hymen, membrane, + raphe, a suture]
Surgical division of a hymen. [G. hymen, membrane, + tome, incision]
Wilfred, British plastic surgeon, *1903.
U-shaped, hyoid. [G. hyoeides, shaped like the letter upsilon, Υ]
Relating to the hyoid bone and the epiglottis; denoting the elastic h. ligament connecting the two structures. SYN: hyoepiglottidean.
Relating to the hyoid bone and the tongue. SYN: glossohyal.
The muscle that permits the tongue to be held on the floor of the mouth.
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SYN: h. (muscle).
U-shaped or V-shaped; denoting the h. bone and the h. apparatus. [G. hyoeides, shaped like the letter upsilon, Υ]
- h. hydrobromide SYN: scopolamine hydrobromide.
An alkaloid found in hyoscyamus, belladonna, duboisine, and stramonium; the levorotatory component of the racemic mixture, atropine; used as an antispasmodic, analgesic, ...
The leaves and flowering tops of H. niger (family Solanaceae); it contains hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine); an anticholinergic and antispasmodic. SYN: henbane. [G. ...
Abbreviation for hypoxanthine; hydroxyproline ( 3Hyp and 4Hyp specifically refer to 3-hydroxyproline and 4-hydroxyproline, respectively).
Variation of the prefix hypo-, often used before a vowel. Cf.:sub-.
Hearing impairment of a conductive or sensorineural nature. SYN: hypacusia, hypoacusis. [hypo- + G. akousis, hearing]
Decreased sensibility to pain. SYN: hypoalgesia. [G. hypo, under, + algesis, sense of pain]
Diminution in the normal gastric or intestinal movements. [G. hypo, under, + anakinesis, a to-and-fro movement]
Below or beneath an artery. [G. hypo, beneath, + arteria, artery]
Below any axis, such as the spinal axis or the axis of a limb. See hypomere. [G. hypo, beneath, + axis]
The midbrain, pons, and medulla. [G. hypo, under, + enkephalos, brain]
Morbid fear of responsibility. [G. hypengyos, responsible, + phobos, fear]
Excessive, above normal; opposite of hypo-. [G. hyper, above, over]
The prefix "hyper-" means high, beyond, excessive, above normal. For example, hypercalcemia is high calcium in the blood. And, for another example, hypersensitivity is ...
Elevated levels of β-alanine in the serum; believed to be due to a deficiency of β-alanine:pyruvate aminotransferase; leads to impaired CNS function.
Elevated levels of β-aminoisobutyric acid in the urine; believed to be due to a deficiency of liver β-aminoisobutyrate:pyruvate aminotransferase.
An abnormally high degree of acidity, as of the gastric juice.
A higher than normal level of activity. An organ can be described as hyperactive if it is more active than is usual. Behavior can also be described as hyperactive.
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1. SYN: ...
Glandular enlargement, especially of the lymphatic glands. [hyper- + G. aden, gland, + -osis, condition]
Overproduction of the hormone aldosterone from the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal gland or a tumor containing that type of tissue. Excess aldosterone (pronounced ...
Extreme sensitivity to painful stimuli. [hyper- + G. algos, pain]
Administration or consumption of nutrients beyond minimum normal requirements, in an attempt to replace nutritional deficiencies. SYN: superalimentation, suralimentation.
Elevated serum amylase, usually seen as one of the manifestations of acute pancreatitis. [hyper- + amylase, + G. haima, blood]
Excessive to-and-fro movement, e.g., of the stomach or intestine. SYN: hyperanacinesia, hyperanacinesis. [hyper- + G. anakinesis, to-and-fro movement]
Extreme sensitivity to touch. SYN: oxyaphia, tactile hyperesthesia. [hyper- + G. haphe, touch]
Elevated levels of arginine in the blood plasma; usually associated with a deficiency of arginase.
Pertaining to gas pressures greater than 1 atmosphere* of pressure. Also pertaining to solutions that are more dense than the medium to which they are added. The term "hyperbaric" ...
Disturbances in the body resulting from the pressure of ambient gases at greater than 1 atmosphere; e.g., nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, bends. [hyper- + G. baros, ...
Enhanced concentration of β-lipoproteins in the blood.
- familial h. See type II familial hyperlipoproteinemia.
- familial h. and hyperprebetalipoproteinemia SYN: type III ...
An elevated level of the pigment bilirubin in the blood. A sufficient elevation will produce jaundice. Some degree of hyperbilirubinemia is very common in babies right after ...
Hyperbilirubinemia type I
Better known as Gilbert's disease, a common but harmless genetic condition in which a liver enzyme essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical that results from the ...
Elevation of the bilirubin level in the blood of the newborn, which results in yellowish staining of the skin and whites of the newborn’s eyes (sclerae) by pigment of bile ...
An extreme degree of brachycephaly, with a cephalic index of over 85. [hyper- + G. brachys, short, + kephale, head]
A higher-than-normal level of calcium in the blood. This can cause a number of nonspecific symptoms, including loss of appetite, nausea, thirst, fatigue, muscle weakness, ...
Excretion of abnormally large amounts of calcium in the urine, as in hyperparathyroidism and types of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. SYN: calcinuric diabetes, ...
Abnormally increased arterial carbon dioxide tension. SYN: hypercarbia. [hyper- + G. kapnos, smoke, vapor]
Hypertrophy of the heart. [hyper- + G. kardia, heart]
Excessive metabolic breakdown of a specific substance or of body tissue in general, leading to weight loss and wasting.
Excessive and frequent defecation. [hyper- + G. katharsis, a cleansing]
In psychoanalysis, an individual's excessive investment of libido or interest in an object, person, or idea. [hyper- + G. kathexis, a holding in, retention]
Excessive deposition of secondary cementum on the root of a tooth, which may be caused by localized trauma or inflammation, excessive tooth eruption, or osteitis deformans, or ...
Elevated blood levels of chloride. Chloride is the major anion found in the fluid outside of cells and in blood. An anion is the negatively charged part of certain substances such ...
Presence of an excessive amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. SYN: chlorhydria, hyperhydrochloria. [hyper- + chlorhydric (acid)]
High blood cholesterol. This can be sporadic (with no family history) or familial. Familial hypercholesterolemia is the most common inherited type of hyperlipidemia (high lipid ...
The presence of an abnormally large quantity of cholesterol in the bile.
A condition in which an abnormally large amount of bile is formed in the liver. [hyper- + G. chole, bile]
1. Abnormally highly colored, excessively stained, or overpigmented. SYN: hyperchromic (1). 2. Showing increased chromatin. [hyper- + G. chroma, color]
1. Excessive pigmentation. 2. Increased staining capacity, especially of cell nuclei for hematoxylin. 3. An increase in chromatin in cell nuclei. SYN: hyperchromasia, ...
- macrocytic h. hyperchromatic macrocythemia; a misnomer inasmuch as the red blood cells are larger than normal, the total amount of hemoglobin per cell ...
1. SYN: hyperchromatic (1). 2. Denoting increased light absorption. 3. Denoting more highly colored than normal. 4. Describing erythrocytes that contain, or appear to contain, ...
Excessive secretion of gastric juice. [hyper- + G. chylos, juice]
Increased plasma concentrations of chylomicrons.
- familial h. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia.
- familial h. with hyperprebetalipoproteinemia SYN: type V familial ...
Hypercoagulability (a supranormal tendency for blood to clot) occurs as an occasional but serious side effect of estrogen therapy. The blood clots in this situation are ...
A hypercoagulable state is the medical term for a condition in which there is an abnormally increased tendency toward blood clotting (coagulation). There are numerous ...
Excessive secretion of one or more steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex; sometimes used also to designate the state produced by therapeutic administration of large quantities of ...
SYN: hypercryesthesia. [hyper- + G. kryos, cold, + algesis, the sense of pain]
Extreme sensibility to cold. SYN: hypercryalgesia. [hyper- + G. kryos, cold, + aisthesis, sensation]
An abnormally high level of plasma copper. [hyper- + L. cuprum, copper, + G. haima, blood]
The presence of an abnormally high number of red blood cells in the circulating blood. SYN: hypererythrocythemia. [hyper- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood]
Increased intensity of staining of a cell, especially blood cells. [hyper- + G. kytos, cell, + chroma, color]
Obsolete term for any condition in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the circulating blood or the tissues; frequently used synonymously with ...
Having a chromosome number greater than the diploid number.
Intense thirst that is relatively temporary. [hyper- + G. dipsa, thirst]
1. In ultrasonography, pertaining to material that produces echoes of higher amplitude or density than the surrounding medium. 2. Denoting a region in an ultrasound image in ...
A genetic disorder also known as hyperexplexia in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction). This disorder was not recognized until 1962 when it was described ...
Excessive vomiting. [hyper- + G. emesis, vomiting]
- h. gravidarum pernicious vomiting in pregnancy.
- h. lactentium vomiting by nursing infants with pyloric stenosis.
Excessive vomiting in early pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, by definition, leads to the loss of 5% or more of the body weight of the woman. Hyperemesis gravidarum affects ...
The presence of an increased amount of bloodflow in a part or organ. SEE ALSO: congestion. [hyper- + G. haima, blood]
- active h. h. due to an increased afflux of arterial blood ...
A fetal developmental deficiency of the vault of the cranium, exposing the poorly formed brain. [hyper- + G. enkephalos, brain]
A greater degree of abnormal increase in the number of eosinophilic granulocytes in the circulating blood or the tissues; e.g., in diseases where the degree of eosinophilia ...
An allergic hypersensitivity. SYN: hypergia.
A tendency of one eye to deviate upward and inward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. eso, inward, + phora, movement]
Abnormal acuteness of sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. [hyper- + G. aisthesis, sensation]
- auditory h. SYN: hyperacusis.
- cervical h. the hypersensitivity ...
Pertaining to or characterized by a very low and wide face. [hyper- + G. eurys, wide, + prosopon, face]
A tendency of one eye to deviate upward and outward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. exo, outward, + phora, movement]
A genetic disorder in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction). This disorder was not recognized until 1962 when it was described by Drs. Kok and Bruyn as a ...
Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit. SYN: overextension, superextension.
Flexion of a limb or part beyond the normal limit. SYN: superflexion.
Excessive secretion of milk. [hyper- + G. gala, milk, + -osis, condition]
An increased amount of the γ-globulins in the plasma, such as that frequently observed in chronic infectious diseases.
Excessive development or redundant production of parts or organs of the body. [hyper- + G. genesis, production]
Abnormal acuteness of the sense of taste. SYN: gustatory hyperesthesia. [hyper- + G. geusis, taste]
Characterized by overactivity or increased size of a gland.
An abnormally high concentration of globulins in the circulating blood plasma.
An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the circulating blood, seen especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. SYN: hyperglycosemia. [hyper- + G. glykys, sweet, + ...
Elevated plasma concentration of glycerides.
- endogenous h. type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia or, more commonly, a nonfamilial sporadic variety.
- exogenous h. persistent ...
Elevated plasma glycine concentration.
- ketotic h. an inherited metabolic defect which results from a deficiency of propionyl Coenzyme A carboxylase, the enzyme that converts ...
Excessive sugar in the cerebrospinal fluid. [hyper- + G. glykys, sweet, + rhachis, spine]
Persistent excretion of unusually large amounts of glucose in the urine; i.e., an extreme degree of glucosuria.
Enhanced plasma (and possibly tissue) concentrations of glyoxylate; may develop during thiamine deficiency.
1. Projection of inner conflicts into the environment. 2. Exaggerated perception, such as the expansion of an isolated thought. [hyper- + G. gnosis, knowledge]
A clinical state resulting from enhanced secretion of gonadal hormones.
Indicating an increased production or excretion of gonadotropic hormones.
Increased thickness of the granular layer of the epidermis, associated with hyperkeratosis. [hyper- + ( stratum) granulosum + -osis, condition]
A condition in which there is an abnormally large amount of guanidine in the circulating blood.
Overdevelopment of secondary sex characteristics of the mature female or their precocious development in the young girl. [hyper- + G. gyne, woman, + kosmeo, to decorate]
The feeling of an abnormally great pleasure in any act or from any happening. [hyper- + G. hedone, pleasure]
An unusually large amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood plasma; i.e., much more than that ordinarily observed in most examples of hemoglobinemia.
Elevated plasma concentrations of heparin; believed to be the cause of a heritable bleeding tendency; probably autosomal dominant inheritance.
Excessive sweating. Hidrosis meaning sweating, so hyperhidrosis is too much sweating.
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Excessive or profuse sweating. SYN: polyhidrosis, sudorrhea. [hyper- + hidrosis]
Pertaining to hyperhidrosis, excessive sweating. Hidrosis meaning sweating, so hyperhidrosis is too much sweating.
Excess water content of the body; may result from the intravenous administration of unduly large amounts of glucose solution. SYN: overhydration.
Excessive acid secretion by the stomach; associated with peptic ulcer disease. [hyper + hydrochloric, acid + -ia]
Elevated levels of imidodipeptides ( e.g., Xaa—Pro) in the urine; due to a deficiency of prolidase.
Having large quantities of specific antibodies in the serum from repeated immunizations or infections.
1. The induction of a heightened state of immunity by the administration of repeated doses of antigen, often used in allergy desensitization. 2. Passively acquired immunity by ...
An unusually large amount of indican in the circulating blood; i.e., greater than that observed in most instances of indicanemia.
Infection by very large numbers of organisms as a result of immunologic deficiency. Cf.:superinfection.
Overdistention of airways and alveoli, sometimes leading to emphysema, caused by obstructive lung disease; occurs reversibly with asthma, and can occur locally with aspiration ...
A greatly increased quantity of fibrinogen in the circulating blood; under certain conditions, unusually large amounts of fibrin may be formed, thereby resulting in a greater ...
Increased levels of insulin in the plasma due to increased secretion of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; decreased hepatic removal of insulin is a cause in some ...
Elevated blood potassium. Potassium is the major positive ion (cation) found inside of cells. The chemical notation for potassium is K+. The proper level of potassium is essential ...
Excessive urinary excretion of potassium. [hyper- + Mod. L. kalium, potassium, + G. oureo, to urinate]
Thickening of the horny layer of the epidermis or mucous membrane. SEE ALSO: keratoderma, keratosis. SYN: hyperkeratinization.
- h. congenita SYN: ichthyosis vulgaris.
Increased circulation rate; increased volume flow through the circulation; supernormal cardiac output. [hyper- + G. kineo, to move, + haima, blood]
1. Excessive motility. 2. Excessive muscular activity. SYN: hypercinesis, hypercinesia, supermotility. [hyper- + G. kinesis, motion]
Pertaining to or characterized by hyperkinesia.
An unusually great increase in the number and proportion of leukocytes in the circulating blood or the tissues; i.e., much more than that ordinarily observed in most instances of ...
In mentally retarded children, the presence of relatively advanced reading ability. [hyper- + G. lexis, word, phrase]
Elevated levels of lipids in the blood plasma. There are several types of h.. One is associated with a deficiency of δ-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase. SEE ALSO: lipemia.
- mixed h. SYN: mixed hyperlipoproteinemia familial, type 5 h..
- mixed hyperlipoproteinemia familial, type 5 h. elevations of VLDL and chylomicrons found in ...
An increase in the lipoprotein concentration of the blood.
- acquired h. nonfamilial h. that develops as a consequence of some primary disease, such as thyroid deficiency.
1. Excessive adiposity. 2. An extreme degree of fatty degeneration. [hyper- + G. lipos, fat]
An excessive excretion of uric (lithic) acid in the urine.
Morbid verbosity or loquacity. See logorrhea. [hyper- + G. logios, eloquent]
A region on a chest film showing greater than normal film blackening from increased transmission of x-rays. See unilateral h. lung. [hyper- + L. lucens, shining, fr. luceo, to ...
A metabolic disorder characterized by mental retardation, convulsions, anemia, and asthenia; associated with an abnormal increase of the amino acid lysine in the circulating ...
The presence of abnormally high concentrations of lysine in the urine; a form of aminoaciduria that occurs in cystinuria, hepatolenticular degeneration, and the Fanconi ...
Excess magnesium. Persons with impaired kidney function should be especially careful about their magnesium intake because they can accumulate magnesium, a dangerous (and ...
1. SYN: polymastia. 2. Excessively large mammary glands. [hyper- + G. mastos, breast]
Excessively prolonged or profuse menses. SYN: menorrhagia. [hyper- + G. men, month, + rhoia, flow]
Heat production by the body above normal, as in thyrotoxicosis.
- extrathyroidal h. a state of increased metabolic rate with normal levels of thyroid hormone production.
Excessive and rapid change of ideas occurring in a mental disorder. See mania, manic- depressive, manic excitement. [hyper- + G. metamorphosis, transformation]
Ataxia characterized by overreaching a desired object or goal; usually seen with cerebellar disorders. Cf.:hypometria. [hyper- + G. metron, measure]
SYN: hyperopia. [hyper- + G. metron, measure, + ops, eye]
- index h. h. arising from decreased refractivity of the lens.
1. Extreme power of memory. 2. A capacity under hypnosis for immediate registration and precise recall of many more individual items than is thought possible under ordinary ...
Increased range of movement of joints, and joint laxity, occurring normally in children and adolescents or as a result of disease, e.g., Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
A common benign childhood condition involving hypermobile joints (that can move beyond the normal range of motion). Symptoms include pains in knees, fingers, hips, and elbows. ...
1. Person whose sitting height is low in proportion to the standing height, owing to excessive length of limb. Cf.:hypomorph, ectomorph. 2. A mutant gene that causes an ...
Muscular hypertrophy. [hyper- + G. mys, muscle, + trophe, nourishment]
Elevated blood sodium. Sodium is the major positive ion (cation) in fluid outside of cells. The chemical notation for sodium is Na+ (from natrium, a synonym for sodium). When ...
Hyperleukocytosis in which there are considerable numbers of immature and young cells (especially in the granulocytic series); i.e., a “shift to the left” in the hemogram. ...
Resembling or of the type of the adrenal gland. [hyper- + G. nephros, kidney, + eidos, appearance]
1. Great rapidity of thought. 2. Excessive mental activity or imagination of the type seen in the manic phase of manic depression. See depression. [hyper- + G. noeo, to think]
Controlled to excess. [hyper- + G. nomos, law]
Indicating an oncotic pressure higher than normal, e.g., of blood plasma.
Hypertrophy of the nails. [hyper- + G. onyx, (onych-), nail]
One suffering from hyperopia. SYN: hypermetrope.
Farsightedness; the ability to see distant objects more clearly than close objects. Hyperopia may be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
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Longsightedness; that optical ...
A condition in which inappropriate objects are placed in the mouth. [hyper- + L. os (or-), mouth]
SYN: bulimia nervosa. [hyper- + G. orexis, appetite]
Elevated levels of ornithine in the serum; sometimes associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria.
Hyperleukocytosis in which the relative percentages of the various types of white blood cells are within the normal range and immature forms are not observed. [hyper- + G. ...
An exaggerated or abnormally acute sense of smell. SYN: olfactory hyperesthesia, hyperesthesia olfactoria. [hyper- + G. osme, sense of smell]
Increased osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per kilogram of serum water.
An increase in the osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per liter of solution.
1. Having an osmolality greater than another fluid, ordinarily assumed to be plasma or extracellular fluid. 2. Relating to increased osmosis.
Excessive formation of osteoid, as seen in rickets and osteomalacia.
Overgrowth of bone. Hyperostosis is a nonspecific term that does not refer to any particular condition.
* * *
1. Hypertrophy of bone. 2. SYN: exostosis. [hyper- + G. osteon, ...
Sexual precocity in young girls due to premature maturation of the hypotholomic-pituitary axis and development of ovaries accompanied by the secretion of ovarian hormones. SYN: ...
An hereditary disorder that causes a special type of stone to form in the kidney and the urine beginning in childhood. Also known as oxalosis. The clinical features of this ...
1. An increased amount of oxygen in tissues and organs. 2. A greater oxygen tension than normal, such as that produced by breathing air or oxygen at pressures greater than 1 ...
A condition of increased activity of the pancreas, trypsin being in excess among the enzymes.
A secondary parasite capable of development within a previously existing parasite.
A condition in which a secondary parasite develops within a previously existing parasite. SYN: biparasitism.
A condition due to an increase in the secretion of the parathyroids, causing elevated serum calcium, decreased serum phosphorus, and increased excretion of both calcium and ...
Exaggerated subjective response to painful stimuli, with a continuing sensation of pain after the stimulation has ceased. [hyper- + G. pathos, suffering]
1. Abnormally rapid digestion. 2. Impaired digestion with hyperchlorhydria. [hyper- + G. pepsis, digestion]
Excessive rapidity of the passage of food through the stomach and intestine.
Gluttony; overeating. [hyper- + G. phagein, to eat]
Presence of a supernumerary phalanx in a finger or toe. SYN: polyphalangism.
The presence of abnormally high blood levels of phenylalanine, which may or may not be associated with elevated tyrosine levels, in newborn infants (premature and full-term), ...
An increase in the percussion sound or of the voice sound in auscultation. [hyper- + G. phonesis, a sounding]
Excessive effort in voice production characterized by loudness and undue tension of the vocal muscles. [hyper- + G. phone, sound, voice]
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate upward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. phora, motion]