Abnormally high content of alkaline phosphatase in the circulating blood. SEE ALSO: hyperphosphatasia.
A skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, macrocranium, expansion of the diaphyses of tubular bones with multiple fractures, patchy osteosclerosis, leg bowing, and ...
A higher than normal blood level of phosphate. Phosphate molecules are particularly important as part of larger molecules in cell energy cycles. Higher than normal levels can be ...
Rarely used term for an excessive degree of intellectual activity; a form of mania. [hyper- + G. phren, mind]
Relating to or marked by high blood pressure.
Dark spots on the skin. Hyperpigmentation is primarily a cosmetic concern that can be covered with make-up, although in some cases (such as the café au lait spots associated ...
A metabolic disorder in which serum concentration of pipecolic acid is greatly increased; characterized by hepatomegaly and progressive, generalized demyelination of the ...
Excessive production of anterior pituitary hormones, especially growth hormone; may result in gigantism or acromegaly.
: A condition in which there is an increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ.
* * *
An increase in number of normal cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor ...
Hyperplasia of the prostate, nodular
: Nonmalignant (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. It is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or hypertrophy (abbreviated ...
Hyperplasia, benign prostatic (BPH)
A prostate problem that bothers men with age, BPH generally begins in a man's 30s, evolves slowly and only causes symptoms after 50. In BPH the normal elements of the prostate ...
A condition characterized by overgrowth of the lining of the uterus. Hyperplasia means overgrowth. The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus.
Breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest. [hyper- + G. pnoe, breathing]
An increase in polarization of membranes of nerves or muscle cells; the reverse change from that associated with excitatory action.
Increased concentrations of pre-β-lipoproteins in the blood.
- familial h. SYN: type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia.
Rarely used term for hyperperistalsis. [hyper- + G. pro-choreo, to go forward]
Elevated levels of prolactin in the blood, which is a normal physiological reaction during lactation, but pathological otherwise; prolactin may also be elevated in cases of ...
A metabolic disorder characterized by enhanced plasma proline concentrations and urinary excretion of proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine; autosomal recessive inheritance. Type ...
The condition due to an excessive amount of protein in the diet.
Extremely high fever. [hyper- + G. pyrexis, feverishness]
- fulminant h. SYN: malignant hyperthermia.
- heat h. SYN: heatstroke.
- malignant h. SYN: heatstroke.
A condition in which the deep tendon reflexes are exaggerated.
- detrusor h. SYN: detrusor instability.
1. An extreme degree of resonance. 2. Resonance increased above the normal, and often of lower pitch, on percussion of an area of the body; occurs in the chest due to ...
Obsolete term for an increase in the salt content of the circulating blood.
Marked by increased salt concentrations in a saline solution.
Excessive secretion of any tissue or gland.
- gastric h. excessive formation of gastric juice, especially the acid component.
Excessive division of a tissue or part into segments.
- hereditary h. of neutrophils an autosomal dominant condition characterized by neutrophil h.; affected persons are ...
Abnormal sensitivity, a condition in which there is an exaggerated response by the body to the stimulus of a foreign agent. See allergy.
- contact h. 1. SYN: contact ...
Unusually large amounts of serotonin in the circulating blood; probable cause of some of the symptoms and signs in the carcinoid syndrome.
SYN: hyperneocytosis. [G. skaios, left, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]
A state characterized by abnormally enhanced secretion of pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin).
A condition in which sleep periods are excessively long, but the person responds normally in the intervals; distinguished from somnolence. [hyper- + L. somnus, sleep]
Pertaining to or characterized by supersonic speeds of Mach 5 or greater. While any speed above the speed of sound may be referred to as supersonic, speeds of Mach 5 or greater ...
A condition of high blood pressure and increased circulatory activity. [hyper- + G. sphyxis, pulse]
Any of a group of conditions in which the cellular components of the blood or platelets are removed at an abnormally high rate by the spleen, resulting in low circulating levels.
Excessive tension or strength. [hyper- + G. sthenos, strength]
Excretion of urine of unusually high specific gravity and concentration of solutes, resulting usually from loss or deprivation of water. [hyper- + G. sthenos, strength, + ouron, ...
Increased susceptibility or response to an infective, chemical, or other agent.
Abnormal force or duration of the cardiac systole.
Abnormal distance between two paired organs. [hyper- + G. tele, far off, + horizo, to separate, fr. horos, a boundary]
- Bixler type h. accompanying features are microtia and ...
High blood pressure; transitory or sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure to a level likely to induce cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences. H. has ...
Hypertension, white coat
A transient increase in blood pressure (hypertension) triggered by the sight of medical personnel in white coats (or other attire).
1. Marked by an increased blood pressure. 2. Denoting a person suffering from high blood pressure.
Hypergonadism in the male, characterized by proliferation of Leydig cells with excessive production of testosterone.
Diffuse hyperplasia of the theca cells of the graafian follicles.
- stromal h. condition in which luteinized cells are present in ovarian stroma at a distance from follicular ...
SYN: polythelia. [hyper- + G. thele, nipple]
Extreme sensitiveness to heat. [hyper- + G. therme, heat, + algesis, pain]
: Overheating of the body. This may be due to extreme weather conditions. Unrelieved hyperthermia can lead to collapse and death, particularly in the elderly. Prevention via air ...
A series of potentially fatal problems that can occur during surgery, malignant hyperthermia is caused by a reaction to anesthesia. The body’s metabolism rises suddenly, ...
Extreme sensitiveness to heat. [hyper- + G. therme, heat, + aisthesis, feeling]
An abnormal increase of thrombin in the blood, frequently resulting in a tendency to intravascular coagulation.
State of overactivity, greater than average and less than the overactivity of the manic state of manic-depressive disorder. [hyper- + G. thymos, soul, thought]
1. Pertaining to hyperthymia. 2. Pertaining to hyperthymism.
Excessive activity of the thymus gland; formerly postulated to be a causal factor in certain instances of unexpected and sudden death, such as status thymicolymphaticus. SYN: ...
An abnormality of the thyroid gland in which secretion of thyroid hormone is usually increased and is no longer under regulatory control of hypothalamic-pituitary centers; ...
Increased tightness of muscle tone. Untreated hypertonia can lead to loss of function and deformity. Treatment is by physical and/or occupational therapy, and in some cases muscle ...
1. Having a greater degree of tension. SYN: spastic (1). 2. Having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or ...
1. SYN: hypertonia. 2. An increased effective osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Excessively thick eyebrows. [hyper- + G. thrix, hair, + ophrys, eyebrow]
Growth of hair in excess of the normal. SEE ALSO: hirsutism. SYN: hypertrichiasis. [hyper- + G. trichosis, being hairy]
- h. lanuginosa excessive growth of lanugo hair ...
Elevated triglyceride concentration in the blood.
- familial h. 1. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. 2. SYN: type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia.
A microorganism that requires living cells to supply the enzyme systems necessary for growth and reproduction.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
A genetic disorder of the heart characterized by increased growth (hypertrophy) in thickness of the wall of the left ventricle, the largest of the four chambers of the heart. HCM ...
General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation. Use of the term may be restricted to denote greater bulk through increase in size, but not in number, of ...
Hypertrophy, benign prostatic (BPH)
: Nonmalignant (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. It is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (also abbreviated as BPH). ...
An ocular deviation with one eye higher than the other. [hyper- + G. trope, a turn]
An inherited disorder in which there are elevated levels of uracil and thymine in the urine; associated with a deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and resultant ...
Repeated inoculation of an individual already immunized; used as a means of preparing a highly potent antiserum.
Abnormally high plasma concentrations of valine, a common finding in maple syrup urine disease.
Abnormally vascular; containing an excessive number of blood vessel s. [hyper- + L. vas, a vessel]
Overbreathing. Often due to anxiety. Overbreathing causes dizziness, lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness and tingling around the mouth and fingertips. Relief can be gotten ...
A condition resulting from the ingestion of an excessive amount of a vitamin preparation, symptoms varying according to the particular vitamin implicated; serious effects may be ...
Abnormally increased volume of blood. SYN: plethora (1), repletion. [hyper- + L. volumen, volume, + G. haima, blood]
Pertaining to or characterized by hypervolemia.
Augmented water content or volume of a given compartment; e.g., cellular h..
Diminished sensitivity to stimulation. SYN: hypoesthesia. [G. hypo, under, + aisthesis, feeling]
- olfactory h. SYN: hyposmia.
A branching tubular cell characteristic of the filamentous fungi (molds). In most species the hyphae are divided by cross-walls (septa) into multicellular hyphae; ...
A habitually lessened or attenuated degree of pleasure from that which should normally give great pleasure. [G. hypo, under, + hedone, pleasure]
Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye. [G. hyphaimos, suffused with blood]
SYN: hypovolemia. [hypo- + G. haima, blood]
- intertropical h., tropical h. SYN: ancylostomiasis.
A class of fungi that includes all of the filamentous members of the Fungi Imperfecti that form neither acervuli nor pycnidia. No sexual reproduction occurs; most members of ...
A disease of horses and mules (rarely of humans) caused by the fungus Pythium insidiosum (Hyphomyces destruens), characterized by granulomatous and necrotic lesions that appear ...
Concerning the drowsiness one commonly feels before sleep, the transitional state preceding sleep, and also the hallucinations that may occur at that time. The original French ...
A pre-sleep dream. A hypnagogic hallucination is characteristically vivid and occurs as one is falling asleep or awakening.
Psychoanalysis or other psychotherapy which employs hypnosis as an adjunctive technique.
Ventilation of suppressed or repressed emotional tension, conflicts, and anxiety under hypnosis. [hypno- + G. katharsis, purification]
A quiescent or “sleeping” cyst; an encysted protozoon, the reproductive activity of which is in abeyance. [hypno- + G. kystis, bladder (cyst)]
The induction of sleep or of the hypnotic state. [hypno- + G. genesis, production]
1. Relating to hypnogenesis. 2. An agent capable of inducing a hypnotic state. See hypnosis.
Resembling hypnosis; denoting the subwaking state, a mental condition intermediate between sleeping and waking. See hypnagogic. SYN: hypnoid. [hypno- + G. eidos, resemblance] ...
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Also known as narcolepsy. The disorder is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden ...
Morbid fear of falling asleep. [hypno- + G. phobos, fear]
Denoting the occurrence of visions or dreams during the drowsy state following sleep. [hypno- + G. pompe, procession]
: A part of healing from ancient times. The induction of trance states and the use of therapeutic suggestion were a central feature of the early Greek healing temples, and ...
1. Psychotherapeutic treatment by means of hypnotism. 2. Treatment of disease by inducing a trance-like sleep.
1. Causing sleep. 2. An agent that promotes sleep. SYN: soporific (2). 3. Relating to hypnotism. [G. hypnotikos, causing one to sleep]
1. The process or act of inducing hypnosis. SYN: somnolism. 2. The practice or study of hypnosis. See mesmerism. [G. hypnos, sleep]
Exoerythrocytic schizozoite of Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale in the human liver, characterized by delayed primary development; thought to be responsible for malarial relapse. ...
1. Prefix denoting deficient, below normal. SEE ALSO: hyp-. Cf.:sub-. 2. In chemistry, denoting the lowest, or least rich in oxygen, of a series of chemical compounds. [G. hypo, ...
Prefix meaning low, under, beneath, down, below normal. For example, hypocalcemia is low calcium in the blood and hyposensitivity is undersensitivity. The opposite of hypo- is ...
A lower than normal degree of acidity, as of the gastric juice.
Any deficiency in the function of a glandular organ or tissue. [hypo- + G. aden, gland]
An abnormally low concentration of albumin in the blood. SYN: hypalbuminemia.
A condition due to deficient secretion of aldosterone; can occur in two forms: 1) as part of generalized adrenocortical insufficiency; 2) as a selective deficiency caused by a ...
SYN: hypalgesia. [hypo- + G. algesis, a sense of pain]
Excretion of abnormally small quantities of nonprotein nitrogenous material (especially urea) in the urine. SYN: hypazoturia. [hypo- + Fr. azote, nitrogen, + G. ouron, urine]
1. Pertaining to pressure of ambient gases below 1 atmosphere. 2. With respect to solutions, less dense than the diluent or medium; e.g., in spinal anesthesia, a h. solution ...
Dysbarism resulting from decreasing barometric pressure on the body without hypoxia; gas in body cavities tends to expand, and gases dissolved in body fluids tend to come out of ...
Sickness produced by reduced barometric pressure; not always distinguished from hypobarism and altitude sickness. [hypo- + G. baros, weight, + pathos, suffering]
Abnormally low levels of β-lipoproteins in the plasma, occasionally with acanthocytosis and neurological signs; autosomal dominant inheritance; caused by mutation in the ...
Cell layer adjacent to the yolk sac cavity and subjacent to the epiblast of a bilayered embryo. [hypo- + G. blastos, germ]
An acid, HOBr, the aqueous solution of which possesses oxidizing and bleaching properties.
Lower-than-normal blood calcium. Low blood calcium makes the nervous system highly irritable with tetany (spasms of the hands and feet, muscle cramps, abdominal cramps, overly ...
Deficient calcification of bone or teeth.
- enamel h. [MIM*104500] a defect of enamel maturation, characterized by soft opaque or yellowish white lusterless enamel. A variety of ...
Abnormally decreased arterial carbon dioxide tension. SYN: hypocarbia. [hypo- + G. kapnos, smoke, vapor]
Rarely used term for the ventral portion of the celom, or body cavity, of the embryo. [hypo- + G. koilos, hollow]
Low blood levels of chloride. Chloride is the major anion found in the fluid outside of cells and in blood. An anion is the negatively charged part of certain substances such as ...
Presence of an abnormally small amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. SYN: hypohydrochloria.
Excretion of abnormally small quantities of chloride ions in the urine.
The presence of abnormally small amounts of cholesterol in the circulating blood. SYN: hypocholesteremia, hypocholesterinemia.
A person who has hypochondriasis, a disorder characterized by a preoccupation with body functions and the interpretation of normal body sensations (such as sweating) or minor ...
A disorder characterized by a preoccupation with body functions and the interpretation of normal body sensations (such as sweating) or minor abnormalities (such as minor aches ...
SYN: hypochondriac region. [L. fr. G. hypochondrion, abdomen, belly, from hypo, under, + chondros, cartilage (of ribs)]
Hypochondroplasia is a type of short-limb dwarfism with shortening especially of the ends of the limbs (termed rhizomelic dwarfism). The short stature and limb shortening can ...
On the ventral side of the spinal cord. [hypo- + G. chorde, cord]
Containing a small amount of pigment, or less than the normal amount for the individual tissue. SYN: hypochromic (1). [hypo- + G. chroma, color]
1. The condition of being hypochromatic. 2. SYN: hypochromia.
An anemic condition in which the percentage of hemoglobin in the red blood cells is less than the normal range. SYN: hypochromasia, hypochromatism (2), hypochrosis. [hypo- + ...
1. SYN: hypochromatic. 2. Denoting decrease in light absorption with a shift in wavelength to a lower wavelength.
SYN: hypochromia. [hypo- + G. chrosis, a tinting]
Rarely used term for oligochylia. [hypo- + G. chylos, juice]
A condition in which one or another component of complement is lacking or reduced in amount; associated with immune complex diseases and cases of membranoproliferative ...
The distolingual cusp of an upper molar tooth. [hypo- + G. konos, pine cone]
The distobuccal cusp of a lower molar tooth.
The distal, or fifth, cusp of an upper molar tooth. [hypo- + Mod. L. dim. of L. conus, cone]
The distal, or fifth, cusp of a lower molar tooth. [hypo- + Mod. L. dim. of L. conus, cone]
Reduced copper content of the blood; found in Wilson disease because ceruloplasmin is depressed, even though serum albumin-attached copper is increased. [hypo- + L. cuprum, ...
A tricyclic motion used by mechanical tomography units to optimize blurring and reduce artifacts. [hypo- + G. kuklos, circle, + -oeides, appearance]
Hypocytosis of the circulating blood, such as that observed in aplastic anemia. [hypo- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood]
Varying degrees of abnormally low numbers of red and white cells and other formed elements of the blood; in some instances, the term is also used to indicate a paucity of ...
SYN: subcutaneous tissue. [hypo- + G. derma, skin]
A genus of botflies whose larvae are the cause of a tropical form of myiasis linearis (cutaneous larva migrans) of man; occasionally they invade the interior of the eye. Two ...
Subcutaneous division of a structure. [hypo- + G. derma, skin, + tome, incision]
Infection of herbivores and humans with larvae of flies of the genus Hypoderma.
1. SYN: subcutaneous. 2. SYN: h. injection. 3. SYN: h. syringe.
Subcutaneous injection of a saline or other solution. [hypo- + G. derma, skin, + klysis, a washing out]
Having a chromosome number less than the diploid number.
A physiologic condition, perhaps caused by hypertonicity of body fluids, insufficient to initiate drinking but at times sufficient to sustain drinking when started; loosely, ...
A condition of having fewer than the normal complement of teeth, either congenital or acquired. SYN: oligodontia, partial anodontia. [hypo- + G. odous, tooth]
Hypodontia and nail dysgenesis
A genetic disorder characterized by the absence of several teeth (hypodontia) and abnormalities of the nails (nail dysgenesis) at birth. The disorder is also known as Witkop ...
Diminished power. [hypo- + G. dynamis, force]
- h. cordis diminished force of cardiac contraction.
Possessing or exhibiting subnormal power or force.
Reduced excretion of waste matter. [hypo- + G. eccrisis, separation]
A region in an ultrasound image in which the echoes are weaker or fewer than normal or in the surrounding regions. [hypo- + echo + -ic]
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate downward and inward, prevented by binocular vision. [hypo- + G. eso, within, + phoros, bearing]
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate downward and outward, prevented by binocular vision. [hypo- + G. exo, without, + phoros, bearing]
Abnormally low concentration of fibrinogen in the circulating blood plasma.
A decrease in the neuronal activity of various areas of the frontal lobes, arising from various etiologies and associated with a number of clinical symptoms or disorders.
Less than normal milk secretion. [hypo- + G. gala, milk]
Producing or secreting a less than normal amount of milk.
Decreased quantity of the gamma fraction of serum globulin; sometimes used loosely to denote decreased quantity of immunoglobulins in general; associated with increased ...
SYN: pubic region, pubic region. [G. hypogastrion, lower belly, fr. hypo, under, + gaster, belly]
Hernia of the lower part of the abdomen. [ hypogastrium + G. kele, hernia]
Twins joined at the hypogastrium. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ hypogastrium + G. pagos, fr. pegnynai, to fasten]
Congenital fissure of the abdominal wall in the hypogastric region. [ hypogastrium + G. schisis, cleaving]
Congenital defect of growth with underdevelopment of parts or organs of the body. [hypo- + G. genesis, origin]
- polar h. a less than normal degree of development at the cephalic ...
Partial or complete failure of maturation of the genitalia; commonly, a consequence of hypogonadism.
A reduced ability to taste things (to taste sweet, sour, bitter, or salty substances). Some people cannot detect tastes and are said to have ageusia.
* * *
Diminished sense of ...
Obsolete term for abnormally low numbers of red blood cells in the circulating blood; also used infrequently with reference to abnormally decreased proportions of erythroid ...
1. Below the tongue. 2. Relating to the twelfth cranial nerve, nervus hypoglossus. SYN: hypoglossus. [L. hypoglossus fr. hypo- + glossus, tongue]
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the hypoglossal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed to the ...
Disease of the hypoglossal nerve, the twelfth cranial nerve. The twelve cranial nerves, the hypoglossal nerve included, emerge from or enter the skull (the cranium), as opposed ...
The undersurface of the tongue. SYN: hypoglossis. [G. hypoglossis, or -glottis, undersurface of tongue, fr. hypo, under, + glossa, tongue]
1. Symptoms resulting from low blood glucose (normal glucose range 60–100 mg/dL (3.3 to 5.6 mmol/L)) which are either autonomic or neuroglycopenic. Autonomic symptoms include ...
Pertaining to or characterized by hypoglycemia.
Depressed concentration of glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid; a characteristic of bacterial, fungal, and tuberculous meningitis. [hypo- + G. glykys, sweet, + rhachis, spine]
Having a congenitally defectively developed small lower jaw. [hypo- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Unequal conjoined twins in which the rudimentary parasite is attached to the mandible of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [hypo- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiencies in gametogenesis and/or the secretion of gonadal hormones; results in atrophy or deficient development of secondary ...
Indicating inadequate secretion of gonadotropins and its consequences.
Rarely used term for underfunctioning of the liver. [hypo- + G. hepar, liver]
Subnormal sweating, less sweating than usual. Hidrosis meaning sweating, so hypohidrosis is literally undersweating.
* * *
Any deficiency in the amount of fluid in the blood. [hypo- + G. hydor, water, + haima, blood]
Pertaining to hypohidrosis, too little sweating.
Low blood potassium. Potassium is the major positive ion (cation) found inside of cells. The chemical notation for potassium is K+. The proper level of potassium is essential for ...
Reduced circulation rate; reduced volume flow through the circulation; subnormal cardiac output. [hypo- + G. kineo, to move, + haima, blood]
Diminished or slow movement. SYN: hypocinesis, hypocinesia, hypomotility. [hypo- + G. kinesis, movement]
Relating to or characterized by hypokinesis.
Subnormal secretion of androgens by the interstitial ( Leydig) cells of the testes.