The genetics (inheritance) of the immune response. For example, the study of the Rh, ABO and other blood groups or the HLA system important to kidney and other transplants.
* * ...
A protein produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins are an essential part of the body's immune system which attach to foreign substances, such as bacteria, and ...
A major class of immunoglobulins found in serum and external body secretions such as saliva, tears, and sweat as well as in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary ...
Abbreviated IgG. A major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood. Also known as gamma globulin.
Abbreviated IgM. A major class of immunoglobulins. IgM includes the antibodies that are usually produced first in an immune response and are later replaced by other types of ...
That division of hematology concerned with immune, or antigen-antibody reactions and with related changes in the blood.
Demonstration of specific antigens in tissues by the use of markers that are either fluorescent dyes or enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase.
Refers to use of immunologic techniques, including specific antibody, to identify the location of molecules or structures within cells or tissues.
The study of all aspects of the immune system including its structure and function, disorders of the immune system, blood banking, immunization and organ transplantation.
* * *
1. Capable of modifying or regulating one or more immune functions. 2. An immunological adjustment, regulation, or potentiation.
The study of diseases or conditions resulting from immune reactions.
High-affinity receptor proteins in the cytoplasm that combine with immunosuppressant drugs leading to rotamase inhibition and, in T cells, thus to interruption of cell ...
Enhancement of the immune response by increasing its rate or prolonging its duration.
Any of a wide variety of specific or nonspecific substances which on inoculation enhances or augments an immune response.
The phenomenon of aggregation of sensitized antigen upon addition of specific antibody ( precipitin) to antigen in solution. SYN: immune precipitation.
An immunologic reaction, especially in vitro between antigen and antibody.
1. Selective death or survival of fetuses of different genotypes depending on immunologic incompatibility with the mother. 2. The survival of certain cells depending on their ...
An antibody (or antigen) used to remove specific antigen (or antibody) from solution or suspension; commonly used with reference to antibody bound to a particulate substance ...
An agent that induces immunosuppression ( e.g., cyclosporine, corticosteroids). SYN: immunodepressant, immunodepressor, immunosuppressive (2).
Prevention or interference with the development of immunologic response; may reflect natural immunologic unresponsiveness (tolerance), may be artificially induced by chemical, ...
1. Denoting or inducing immunosuppression. 2. SYN: immunosuppressant.
A medication that slows or halts immune system activity. Immunosuppressive agents may be given to prevent the body from mounting an immune response after an organ transplant or ...
Theory that holds that the immune system eliminates aberrant or tumor cells that arise spontaneously.
Inhibition of development of sympathetic ganglia induced in newborn animals by injection of antiserum specific for the protein which selectively enhances growth of sympathetic ...
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is thus any form of treatment that uses the body's ...
An indirect transfusion in which the donor is first immunized by means of injections of an antigen prepared from microorganisms isolated from the recipient; later, the donor's ...
Abbreviation for inosine 5′-monophosphate.
1. (im′pakt)The forcible striking of one body against another. 2. (im-pakt′)To press two bodies, parts, or fragments closely together so that the two parts move as a single ...
Wedged or pressed closely so as to move as a single unit.
The process or condition of being impacted.
- dental i. confinement of a tooth in the alveolus and prevention of its eruption into normal position. SEE ALSO: impacted tooth.
Teeth pressing together. For example, molar teeth (the large teeth in the back of the jaw) can be impacted, cause pain and require pain medication, antibiotics, and surgical ...
A physical or mental defect at the level of a body system or organ. The official WHO definition is: any loss or abnormality of psychologic, physiologic, or anatomic structure or ...
1. Total opposition to flow. In electricity, when flow is steady, i. is simply the resistance, e.g., the driving pressure per unit flow; when flow is changing, i. also includes ...
Inability to form a mental image of an object by combining the sensory data obtained therefrom. [L. in-, not, + per-cipio, pp. -ceptus, to perceive]
A congenital malformation (a birth defect) in which the rectum is a blind alley (a cul-de-sac) and there is no anus. The anus is imperforate in the sense that the normal ...
Condition of being atretic, occluded, or closed; indicated in compound words by the prefix atreto- or the suffix -atresia. [L. im- neg. + per-foro, pp. -atus, to bore through]
Not permeable; not permitting the passage of substances ( e.g., liquids, gases) or heat through a membrane or other structure. SYN: impervious. [L. im- permeabilis, not to be ...
Unable to pass through a particular semipermeable membrane. [L. im-, neg., + permano, to penetrate]
A transitory existence or occurrence, lasting only a short time. [L. im-, neg. + persisto, to persist]
- motor i. inability to sustain a movement.
The occurrence of impetigo by infection of an area of preexisting dermatosis.
A strep skin infection caused by the staphylococcus or, more rarely, streptococcus bacteria. The first sign of impetigo is a patch of red, itchy skin. Pustules develop on this ...
In psychoanalysis, the motor element of an instinct; the amount of force of the individual's energy which the instinctive impulse demands. [L. an onset, fr. im-peto, to attack]
1. To graft or insert. 2. Material inserted into nonliving tissues. SEE ALSO: graft, transplant. 3. (im′plant)In genitourinary surgery a device inserted to restore ...
An auditory prosthesis (hearing aide) that bypasses the cochlea in the middle ear and the auditory nerve. This type of implant helps individuals who can not benefit from a ...
A device that is surgically placed (implanted) within the inner ear to assist selected persons with deafness to hear. Cochlear implants are not a magic potion — they rarely ...
Implantable cardiac defibrillator
A device that is put within the body and is designed to recognize certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and correct them. Defibrillators continuously monitor the ...
A device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the heart rhythm or to reproduce that rhythm. An internal pacemaker is one in which the electrodes into the heart, the ...
The act of setting in firmly. In embryology, implantation refers specifically to the attachment of the fertilized egg to the uterine lining, which occurs approximately 6 or 7 ...
1. A sudden collapse, as of an evacuated vessel, in which there is a bursting inward rather than outward as in an explosion. 2. A type of behavior therapy, similar to flooding, ...
1. Weakness; lack of power. 2. Specifically, inability of the male to achieve and/or maintain penile erection and thus engage in copulation; a manifestation of neurologic, ...
1. To fecundate; to cause to conceive. 2. To diffuse or permeate with another substance. SEE ALSO: saturate. [L. im-, in, + praegnans, with child]
1. The act of making pregnant. 2. The process of diffusing or permeating with another substance, as in metallic i. of tissue components with silver nitrate or ammoniacal ...
SYN: impression. [L.]
- i. aortica pulmonis sinistri SYN: aortic impression of left lung.
- i. cardiaca faciei diaphragmaticae hepatis [TA] SYN: cardiac impression of ...
1. A mark seemingly made by pressure of one structure or organ on another, seen especially in cadaveric dissections. See also groove for the various impressions of the lungs, ...
A particular kind of learning characterized by its occurrence in the first few hours of life, and which determines species-recognition behavior.
- genomic i. epigenetic process ...
The phenomenon of parent-of-origin gene expression. The expression of a gene depends upon the parent who passed on the gene. For instance, two different disorders – ...
A remarkable genetic phenomenon that occurs in animals, and theoretically humans, in the first hours of life. The newborn creature bonds to the type of animals it meets at birth, ...
An agent which is an agonist at H2-type histamine receptors. Causes gastric acid secretion and tachycardia. Actions can be blocked by agents such as cimetidine and ranitidine. ...
1. A sudden pushing or driving force. 2. A sudden, often unreasoning, determination to perform some act. 3. The action potential of a nerve fiber. [L. im-pello, pp. -pulsus, to ...
An abnormal urge to perform a certain activity.
Relating to or actuated by an impulse, rather than controlled by reason or careful deliberation.
Lowest; the most inferior or caudal of several similar structures. [L.]
Abbreviation for intermittent mandatory ventilation.
Acronym for indole production, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer reaction, and ability to use citrate as a sole source of carbon (i inserted for euphony); used primarily to ...
Symbol for indium; inulin.
Abbreviation for L. in dies, daily.
Moving in the same direction at the same time; a possible characteristic of two simultaneous oscillations of similar frequency.
In position, not extending beyond the focus or level of origin. [L. in, in, + situs, site]
In situ hybridization
The use of a DNA or RNA probe to detect the complementary sequence. In situ hybridization is like all nucleic acid hybridization in being a technique in which single-stranded ...
In situ hybridization, fluorescent
An important molecular cytogenetic method for identifying chromosomes and parts of chromosomes, deciphering chromosome rearrangements, and locating genes on chromosomes. " ...
In situ, carcinoma
Cancer that involves only the place in which it began and has not spread. Carcinoma in situ is an early-stage tumor. For example, squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's ...
Within the womb; not yet born. [L.]
In a vacuum, e.g., under reduced pressure. [L.]
Literally in glass, as in a test tube. A test that is performed in vitro is one that is done in glass or plastic vessels in the laboratory. In vitro is the opposite of in vivo ...
In vitro fertilization
IVF, a laboratory procedure in which sperm are placed with an unfertilized egg in a Petri dish to achieve fertilization. The embryo is then transferred into the uterus to begin ...
In the living organism, as opposed to in vitro (in the laboratory).
* * *
In the living body, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein. Cf.:in vitro. [L. in the ...
1. Not, akin to G. a-, an-, or Eng. un-. 2. In, within, inside. 3. Very; appears as im- before b, p, or m. [L.]
Inactivity, rest, or lack of response to a stimulus.
To destroy the biologic activity or the effects of an agent or substance, as the activity of complement is destroyed when serum is heated.
Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
The polio virus in IPV has been inactivated (killed). The inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is also called the Salk vaccine after the late American physician-virologist Jonas ...
The process of destroying or removing the activity or the effects of an agent or substance; e.g., the complementary effect of a serum may be destroyed by means of i. at 56°C for ...
Not alive. [L. in- neg. + anima, breath, soul]
Severe weakness and wasting as occurs from lack of food, defect in assimilation, or neoplastic disease. [L. inanis, empty]
Not apparent; beneath the threshold of clinical recognition, as an i. infection.
Lack of desire or of craving. [L. in- neg. + ap-peto, pp. -petitus, to strive after, long for (adp-)]
1. Not articulate in intelligible speech. 2. Unable to express oneself satisfactorily in words.
Not assimilable; not capable of undergoing assimilation. See assimilation.
Lack of attention; negligence.
- selective i. an aspect of attentiveness in which a person attempts to ignore or avoid perceiving that which generates anxiety.
- sensory i. the ...
Initiated during development in utero. In the specific context of i. error of metabolism, it connotes a genetic disruption of an enzyme. See i. errors of metabolism, under error. ...
Inborn error of metabolism
A heritable disorder of biochemistry. Examples of inborn errors of metabolism include albinism, cystinuria (a cause of kidney stones), phenylketonuria (PKU), and some forms ...
Denoting populations (groups, genetic lines, etc.) descended over several generations almost exclusively from a small set of ancestors, and hence having a high rate of ...
The mating of two closely related persons. Also called consanguinity.
* * *
1. Mating between organisms that are genetically more closely related than organisms selected at ...
Confined; imprisoned; trapped. [L. in, in, + carcero, pp. -atus, to imprison, fr. carcer, prison]
Promoting or accelerating the granulation of a wound. SYN: incarnative. [L. incarno, fr. in + caro (carn-), flesh]
SYN: pyromania. [L. incendiarius, causing a conflagration]
In experimental psychology, an object or goal of motivated behavior. [LL. incentivus, provocative]
Of uncertain or doubtful affiliation or doubtful position, said of organisms in taxonomic classifications. [L.]
Sexual activity between individuals so closely related that marriage is prohibited. Incest involving a child is a form of child abuse.
* * *
1. Sexual relations between persons ...
1. Pertaining to incest. 2. Guilty of incest.
The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a particular population or area.
* * *
1. The number of specified new events, e.g., persons falling ill ...
Going toward; impinging upon, as i. rays. [L. incido, pp. -casus, to fall into, to meet with]
Mass lesion, usually of the adrenal gland, serendipitously noted during computerized tomographic examinations performed for other reasons. [incidental + -oma, tumor]
Cutting; relating to the cutting edges of the incisor and cuspid teeth. [L. incido, pp. -cisus, to cut into]
A cut. When making an incision, a surgeon is making a cut.
* * *
A cut; a surgical wound; a division of the soft parts usually made with a knife. [L. incisio]
- bucket-handle i. ...
1. Cutting; having the power to cut. 2. Relating to the incisor teeth.
SYN: i. tooth. [L. incido, to cut into]
- central i. the first tooth in the maxilla and mandible on either side of the midsagittal plane of the head.
- Hutchinson incisors SYN: ...
SYN: notch. [L. a cutting into]
- i. acetabuli [TA] SYN: acetabular notch.
- i. angularis [TA] SYN: angular incisure.
- i. anterior auriculae [TA]
- i. anterior auris SYN: ...
SYN: notch. [L. incisura]
- angular i. [TA] a sharp angular depression in the lesser curvature of the stomach at the junction of the body with the pyloric canal. SYN: incisura ...
SYN: inclination. [L.]
- i. pelvis [TA] SYN: pelvic inclination.
1. A leaning or sloping. 2. In dentistry, deviation of the long axis of a tooth from the perpendicular. SYN: inclinatio [TA], version (3). [L. inclinatio, a leaning]
Obsolete instrument for determining the direction of the ocular axes in astigmatism. [L. in- clino, to incline, + G. metron, measure]
1. Any foreign or heterogeneous substance contained in a cell or in any tissue or organ, not introduced as a result of trauma. 2. The process by which a foreign or heterogeneous ...
Not coherent; disjointed; confused; denoting a lack of connectedness or organization of parts during verbal expression. [L. in- neg. + co-haereo, pp. -haesus, to cling together, ...
1. The quality of being incompatible. 2. A means of classifying bacterial plasmids; two plasmids are incompatible if they cannot coexist in one host cell.
- physiologic i. a ...
The state of mother and fetus having different Rh blood group types so that their Rh types are " incompatible." The red blood cells of an Rh+ (Rh positive) fetus may in this ...
1. Not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance, without resulting in an undesirable reaction (including chemical alteration or destruction ...
1. The quality of being incompetent or incapable of performing the allotted function, especially failure of cardiac or venous valves to close completely. 2. In forensic ...
A cervix that is abnormally liable to dilate and so is not competent to keep the fetus up in the uterus and keep it from being spontaneously aborted (miscarried).
1. Irregular. 2. In anatomy, denoting a structure, such as an artery, nerve, etc., that may or may not be present.
Inability to control excretions. Urinary incontinence is inability to keep urine in the bladder. Fecal incontinence is inability to retain feces in the rectum.
* * *
Incontinence of urine
Inability to hold urine in the bladder. This is due to failure of voluntary control over the urinary sphincters resulting in involuntary passage of urine (wetting). See enuresis. ...
Inability to hold feces in the rectum. This is due to failure of voluntary control over the anal sphincters permitting untimely passage of feces and gas. Also called rectal ...
Inability to hold feces in the rectum due to failure of voluntary control over the anal sphincters with involuntary passage of feces and gas. Also called fecal incontinence.
A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency, an immediate unstoppable urge to urinate. It is a form of urinary incontinence ...
The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the bladder due to loss of voluntary control over the urinary sphincters resulting in the involuntary passage of urine. ...
Unable to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder or keep feces in the rectum. (This is the usual medical meaning of the word incontinent, not continent. Incontinent can ...
SYN: incontinence. [L.]
- i. pigmenti [MIM*146150, MIM*308300, and MIM*308310] a rare genodermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented lesions in linear, zebra stripe, and other ...
A genetic disease that begins soon after birth with the development of blisters on the trunk and limbs. These blisters then heal, but leave dark hyperpigmented streaks and ...
SYN: identification. [L. in-, in, + corporare, pp. corporatus, to make into a body]
Any growth in quantity.
- absolute cell i. an actual i. in one of the types of leukocytes, the absolute number of leukocytes in 1 cu mm of blood being obtained by multiplying the ...
A change in the value of a variable; usually an increase, with “decrement” applied to a decrease, though “i.” can also correctly be applied to both. [L. incrementum, ...
Generic term for all insulinotropic substances originating in the gastrointestinal tract that are released into the circulation by meals containing glucose. One is ...
The functional activity of an endocrine gland. [in- + secretion]
1. Formation of a crust or a scab. 2. A coating of some adventitious material or an exudate; a scab. [L. in-crusto, pp. -atus, to incrust, fr. crusta, crust]
1. Act of maintaining controlled environmental conditions for the purpose of favoring growth or development of microbial or tissue cultures or to maintain optimal conditions for ...
In medicine, the time from the moment of exposure to an infectious agent until signs and symptoms of the disease appear. For example, the incubation period of chickenpox is ...
In biotechnology. an apparatus in which environmental conditions can be set and controlled. Incubators are used in microbiology for culturing (growing) bacteria and other ...
Originally, an evil spirit that lay upon and oppressed sleeping persons; especially, a male spirit that copulated with sleeping women. Cf.:succubus. [L. fr. incubo, to lie on]
Removal of the incus of the tympanum. [ incus + G. ektome, excision]
Shaped like an anvil. [L. incus (incud-), anvil]
Relating to the incus and the malleus; denoting the articulation between the incus and the malleus in the middle ear. SYN: ambomalleal.
Relating to the incus and the stapes; denoting the articulation between the incus and the stapes in the middle ear.
Denoting a disease or morbid process that is unresponsive to medical or surgical treatment.
The middle of the three ossicles in the middle ear; it has a body and two limbs or processes (long crus of i. and short crus of i.); at the tip of the long crus is a small knob, ...
A cycloduction in which the upper pole of the cornea is rotated inward (medially). [in- + cyclo- + L. duco, pp. ductus, to lead]
A cyclophoria in which the 12 o'clock position in the iris tends to twist medially. [L. in- + cyclo- + G. phora, a carrying]
A cyclotropia in which the upper poles of the corneas are rotated inward (medially) to each other. [in- + cyclo- + G. trope, a turning]
Anticoagulants similar to warfarin in action. Anisindione and phenindione are clinically used; diphenadione is very long acting and used as a rodenticide.
A class of orally effective indirect-acting anticoagulants of which phenindione is representative.
Relating to the mammals (Indecidua) that do not shed any maternal uterine tissue when expelling the placenta at birth ( e.g., horse, pig), in contrast to deciduate mammals ( ...
1. The act of notching or pitting. 2. A notch. 3. A state of being notched. [Mediev. L. indento, pp. -atus, to make notches like teeth, fr. L. dens (dent-), tooth]
1. The relationship between two or more events in which no information about any combination of some of them contains any information about any combination of the others. 2. The ...
1. [NA] SYN: i. finger. 2. A guide, standard, indicator, symbol, or number denoting the relation in respect to size, capacity, or function, of one part or thing to another. SEE ...
A person who first draws attention to their family. For example, if my eye doctor discovers I have glaucoma and subsequently other cases of glaucoma are found in my family, I am ...
Index, body mass (BMI)
An index that relates body weight to height. The body mass index (BMI) is obtained by dividing a person's weight in kilograms (kg) by their height in meters (m) squared. The ...
Indian Health Service (IHS)
A part of the U.S. Public Health Service within the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Indian Health Service (IHS) is responsible for providing federal health ...
1. Indoxyl β-d-glucoside from Indigofera species and Polygonium tinctorium; a source of indigo. SYN: plant i.. 2. 3-Indoxylsulfuric acid, a substance found (as its salts) in ...
Excretion of indican in the sweat. [ indican + G. hidros, sweat]
1. Pointing out; indicating. 2. An indication; especially a symptom indicating the proper line of treatment. [L. in-dico, pres. p. -ans (-ant), to point out]
An increased urinary excretion of indican, a derivative of indol formed chiefly in the intestine when protein is putrefied; indol is also formed during the putrefaction of ...
The basis for initiation of a treatment for a disease or of a diagnostic test; may be furnished by a knowledge of the cause (causal i.), by the symptoms present (symptomatic i.), ...
1. In chemical analysis, a substance that changes color within a certain definite range of pH or oxidation potential, or in any way renders visible the completion of a chemical ...
Alternative plural of index.
In embryonic life, the gonad in males and females is initially identical. This gonad is said to be "indifferent" before it differentiates into a definitive testis or ovary. An ...
Native; natural to the country or region where found. [L. indigenus, born in fr. indu, within (old form of in), + G. -gen, producing]
Nonspecific term for a variety of symptoms resulting from a failure of proper digestion and absorption of food in the alimentary tract.
- acid i. i. resulting from ...
A blue dyestuff obtained from Indigofera tinctoria, and other species of Indigofera (family Leguminosae); also made synthetically. SYN: i. blue, indigotin. [L. indicum, fr. G. ...
A blue dye used for measurement of kidney function and as a special stain for Negri bodies. SYN: sodium indigotin disulfonate.
Illness, usually slight; malaise. [L. in neg. + dispositio, an arrangement, fr. dis-pono, pp. -positus, to place apart]
A metallic element, atomic no. 49, atomic wt. 114.82. [indigo, because of its blue line in the spectrum]
A cyclotron-produced radionuclide with a half-life of 2.8049 days and with gamma ray emissions of 171.2 and 245.3 kiloelectron volts. In a chloride form, it is used as a bone ...
A radioactive isomer of 113In; it has a half-life of 1.658 hours; it has been used in cisternography and as a diagnostic aid in cardiac output.
1. Development of the individual from the specific. 2. In jungian psychology, the process by which one's personality is differentiated, developed, and expressed. 3. Regional ...
A tricarbocyanine dye that binds to serum albumin and is used in blood volume determinations and in liver function tests.
Excretion of an appreciable amount of indoleacetic acid in the urine; a manifestation of Hartnup disease, also seen in patients with carcinoid tumors.
General term for an indole or indole derivative containing a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine group ( e.g., serotonin).
1. 2,3-Benzopyrrole; basis of many biologically active substances ( e.g., serotonin, tryptophan); formed in degradation of tryptophan. SYN: ketole. 2. Any of many alkaloids ...
Inactive; sluggish; painless or nearly so, said of a morbid process. [L. in- neg. + doleo, pr. p. dolens (-ent-), to feel pain]
Metabolites of l-tryptophan formed within the body or by intestinal microorganisms; the principal i. encountered in urine are indoleacetic acid, indoleacetylglutamine, ...
Excretion of indole in the urine; actual reference commonly is to indolic acids and indoxyl, as indole itself rarely appears in the urine.
An analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal agent used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis and in the treatment of osteoarthritis, ankylosing ...
A selective competitive α1-antagonist that has been used for the treatment of hypertension; also an antagonist at H1-histamine receptors and 5-HT receptors.
The radical of 3-hydroxyindole; a product of intestinal bacterial degradation of indoleacetic acid, excreted in the urine as indoleaceturic acid ( conjugated with glycine), as a ...
The excretion of indoxyl, especially indoxyl sulfate, in the urine; i. may be associated with indicanuria, inasmuch as hydrolysis of indican results in formation of indoxyl. ...
To cause or bring about. See induction.
A molecule, usually a substrate of a specific enzyme pathway, that combines with and deactivates an active repressor (produced by a regulator gene); this allows an operator gene ...
The coefficient of electromagnetic induction; the unit of i. is the henry. [see induction]
1. Production or causation. 2. Production of an electric current or magnetic state in a body by electricity or magnetism in another body close to the first body. 3. The period ...
1. That which brings about induction. 2. In embryology, an evocator or an organizer.
An instrument formerly used in physiologic experiments to generate pulses of induced electricity for stimulating nerve or muscle.
Artificial fever production by means of electromagnetic induction. [ induction + G. therme, heat]
A blue quinone-imine dye related to nigrosin; occasionally used as a stain in histology and bacteriology.
Hardened, usually used with reference to soft tissues becoming extremely firm but not as hard as bone. [L. in-duro, pp. -duratus, to harden, fr. durus, hard]
1. The process of becoming extremely firm or hard, or having such physical features. 2. A focus or region of indurated tissue. SYN: sclerosis (1). [L. induratio (see ...
Pertaining to, causing, or characterized by induration.
1. A membranous layer or covering. 2. The amnion. [L. a woman's undergarment, fr. induo, to put on]
- i. griseum [TA] a thin layer of gray matter on the dorsal surface of the ...
Indwelling bladder catheter
A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder that remains ("dwells") there to provide continuous urinary drainage. The principal type of indwelling bladder ...
1. Making drunk; intoxicating. 2. An intoxicant, such as alcohol. [see inebriety]
Intoxication, especially by alcohol. [see inebriety]
Habitual indulgence in alcoholic beverages in excessive amounts. [L. in- intensive + ebrietas, drunkenness]
Genus of tapeworm (order Cyclophyllidae) first recognized in humans in 1935; an arthropod is thought to be involved in transmission (rodent to human, human to human).
- I. ...
1. Slow in action; sluggish; inactive. 2. Devoid of active chemical properties, as the i. gases. 3. Denoting a drug or agent having no pharmacologic or therapeutic action. [L. ...
1. The tendency of a physical body to oppose any force tending to move it from a position of rest or to change its uniform motion. 2. Denoting inactivity or lack of force, lack ...
Babyhood; the earliest period of extrauterine life; roughly, the first year of life.
A child up to 2 years (24 months) of age. The word "infant" came from the Latin infans which was derived from in-, not + Fari, to speak = not to speak, speechless. The idea was ...
Infant carbohydrate intake
Carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, galactose, etc.) are sugars or several sugars linked together. Carbohydrates provide energy (calories) for the brain tissues, ...
Infant fat requirements
Fat in human milk provides 30%-35% of the total daily caloric needs for a growing infant. Manufacturers of infant formulas utilize many different vegetable oils for fat including ...
A substitute for breast milk for feeding infants. Pediatricians generally advise exclusively breastfeeding (that is, breastfeeding with no formula) for all full term, healthy ...
Infant iron supplementation
Iron is included in most infant formulas. Therefore, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is necessary for healthy formula-fed, full-term infants. In the past it was ...
Infant mineral requirements
Minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper and zinc) and trace elements (manganese, chromium, selenium, and molybdenum) are included in most infant ...
Infant mortality rate
The number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year. The infant mortality rate is also called the infant death rate. The infant ...
Infant protein requirements
Proteins contain different amino acids that are linked together. Proteins provide both calories and the amino acid building blocks that are necessary for proper growth. The ...
Infant vitamin requirements
Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in minute quantities for the proper growth, maintenance, and functioning of the baby. Vitamins must be obtained from food ...
Infant water requirements
Water is an important part of a baby's diet because water makes up a large proportion of the baby's body. When properly prepared, all infant formulas are approximately 85% water. ...
1. An overly mature baby that has not been born until well after the usual term pregnancy. A post-term baby is one born 2 weeks (14 days) or more after the usual 9 months (280 ...
A baby born 2 weeks (14 days) or more after the usual 9 months (280 days) of gestation. The gestation (length of the pregnancy) is calculated from the date of the last menstrual ...
Infant, small for gestational age
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants weigh 2500 g or less at birth and are considered to have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), given their gestational age. By ...
1. The killing of an infant. 2. One who murders an infant. [infant + L. caedo, to kill]
1. Relating to, or characteristic of, infants or infancy. 2. Denoting childish behavior.
(Also called autism.) A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and unusual and repetitive behavior. Some, but ...
Infantile genetic agranulocytosis
Children born with this condition lack neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection). These children suffer frequent infections from bacteria ...
Hypothyroidism (subnormal activity of the thyroid gland) that starts after birth and is manifest by features including delays in growth and development and myxedema surfacing ...
Hypothyroidism (subnormal activity of the thyroid gland) that starts after birth and is manifest by features including delays in growth and development and myxedema surfacing ...
Infantile paralysis (polio)
Infantile paralysis is an old synonym for poliomyelitis, an acute and sometimes devastating viral disease. Man is the only natural host for poliovirus. The virus enters the ...
A seizure disorder of infancy and early childhood with the onset predominantly in the first year of life of myoclonic seizures, hypsarrhythmia (abnormal, chaotic ...
1. A state marked by slow development of mind and body. SYN: infantile dwarfism. 2. Childishness, as characterized by a temper tantrum of an adolescent or adult. 3. ...
An eponym that is little used (in the USA) for hypothyroidism (subnormal activity of the thyroid gland) that starts after birth and is manifest by features including delays in ...
An area of tissue death due to a local lack of oxygen. For example, in a myocardial infarction there is death of myocardial (heart muscle) tissue due to sudden (acute) ...
The formation of an infarct, an area of tissue death due to a local lack of oxygen. For example, in a myocardial infarction there is death of myocardial (heart muscle) tissue due ...
Infarction, acute myocardial
An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a heart attack. The term "myocardial infarction" focuses on the heart muscle (the myocardium) and the changes that occur in it due to ...
1. For a microorganism to enter, invade, or inhabit another organism, causing infection or contamination. 2. To dwell internally, endoparasitically, as opposed to externally ...
The growth of a parasitic organism within the body. (A parasitic organism is one that lives on or in another organism and draws its nourishment therefrom.) A person with an ...
Infection, ear (acute middle)
Acute middle ear infection, medically called acute otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear. Acute otitis media typically causes fluid in the middle ear accompanied by ...
Infection, group B strep
Group B strep are a major cause of infections involving the pregnant woman and her newborn infant, causing maternal infections of the uterus, placenta, and urinary tract and ...
An infection caught while hospitalized. The medical term for a hospital-acquired infection is "nosocomial." Most nosocomial infections are due to bacteria. Since antibiotics are ...
A parasitic disease, also called leishmaniasis, spread by the bite of sand flies infected with a protozoa (Leishmania). There are several forms of leishmaniasis, the most common ...