visual i. with acetic acid SYN: acetowhitening, cervicoscopy.
Sprinkling with a fluid or a powder. [L. inspersio, fr. in-spergo, pp. -spersus, to scatter upon, fr. spargo, to scatter]
SYN: inhalation (1). [L. inspiratio, fr. in-spiro, pp. -atus, to breathe in]
- crowing i. noisy breathing associated with respiratory obstruction, usually at the larynx.
The state of being unstable, or lacking stability.
- detrusor i. involuntary detrusor contractions that may occur at bladder volumes below capacity. SYN: detrusor ...
Any of the successive nymphal stages in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolous insects (simple or incomplete metamorphosis), or the stages of larval change by successive molts ...
The arch, or highest part of the dorsum of the foot. SEE ALSO: tarsus.
Dropping of a liquid on or into a body part. [L. instillatio, fr. in-stillo, pp. -atus, to pour in by drops, fr. stilla, a drop]
A device for performing instillation. SYN: dropper.
1. An enduring disposition or tendency of an organism to act in an organized and biologically adaptive manner characteristic of its species. 2. The unreasoning impulse to perform ...
Institute of Medicine
One of the National Academies of the United States. The Institute of Medicine conducts policy studies on health issues. For example, the Institute of Medicine issued reports and ...
Institute, National Eye (NEI)
One of the US National Institutes of Health, NEI’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with ...
A tool or implement. [L. instrumentum]
- diamond cutting instruments in dentistry, cylinders, disks, and other cutting instruments to which numerous small diamond pyramids have ...
A collection of instruments and other equipment for an operation or for a medical procedure.
1. The use of instruments. 2. In dentistry, the application of armamentarium in a restorative procedure.
Maceration or soaking, especially of a crude drug to prepare it for further pharmaceutical operation. [L. insuco, pp. -atus, to soak in, fr. in, in, + sucus, juice, sap (improp. ...
Fluid swelling within an arterial wall (ordinarily serous), differing from an exudate in that it does not come to lie extramurally. [L. in, in, + sudo, pp. -atus, to sweat]
Lack of completeness of function or power. SEE ALSO: incompetence. [L. in-, neg. + sufficientia, fr. sufficio to suffice]
- accommodative i. a lack of appropriate accommodation ...
Sloshing of blood back down from the aorta into the left ventricle of the heart due to incompetency of the aortic valve. Also called aortic regurgitation.
Not enough of the digestive enzymes that are normally secreted by the pancreas into the intestine. Pancreatic insufficiency is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis. The pancreas is a ...
To deliver air or gas under pressure to a cavity or chamber of the body as, e.g,, the injection of carbon dioxide into the peritoneum to achieve pneumoperitoneum during ...
1. The act or process of insufflating. 2. SYN: inhalant (3).
- perirenal i. an obsolete technique involving injection of air or carbon dioxide about the kidneys for ...
1. [TA] An oval region of the cerebral cortex overlying the extreme capsule, lateral to the lenticular nucleus, buried in the depth of the fissura lateralis cerebri ( sylvian ...
Relating to any insula, especially the island of Reil.
To prevent the passage of electric or radiant energy by the interposition of a nonconducting substance. [L. insulatus, made like an island]
1. The act of insulating. 2. The nonconducting substance so used. 3. The state of being insulated.
A nonconducting substance used as insulation.
A polypeptide hormone, secreted by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, that promotes glucose utilization, protein synthesis, and the formation and storage of neutral lipids; ...
Literally, insulin in the circulating blood; usually connotes abnormally large concentrations of insulin in the circulating blood. [insulin + G. haima, blood]
An islet cell adenoma that secretes insulin.
Inflammation of the islands of Langerhans, with lymphocytic infiltration which may result from viral infection and be the initial lesion of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. ...
An injury, attack, or trauma. [LL. insultus, fr L. insulto, to spring upon]
fee-for-service i. i. coverage that reimburses participants and providers following submission of a claim. Participants have few if any restrictions on which hospitals or doctors ...
SYN: immunity. [L. suscipio, pp. -ceptus, to take upon one, fr. sub, under, + capio, to take]
Abbreviation for L. inter cibos, between meals.
1. Constituent. 2. Integrated. 3. See integration (3).
1. The state of being combined, or the process of combining, into a complete and harmonious whole. 2. In physiology, the process of building up, as by accretion, anabolism, ...
A family of cell membrane glycoproteins that are heterodimers composed of α- and β-chain subunits. They serve as extracellular matrix glycoprotein receptors involved in cell ...
Soundness or completeness of structure; a sound or unimpaired condition.
- marginal i. of amalgam the ability of a dental amalgam restoration to maintain its original ...
1. The enveloping membrane of the body; includes, in addition to the epidermis and dermis, all of the derivatives of the epidermis, e.g., hairs, nails, sudoriferous and ...
Relating to the integument. SEE ALSO: cutaneous, dermal.
An unconscious defense mechanism in which reasoning, logic, or focusing on and verbalizing intellectual minutiae is used in an attempt to avoid confrontation with an ...
1. An person's aggregate capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment, especially in relation to the extent of one's perceived ...
An attempt to measure the intelligence of someone. Abbreviated IQ. The IQ score is usually based upon the results of a written test. To calculate the IQ, the person's mental age ...
A questionnaire or series of exercises designed to measure intelligence. It is generally understood that intelligence tests are less a measure of innate ability to learn as of ...
Innate or learned ability to understand and answer questions given in writing or verbally.
Lack of proper self-control, usually in reference to the use of alcoholic beverages. Cf.:incontinence (2). [L. intemperantia, fr. in-, neg. + temperantia, moderation]
1. Marked tension; great activity; often used simply to denote a measure of the degree or amount of some quality. 2. The magnitude of energy flux, field strength, or force. [L. ...
Relating to or marked by intensity; denoting a form of treatment by means of very large doses or of substances possessing great strength or activity.
Intensive care unit psychosis
A disorder in which patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a similar hospital setting may experience anxiety, become paranoid, hear voices, see things that are not there, ...
1. An objective. 2. In surgery, a process or operation. [L. intentio, a stretching out; i.]
Among, between. [L. inter, between]
Between the acini of a gland. SYN: interacinar.
1. The reciprocal action between two entities in a common environment as in chemical i., ecological i., social i., etc. 2. The effects when two entities concur that would not be ...
Between any alveoli, especially the alveoli of the lungs.
Between any two ringlike structures or constrictions. [ inter- + L. anulus, ring]
1. Between two joints. Cf.:intra-articular. 2. Between two joint surfaces. [ inter- + L. articulus, joint]
Between the atria of the heart. SYN: interauricular (1).
Referring to differences between ears, particularly temporal events occurring in or emanating from the ears.
1. SYN: interatrial. 2. Between the auricles or pinnae.
Between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae.
The occurrence of an extra beat between the two regular pulse beats. [ inter- + L. cado, pr. p. cadens (-ent-), to fall]
Irregular in rhythm; characterized by intercadence.
1. Occurring between two others; as in a pulse tracing, an upstroke interposed between two normal pulse beats. 2. In fungi, located in a hypha or between hyphal segments, not ...
Interposed; inserted between two others. [L. intercalatus]
The process of insertion between two other entities; E.G., insertion of a dye or drug between stacked bases in DNA.
Connecting or lying between two or more centers.
SYN: intercartilaginous. [ inter- + L. chondros, cartilage]
SYN: glabella. [ inter- + L. cilium, eyelid]
Between any two columns, as the columns or crura of the superficial inguinal ring.
A mutual alteration of the physical or chemical nature of a substance or entity; E.G., i. of chemical compounds or of foodstuffs.
- enzyme i. the reversible transformation of ...
Between the ribs. [ inter- + L. costa, rib]
Relating to an intercostal space and the arm. See intercostobrachial nerves, under nerve.
Communication or dealings between or among people. [L. intercursus, a running between]
- sexual i. SYN: coitus.
SYN: chemokines. [ inter- + G. krino, to separate, secrete]
Between two crests, as between the crests of the ilia, applied to one of the pelvic measurements.
A mating between two individuals both heterozygous at a specified locus or loci.
Between two crura; e.g., the cerebral peduncles of the brain, etc.
Intervening; said of a disease attacking a person already ill of another malady. [ inter- + L. curro, pr. p. currens (-ent-), to run]
A disease that intervenes during the course of another disease. A patient with AIDS may develop an intercurrent bout of pneumonia.
1. The cusp-to-fossa relation of the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth to each other. 2. The interlocking or fitting together of the cusps of opposing teeth. SYN: ...
SYN: intercuspation. [L. inter, among, mutually, + cusp]
Between skin and mucous membrane, as in the cheek or lip or at the mucocutaneous border of the lips or anus.
1. Between the teeth. 2. Denoting the relationship between the proximal surfaces of the teeth of the same arch. [ inter- + L. dens, tooth]
That part of the hand or foot lying between any two adjacent fingers or toes.
1. The mutual interlocking of toothed or tonguelike processes. 2. The processes thus interlocked. 3. Infoldings or plicae of adjacent cell or plasma membranes. 4. SYN: ...
Denoting the overlapping interests of different fields of medicine and science. [ inter- + L. disciplina, instruction, teaching]
1. A surface that forms a common boundary of two bodies. 2. The boundary between regions of different radiopacity, acoustic, or magnetic resonance properties; the projection of ...
1. The coming together of waves in various media in such a way that the crests of one series correspond to the hollows of the other, the two thus neutralizing each other; or so ...
An instrument for measuring minute distances or movements through the interference of light waves thereby produced. [interfere + G. metron, measure]
- electron i. an i. that ...
Measurement of mi-nute distances or movements by interaction of waves of electromagnetic energy.
- electron i. i. in which a beam of electrons is used instead of a beam of light.
: A naturally occurring substance that interferes with the ability of viruses to reproduce. Interferon also boosts the immune system. There are a number of different interferons. ...
Between the unfused halves of the frontal bone; denoting a persistent suture there present. (anomalous)
Between any two or more budlike or bulblike bodies such as the taste buds; denoting especially a nerve termination between two end bulbs. [ inter- + L. gemma, bud]
Between the buttocks. [ inter- + G. gloutos, buttock]
Between the two gonia. See gonion. [ inter- + G. gonia, angle]
Between the gyri or convolutions of the brain.
The period between convulsions. [ inter- + L. ictus, stroke]
Relating to the inside; situated within.
Between the two ischia; especially, between the two tuberosities of the ischia. SYN: intersciatic.
Period between the first and second divisions of meiosis; comparable to interphase of mitosis. [ inter- + G. kinesis, movement]
The name given to a group of multifunctional cytokines once their amino acid structure is known. They are synthesized by lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and certain other ...
A protein produced by various cells, including macrophages, interleukin-1 raises body temperature, spurs the production of interferon, and stimulates growth of disease-fighting ...
A cytokine derived from helper T-cell lymphocytes (TH2) that inhibits γ-interferon (IFNγ) and IL-2 secretion by T cell lymphocytes (TH1) and inhibits mononuclear cell ...
A cytokine and growth factor derived from bone marrow stromal cells (endothelial cells, macrophages, and preadipocytes) that stimulates increased plasma concentrations of acute ...
A cytokine derived from B lymphocytes and macrophages that induces γ-interferon (IFNγ) gene expression and IL-2 in T lymphocytes and NK cells and down regulates TH2 cytokines.
A cytokine derived from helper T cell lymphocytes that inhibits mononuclear cell inflammation and is considered a modulator or B cell responses.
A cytokine derived from T cells that stimulates B cell proliferation and inhibits Ig secretion.
A cytokine derived from T cells which stimulates T cell proliferation and NK cell activation.
A cytokine made by T cells that is a potent chemotactant for CD4+ T cells.
A cytokine made by macrophages; a potent inducer of interferon-γ by T cells and NK cells.
A type of interleukin, a chemical messenger, a substance that can improve the bodys response to disease. It stimulates the growth of certain disease-fighting blood cells ...
A protein that stimulates the immune system to develop mast cells and bone-marrow cells. Abbreviated IL-3.
* * *
A cytokine derived from activated CD4+ lymphocytes, fibroblasts, ...
A protein that stimulates the immune system to develop mast cells, resting T-cells, and activated B-cells. Abbreviated IL-4.
* * *
A cytokine derived from T4 lymphocytes that ...
A cytokine derived from T lymphocytes that causes activation of B lymphocytes and differentiation of eosinophils.
A cytokine derived from macrophages and endothelial cells that increases synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins by B lymphocytes; also induces acute phase proteins. In ...
A cytokine derived from bone marrow cells that causes proliferation of B and T lymphocytes.
A cytokine (chemokine) derived from endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, macrophages, and monocytes which causes chemotaxis of neutrophils and T-cell lymphocytes. SYN: ...
A cytokine derived from T cells that causes IL-2/Il-4-independent growth and proliferation of T cells.
: Substances used in biological therapy. Interleukins stimulate the growth and activities of certain kinds of white blood cells.
Between the lobes of an organ or other structure.
Inflammation of the pleura separating two pulmonary lobes.
Between the breasts. [ inter- + L. mamma, breast]
Between the breasts; between the nipples; denoting a line drawn between the two nipples. [ inter- + L. mammilla, breast, nipple]
1. Marriage of relatives. 2. Marriage of persons of different races or cultures.
Occurring between. [L. intermedius, lying between, fr. medius, middle]
1. Between two extremes; interposed; intervening. 2. A substance formed in the course of chemical reactions that then proceeds to participate in further reactions; such ...
Intermediate, and to one side, not central. Used especially to denote the i. cell column of spinal cord gray mattter, abbreviated IML, the location of all presynaptic ...
Between two metameres; denoting especially the intervertebral disks.
1. A temporary cessation of symptoms or of any action. 2. An interval between two paroxysms of a disease, such as malaria. [L. intermissio, fr. intermitto, to leave off, ...
1. A condition marked by intermissions or interruptions in the course of a disease or other process or state or in any continued action; denoting especially a loss of one or ...
Marked by intervals of complete quietude between two periods of activity.
Insomnia that occurs from time to time and each time it lasts anywhere between a single night up to a few weeks. This is in contrast to chronic insomnia when it occurs on most ...
In medicine, a doctor who has completed medical school and is engaged in a year of additional training at a hospital before residency. An intern may, for example, be in ...
Away from the surface; often incorrectly used to mean medial. SYN: internus [TA]. [L. internus]
Internal cardiac defibrillator
A device put within the body that is designed to recognize certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and correct them. Defibrillators continuously monitor the heart ...
There are three sections of the ear. They are the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear. The internal ear is far and away the most highly complex. The essential ...
Internal genitalia, female
The internal genital structures of the female include the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus (womb) and the vagina. The ovaries or "egg sacs" are a pair of female ...
Internal jugular vein
The deeper of the two jugular veins in the neck that drain blood from the head, brain, face and neck and convey it toward the heart. The internal jugular vein collects blood ...
A medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment of adults. A physician who specializes in internal medicine is referred to as an internist. A minimum of ...
Adopting as one's own the standards and values of another person or society.
Between the nares or nostrils. SYN: internasal.
International Classification of Diseases
The classification of specific conditions and groups of conditions determined by an internationally representative expert committee that advises the World Health Organization, ...
International Committee of the Red Cross
A politically neutral Swiss organization serving as an intermediary between contending forces in armed conflict, in civil war, or internal strife, to help victims receive ...
International normalized ratio
A system, commonly called the INR, established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for reporting the results of ...
International System of Units
A system of measurements, based on the metric system, adopted at the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures of the International Organization for Standardization (1960) ...
Combinations or groups of neurons between sensory and motor neurons that govern coordinated activity.
A physician trained in internal medicine.
Between two nodes; relating to an internode.
Between nerve cell groups in the brain or retina.
1. Indicating a neuron functionally interposed between two or more other neurons. 2. Acting as a medium of communication between two organs. [L. internuntius (or -nuncius), a ...
Relating to the sensory nerve cells innervating the viscera (thoracic, abdominal and pelvic organs, and the cardiovascular system), their sensory end organs, or the information ...
One of the various forms of small sensory end organs (receptors) situated within the walls of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts or in other viscera. [ inter- + L. capio, ...
Between the left and right inferior olive of the medulla oblongata.
Lying between or connecting bones; denoting certain muscles and ligaments. SYN: interosseal. [ inter- + L. os, bone]
Between the walls of a part, or between the parietal bones. [ inter- + L. paries, wall]
Pertaining to relations and social exchanges between persons.
The interval in the cell cycle between two cell divisions when the individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished, interphase was once thought to be in resting phase but it is ...
Denoting the transitional forms between two kinds of cells during the course of metaplasia. [ inter- + G. phyle, tribe]
The material transferred from donor to host in interplanting.
In experimental embryology, the transferring of a primordial cell mass from an embryo to an indifferent environment in another embryo, as in chorioallantoic grafts or ...
1. In psychoanalysis, the characteristic therapeutic intervention of the analyst. 2. In clinical psychology, drawing inferences and formulating the meaning in terms of the ...
The part of the back between the shoulders, or that between the scapulae.
SYN: intersection. [L.]
- intersectiones tendineae musculi recti abdominis [TA] SYN: tendinous intersections of rectus abdominis, under intersection.
- i. tendinea [TA] SYN: ...
The site of crossing of two structures. SYN: intersectio [TA].
- tendinous i. [TA] a tendinous band or partition running across a muscle. SYN: intersectio tendinea [TA], ...
Relating to or characterized by intersexuality.
The condition of having both male and female characteristics; being intermediate between the sexes.
Any space between two similar objects, such as a costal i. or interval between two ribs.
Between two spines, such as the spinous processes of the vertebrae. SYN: interspinous.
A small space between things, especially between things that are usually closely spaced, such as cells. Interstices are the cracks and crevices, the breaks, the gaps. The word ...
Pertaining to being between things, especially between things that are normally closely spaced. The word "interstitial" comes from the Latin " interstitium" which was derived ...
Interstitial cystitis (IC)
Disease that involves inflammation or irritation of the bladder wall. This inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, and even ulcerations and bleeding. ...
A small area, space, or gap in the substance of an organ or tissue. SEE ALSO: connective tissue. SYN: interstice. [L.]
Denoting the articulations of the tarsal bones with each other. SYN: tarsotarsal.