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Albuquerque, Afonso de
or Afonso the Great born 1453, Alhandra, near Lisbon died Dec. 15, 1515, at sea, off Goa, India Portuguese soldier, conqueror of Goa (1510) and of Melaka (1511). He gained ...
Albuquerque, Afonso de, the Great
▪ Portuguese conqueror born 1453, Alhandra, near Lisbon died Dec. 15, 1515, at sea, off Goa, India  Portuguese soldier, conqueror of Goa (1510) in India and of Melaka (1511) ...
Albuquerque,Affonso de
Albuquerque, Affonso de. Known as “Affonso the Great.” 1453-1515. Portuguese colonial administrator considered the founder of the Portuguese empire in the East. * * *
alburnum
—alburnous, adj. /al berr"neuhm/, n. Bot. sapwood. [1655-65; < L, equiv. to alb(us) white + -urnum neut. n. suffix] * * *
Albury-Wodonga
▪ New South Wales-Victoria, Australia       urban centre comprising twin cities on opposite sides of the Murray River and the New South Wales– Victoria border, ...
albuterol
/al byooh"teuh rawl', -rol'/, n. Pharm. a selective sympathomimetic bronchodilator, C13H21NO3, inhaled to relax bronchial muscles and ease breathing during an asthma ...
alc.
alcohol. * * *
Alcaeus
/al see"euhs/, n. 1. fl. c600 B.C., Greek poet of Mytilene. 2. Class. Myth. a son of Androgeus and a grandson of Minos. * * * or Alkaios born с 620 BC, Mytilene, Lesbos died ...
alcahest
/al"keuh hest'/, n. alkahest. * * *
Alcaic
/al kay"ik/, adj. 1. pertaining to Alcaeus or to certain meters or a form of strophe or stanza used by, or named after, him. n. 2. Alcaics, Alcaic verses or strophes. [1620-30; < ...
alcaide
/al kuy"dee/; Sp. /ahl kuy"dhe/, n., pl. alcaides /-kuy"deez/; Sp. /-kuy"dhes/. (in Spain, Portugal, Southwestern U.S., etc.) 1. a commander of a fortress. 2. a jailer; the ...
Alcaids
/al kay"idz/, n.pl. Class. Myth. the descendants of Alcaeus. * * *
Alcalá de Guadaira
▪ Spain       city, Sevilla provincia (province), in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southwestern Spain. It is just southeast of Sevilla ...
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares [äl΄kä lä′ de e nä′res] city in central Spain, near Madrid: pop. 159,000 * * * ▪ Spain       city, Madrid provincia (province) and ...
Alcalá Zamora, Niceto
born July 6, 1877, Priego, Spain died Feb. 18, 1949, Buenos Aires, Arg. Spanish politician. After serving as minister of works (1917) and minister of war (1922), he opposed the ...
Alcalá, Calle de
▪ street, Madrid, Spain  one of the main thoroughfares of Madrid. It originates at the eastern edge of the Puerta del Sol (the focal point and principal square of the city) ...
Alcaláde Henares
Al·ca·lá de He·na·res (ăl'kə-läʹ dā hĕ-närʹəs, äl'kä-läʹ thĕ ĕ-näʹrĕs) A town of central Spain east-northeast of Madrid. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and ...
alcalde
/al kal"dee/; Sp. /ahl kahl"dhe/, n., pl. alcaldes /-deez/; Sp. /-dhes/. (in Spain and Southwestern U.S.) a mayor having judicial powers. Also, alcade /al kayd"/. [1605-15; < Sp ...
alcaligenes
/al'keuh lij"euh neez'/, n., pl. alcaligenes. Bacteriol. any of several rod-shaped aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the genus Alcaligenes, found in the intestinal ...
Alcamenes
or Alkamenes born 5th century BC, Lemnos, in the Aegean Sea, and Athens Greek sculptor. A younger contemporary of Phidias, he was noted for the delicacy and finish of his ...
Alcamo
Al·ca·mo (älʹkə-mō') A city of northwest Sicily, Italy, southwest of Palermo. The ruins of the ancient Greek settlement of Segesta are nearby. Population: 42,059. * * ...
Alcan Aluminium Limited
▪ Canadian company       Canadian multinational company incorporated in 1928 (as Aluminium Limited) and now the largest Canadian industrial enterprise, operating in more ...
Alcan Highway
/al"kan/. See Alaska Highway. * * *
Alcandre
/al kan"dree/, n. (in the Odyssey) the wife of Polybus who received Helen and Menelaus on their way home from Troy. * * *
AlcanHighway
Al·can Highway (ălʹkăn') See Alaska Highway. * * *
Alcántara
▪ Spain       town, Cáceres provincia (province), in the Extremadura comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), western Spain, on a rock above the southern bank of ...
Alcántara, Order of
▪ Christian military order       major military and religious order in Spain. It was founded in 1156 or 1166 by Don Suero Fernández Barrientos and was recognized in ...
Alcaraz carpet
      floor covering handwoven in 15th- and 16th-century Spain at Alcaraz in Murcia. These carpets use the Spanish knot on one warp. A number of 15th-century examples ...
Alcathous
/al kath"oh euhs/, n. Class. Myth. 1. a son of Pelops and Hippodamia who married Euachme and became king of Megara. 2. (in the Iliad) a Trojan chieftain slain by Idomeneus. * * *
Alcatraz
/al"keuh traz'/, n. a small island in W California, in San Francisco Bay: site of a U.S. penitentiary 1933-63. * * *
Alcatraz Island
Rocky island in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S. It has an area of 22 acres (9 hectares) and is located 1. 5 mi (2 km) offshore from the city of San Francisco. The site of ...
alcayde
/al kuy"dee/; Sp. /ahl kuy"dhe/, n., pl. alcaydes /-kuy"deez/; Sp. /-kuy"dhes/. alcaide. * * *
Alcázar
/al"keuh zahr', al kaz"euhr/; Sp. /ahl kah"thahrdd/, n. 1. the palace of the Moorish kings in Seville, Spain: later used by Spanish kings. 2. (l.c.) a castle or fortress of the ...
Alcázar de San Juan
▪ Spain       town, Ciudad Real provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile-La Mancha (Castile–La Mancha), central Spain. It ...
Alceste
/al sest"/, n. an opera (1767) by Christoph Willibald Gluck. * * *
Alcestis
/al ses"tis/, n. 1. Also, Alkestis. Class. Myth. the wife of Admetus who gave up her life in order that the Fates might save the life of Admetus and later was brought back from ...
alchem.
alchemy. * * *
alchemic
See alchemical. * * *
alchemical
See alchemy. * * *
alchemically
See alchemical. * * *
alchemist
/al"keuh mist/, n. a person who is versed in or practices alchemy. [1350-1400; ME alkamist; prob. < ML alchymista, equiv. to alchym(ia) ALCHEMY + -ista -IST] * * *
Alchemist, The
a comedy (1610) by Ben Jonson. * * *
alchemistic
See alchemist. * * *
alchemistical
See alchemistic. * * *
alchemize
/al"keuh muyz'/, v.t., alchemized, alchemizing. to change by or as by alchemy; transmute: to alchemize lead into gold. Also, esp. Brit., alchemise. [1595-1605; ALCHEM(Y) + ...
alchemy
—alchemic /al kem"ik/, alchemical, alchemistic /al'keuh mis"tik/, alchemistical, adj. —alchemically, adv. /al"keuh mee/, n., pl. alchemies for 2. 1. a form of chemistry and ...
alcheringa
/al'cheuh ring"geuh/, n. dreamtime. [1895-1900; < Aranda aljerrene] * * *
Alchevsk
▪ Ukraine formerly (1931–61)  Voroshilovsk , or (1961–92)  Kommunarsk        city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the railway from Luhansk to Debaltseve. ...
Alchian, Armen A.
▪ American economist in full  Armen Albert Alchian  born April 12, 1914, Fresno, California, U.S.       American economist whose teachings countered some of the ...
Alchuine
/al"kwin/, n. Alcuin. * * *
Alcibiades
—Alcibiadean, adj. /al'seuh buy"euh deez'/, n. 450?-404 B.C., Athenian politician and general. * * * born с 450 BC, Athens died 404, Phrygia Athenian politician and ...
alcid
/al"sid/, adj. 1. Also, alcidine /al"si duyn'/. of, pertaining, or belonging to the family Alcidae, comprising the auks, murres, puffins, etc. n. 2. a bird of the family ...
Alcidae
      bird family, order Charadriiformes, which includes the birds known as auk, auklet, dovekie, guillemot, murre, murrelet, and puffin (qq.v.). * * *
Alcidamas
▪ Greek writer born 4th century BC       prominent Sophist and rhetorician who taught in Athens. He was a pupil of Gorgias and a rival of Isocrates. His only extant ...
Alcides
/al suy"deez/, n. Hercules (def. 1). * * *
alcidine
alcidine [al′sə dīn΄, al′sədin] adj. 〚ModL alcidinus < ON alka, AUK〛 belonging to a family (Alcidae) of diving shorebirds that have a stocky body, short tail and ...
Alcimede
/al sim"i dee'/, n. Class. Myth. the mother of Jason. * * *
Alcimedes
/al'seuh mee"deez/, n. Class. Myth. a son of Jason and Medea. * * *
Alcimedon
/al sim"i don'/, n. Class. Myth. 1. an Arcadian hero whose daughter, Philao, was seduced by Hercules. 2. (in the Iliad) a son of Laerces who was a captain of the Myrmidons under ...
Alcindor
/al sin"deuhr/, n. (Ferdinand) Lew(is, Jr.), original name of Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. * * *
Alcinoüs
/al sin"oh euhs/, n. (in the Odyssey) king of the Phaeacians and father of Nausicaä and Laodamas. * * * ▪ Greek mythology       in Greek mythology, king of the ...
Alciphron
▪ Greek rhetorician flourished 3rd century AD       rhetorician who wrote a collection of fictitious letters, a form of literature popular in his day. About 120 letters ...
Alcithoë
/al sith"oh ee'/, n. Class. Myth. a daughter of Minyas who was driven mad for mocking Dionysus. * * * ▪ Greek mythology       in Greek legend, the daughter of Minyas of ...
alclad
      laminated metal produced in sheets composed of a duralumin (q.v.) core and outer layers of aluminum. * * *
ALCM
See air-launched cruise missile. Also, A.L.C.M. * * *
Alcmaeon
/alk mee"euhn/, n. Class. Myth. a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle who commanded the second expedition against Thebes. He killed his mother for sending his father to certain death ...
Alcmaeonid family
Athenian family important in the 6th–5th century BC. During the archonship (magistracy) of the Alcmaeonid Megacles (632? BC), the family was banished for murder; it returned ...
Alcman
▪ Greek poet Doric  Alcmaeon  flourished 7th century BC, Sparta [Greece]       Greek poet who wrote choral lyrics in a type of Doric (Doric dialect) related to the ...
Alcmanic verse
/alk man"ik/, Pros. a form of verse used in Greek drama and Latin dramatic poetry, composed in dactylic tetrameter. [ < Gk Alkmanikós equiv. to Alkmán Alcman, a Greek lyric ...
Alcmene
/alk mee"nee/, n. Class. Myth. the mother of Hercules by Zeus, who had assumed the form of Amphitryon, her husband. Also, Alkmene, Alcmena /alk mee"neuh/. * * *
alco-
a combining form representing alcohol in compound words (alcogas), sometimes with the sense "using alcohol as fuel" (alcoboat; alcotruck). [by false analysis of ALCOHOL as alco- ...
Alcoa
U.S. company, the world's largest producer of aluminum. Established in Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1888, it adopted the name Aluminum Co. of America in 1907. Alcoa introduced aluminum ...
Alcobaça
▪ Portugal  town, west-central Portugal. It lies at the confluence of the Alcoa and Baça rivers, just south-southwest of the city of Leiria. Alcobaça is notable for its ...
Alcock
(1892–1919) an English pilot. In 1919 he and Arthur Brown were the first people to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, from Newfoundland in Canada to the west coast of Ireland. ...
Alcock, George Eric Deacon
▪ 2001       British schoolteacher and amateur astronomer (b. Aug. 28, 1912, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, Eng.—d. Dec. 15, 2000, England), was ranked as one of the ...
Alcock, John
▪ English bishop and statesman born c. 1430, Beverley, Yorkshire, Eng. died Oct. 1, 1500, Wisbech Castle, Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire       architect, bishop, and ...
Alcock, Sir John William
▪ British aviator born Nov. 6, 1892, Manchester, Eng. died Dec. 18, 1919, Cottévrard, France  aviator who, with his fellow British aviator Arthur Brown, made the first ...
Alcoforado, Mariana
▪ Portuguese nun baptized April 22, 1640 , Beja, Port. died July 28, 1723, Beja       Portuguese nun, long believed to have written Lettres portugaise (1669; ...
alcohol
/al"keuh hawl', -hol'/, n. 1. Also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, ethanol, fermentation alcohol. a colorless, limpid, volatile, flammable, water-miscible liquid, C2H5OH, ...
alcohol consumption
Introduction  the drinking of beverages containing ethyl alcohol. alcoholic beverages are consumed largely for their physiological and psychological effects, but they are ...
Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Bureau of (ATF)
Agency of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Established in 1972, it enforces and administers laws covering the production, taxation, and distribution of alcohol and tobacco ...
alcoholabuse
alcohol abuse n. See alcoholism. * * *
alcoholate
/al"keuh haw layt', -ho-; al'keuh haw"lit, -hol"it/, n. Chem. 1. any of a class of compounds, analogous to hydrates, containing chemically combined alcohol, as chloral ...
alcoholdehydrogenase
alcohol dehydrogenase n. An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, the first step in the metabolism of alcohol by the liver. * * *
alcoholdependence
alcohol dependence n. See alcoholism. * * *
alcoholic
—alcoholically, adv. /al'keuh haw"lik, -hol"ik/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or of the nature of alcohol. 2. containing or using alcohol. 3. caused by alcohol. 4. suffering from ...
alcoholic beverage
Any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled liquor, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, as an intoxicating agent. When an alcoholic beverage is ingested, the ...
alcoholic psychosis
any of a group of major mental disorders, as delirium tremens, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and hallucinosis, associated with organic brain injury due to alcohol. * * *
alcoholically
See alcoholic. * * *
alcoholicity
/al'keuh haw lis"i tee, -ho-/, n. alcoholic quality or strength. [1870-75; ALCOHOLIC + -ITY] * * *
Alcoholics Anonymous
an organization of alcoholics whose purpose is to stay sober and help others recover from the disease of alcoholism. Abbr.: AA, A.A. * * * ▪ ...
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
Voluntary fellowship of people suffering from alcoholism who seek to become and stay sober through mutual self-help by meeting in local, independent groups to share their common ...
alcoholism
/al"keuh haw liz'euhm, -ho-/, n. Pathol. a chronic disorder characterized by dependence on alcohol, repeated excessive use of alcoholic beverages, the development of withdrawal ...
alcoholize
—alcoholization, n. /al"keuh haw luyz', -ho-/, v.t., alcoholized, alcoholizing. 1. to convert into an alcohol. 2. to treat or saturate with an alcohol. 3. to place under the ...
alcoholometer
—alcoholometric /al'keuh haw'leuh me"trik, -hol'euh-/, alcoholometrical, adj. —alcoholometry, n. /al'keuh haw lom"i teuhr, -ho-/, n. an instrument for finding the percentage ...
alcoholometry
See alcoholometer. * * *
alcoholysis
—alcoholytic /al'keuh haw lit"ik, -ho-/, adj. /al'keuh haw"leuh sis, -hol"euh-/, n. Chem. chemical decomposition resulting from the interaction of a compound and an ...
Alcon
/al"kon/, n. Class. Myth. 1. a noted archer who helped Hercules abduct the cattle of Geryon. 2. a Trojan warrior who wounded Odysseus while trying to seize the body of Achilles ...
alcopop
n [C, U] (BrE) a type of sweet alcoholic drink, usually sold in small bottles. Alcopops have been criticized in Britain because they are attractive to children, and some makes ...
Alcor
/al kawr"/, Astron. a star, the fifth-magnitude companion of Mizar in the handle of the Big Dipper. [perh. < Ar al-khawr the low ground] * * * ▪ star from Arabic“faint ...
Alcoran
—Alcoranic, adj. /al'kaw rahn", -ran", -koh-/, n. Alkoran. * * *
Alcoranist
/al'kaw rah"nist, -ran"ist, -koh-/, n. Islam. a person who believes in an absolutely literal interpretation of the Koran. [ALCORAN + -IST] * * *
Alcorcón
Alcorcón [äl΄kō̂r kō̂n′] city in central Spain, near Madrid: pop. 140,000 * * * Al·cor·cón (äl'kôr-kōnʹ) A city of central Spain, a suburb of Madrid. ...
Alcorn State University
▪ university, Claiborne county, Mississippi, United States       public, coeducational institution of higher learning near Lorman, Mississippi, U.S. It is a land-grant ...
Alcott
/awl"keuht, -kot/, n. 1. (Amos) Bronson /bron"seuhn/, 1799-1888, U.S. educator and philosopher. 2. his daughter Louisa May, 1832-88, U.S. author. 3. a male given name. * * *
Alcott, (Amos) Bronson
born Nov. 29, 1799, Wolcott, Conn., U.S. died March 4, 1888, Concord, Mass. U.S. teacher and philosopher. The self-educated son of a poor farmer, Alcott worked as a peddler ...
Alcott, Bronson
▪ American philosopher and educator in full  Amos Bronson Alcott   born Nov. 29, 1799, Wolcott, Conn., U.S. died March 4, 1888, Concord, Mass.       American ...
Alcott, Louisa May
born Nov. 29, 1832, Germantown, Pa., U.S. died March 6, 1888, Boston, Mass. U.S. author. Daughter of the reformer Bronson Alcott, she grew up in Transcendentalist circles in ...
Alcott,Amos Bronson
Al·cott (ôlʹkət, -kŏt, ŏlʹ-), Amos Bronson. 1799-1888. American educator and transcendentalist philosopher who maintained that learning should be based on pleasure and ...
Alcott,Louisa May
Alcott, Louisa May. 1832-1888. American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (1868-1869). * * *
alcove
/al"kohv/, n. 1. a recess or small room adjacent to or opening out of a room: a dining alcove. 2. a recess in a room for a bed, bookcases, or the like. 3. any recessed space, as ...
Alcoy
▪ Spain Valencian  Alcoi        town, Alicante provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, southeastern Spain. It lies in ...
Alcuin
/al"kwin/, n. (Ealhwine Flaccus) A.D. 735-804 English theologian and scholar: teacher and adviser of Charlemagne. Also, Alchuine. Also called Albinus. * * * born с 732, in or ...
alcyonarian
/al'see euh nair"ee euhn/, n. 1. any anthozoan coelenterate of the subclass Alcyonaria, as corals and sea anemones, having the tentacles and other body parts in branches or ...
Alcyone
/al suy"euh nee'/, n. 1. a third-magnitude star in the constellation Taurus: brightest star in the Pleiades. 2. Also, Halcyon, Halcyone. Class. Myth. a daughter of Aeolus who, ...
Alcyoneus
/al suy"euh nyoohs', -neuhs/, n. Class. Myth. 1. a giant who threw a stone at Hercules and was killed when Hercules hit the stone back with his club. 2. a giant who, invulnerable ...
Ald
Ald or Aldm abbrev. Alderman * * *
Ald.
Alderman. Also, ald. * * *
Alda
/ahl"deuh, awl"-, al"-/, n. 1. Frances, 1885-1952, U.S. operatic singer. 2. a male or female given name. * * *
Aldabra Islands
▪ atoll, Seychelles       atoll, one of the world's largest, in the Indian Ocean about 600 miles (1,000 km) southwest of the Seychelles group, and part of the Republic ...
AldabraIslands
Al·dab·ra Islands (ăl-dăbʹrə) A group of four coral islands in the Indian Ocean north of Madagascar. Part of Seychelles since 1976, the islands are known for giant ...
Aldan
/ul dahn"/, n. a river in the Russian Federation in Asia, flowing NE from the Yabloni Mountains to the Lena. ab. 1500 mi. (2415 km) long. * * *
Aldan River
▪ river, Russia       river in eastern Siberia, Russia. It rises in the Stanovoy Range and flows northwestward in a huge curve to join the Lena River at Batamay. The ...
Aldanov, Mark
▪ Russian writer pseudonym of  Mark Aleksandrovich Landau   born Oct. 26 [Nov. 7, New Style], 1889, Kiev, Ukraine, Russian Empire died Feb. 25, 1957, Nice, ...
Aldebaran
/al deb"euhr euhn/, n. a first-magnitude star, orange in color, in the constellation Taurus. [ < Ar al the + dabaran follower (of the Pleiades)] * * * ▪ star Arabic“The ...
Aldeburgh Festival
a music festival that takes place every summer in Aldeburgh, a small town in Suffolk, England. The festival was created by Benjamin Britten, who lived in Aldeburgh. * * *
Aldecoa, Ignacio
▪ Spanish novelist born July 11, 1925, Vitoria, Spain died Nov. 15, 1969, Madrid       Spanish novelist whose work is noted for its local colour and careful ...
aldehyde
—aldehydic, adj. /al"deuh huyd'/, n. Chem. any of a class of organic compounds containing the group -CHO, which yields acids when oxidized and alcohols when reduced. [1840-50; ...
Alden
/awl"deuhn/, n. 1. John, 1599?-1687, Pilgrim settler in Plymouth, Massachusetts, 1620. 2. a male or female given name: from an Old English word meaning "old friend." * * * (as ...
Alden, Cynthia May Westover
▪ American social worker and journalist née  Cynthia May Westover  born May 31, 1862, Afton, Iowa, U.S. died Jan. 8, 1931, Brooklyn, N.Y.       American social ...
Alden, Isabella Macdonald
▪ American author née  Isabella Macdonald,  pseudonym  Pansy  born Nov. 3, 1841, Rochester, N.Y., U.S. died Aug. 5, 1930, Palo Alto, Calif.       American ...
Alden, John
born 1599?, England died Sept. 12, 1687, Duxbury, Mass. British-born American pilgrim. He was hired as a cooper by the London merchants who funded the Mayflower's expedition to ...
Alden, John; and Alden, Priscilla
▪ English colonists Priscilla née  Priscilla Mullins , Mullins also spelled  Mollins  or  Molines  Respectively,   born 1599?, England died Sept. 12, 1687, Duxbury, ...
Alden,John
Al·den (ôlʹdən), John. 1599?-1687. Pilgrim colonist and political figure whose courtship of Priscilla Mullins (born c. 1602) is the subject of a popular legend. * * *
aldente
al den·te (ăl dĕnʹtē, äl dĕnʹtā) adj. Cooked enough to be firm but not soft: pasta al dente.   [Italian : al, to the + dente, tooth.]   al denʹte adv. * * *
alder
/awl"deuhr/, n. 1. any shrub or tree belonging to the genus Alnus, of the birch family, growing in moist places in northern temperate or colder regions and having toothed, simple ...
Alder
/ahl'deuhr/; Ger. /ahl"deuhrdd/, n. Kurt /kerrt/; Ger. /koorddt/, 1902-58, German chemist: Nobel prize 1950. * * * Any of about 30 species of ornamental shrubs and trees in the ...
alder buckthorn
a shrub or small tree, Frangula alnus, of Eurasia and northern Africa, having nonedible red fruit that turns black when ripe. [1860-65] * * * ▪ shrub also called  Alder ...
alder flycatcher
a North American flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum, of alder thickets and other moist areas, that has greenish-brown upper parts and whitish underparts and is almost ...
Alder, Kurt
▪ German chemist born July 10, 1902, Königshütte, Prussia [now Chorzów, Pol.] died June 20, 1958, Cologne, W.Ger.       German chemist who was the corecipient, with ...
Alder,Kurt
Al·der (älʹdər), Kurt. 1902-1958. German chemist. He shared a 1950 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning the structure of organic matter. * * *
alderfly
/awl"deuhr fluy'/, n., pl. alderflies. any of several dark-colored neuropterous insects of the family Sialidae, the larvae of which are aquatic and predacious on other aquatic ...
alderman
—aldermancy, aldermanship, n. —aldermanic /awl'deuhr man"ik/, adj. /awl"deuhr meuhn/, n., pl. aldermen. 1. a member of a municipal legislative body, esp. of a municipal ...
aldermancy
See alderman. * * *
aldermanic
See aldermancy. * * *
aldermanry
/awl"deuhr meuhn ree/, n., pl. aldermanries. the district, office, or rank of an alderman. [1200-50; ME aldermanrie. See ALDERMAN, -RY] * * *
Aldermaston
a small town in Berkshire, England, close to an important nuclear weapons research centre. In the 1950s and 1960s and again in 2004 there were large organized marches from London ...
Alderney
/awl"deuhr nee/, n. 1. one of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. 1785; 3 sq. mi. (8 sq. km). 2. any of several breeds of cattle raised originally in the Channel Islands, ...
alderperson
/awl"deuhr perr'seuhn/, n. a member of a municipal legislative body, esp. of a municipal council. [ALDER(MAN) + -PERSON] Usage. See -person. * * *
Aldershot
/awl"deuhr shot'/, n. 1. a city in NE Hampshire, in S England, SW of London. 33,111. 2. a large military training center there. * * *
Alderson, Samuel W.
▪ 2006       American inventor (b. Oct. 21, 1914, Cleveland, Ohio—d. Feb. 11, 2005, Los Angeles, Calif.), created (1968) the first example of what became known as the ...
alderwoman
/awl"deuhr woom'euhn/, n., pl. alderwomen. a woman who is a member of a municipal legislative body, esp. of a municipal council. [1550-60, for earlier sense; ALDER(MAN) + ...
Aldfrith
▪ king of Northumbria died Dec. 14, 704, Driffield, Eng.       king of Northumbria (685–704) and patron of literature. An illegitimate son of Oswiu and the Irish ...
Aldhelm
▪ abbot of Malmesbury       (c. 639–709), West Saxon abbot of Malmesbury, the most learned teacher of 7th-century Wessex, a pioneer in the art of Latin verse among the ...
aldicarb
/al"di kahrb'/, n. Chem. a crystalline compound, C7H14N2O2S, used on plants as a systemic insecticide, miticide, and nematocide. [(PROPION)ALD(EHYDE) + -I- + CARB(ON)] * * *
Aldine
/awl"duyn, -deen/, adj. 1. of or from the press of Aldus Manutius and his family in Venice, c1490-1597, noted for compactly printed editions of the classics. n. 2. an Aldine or ...
Aldington
/awl"ding teuhn/, n. Richard, 1892-1962, English poet, novelist, and composer. * * *
Aldington, Richard
▪ English author original name  Edward Godfree Aldington   born July 8, 1892, Hampshire, Eng. died July 27, 1962, Sury-en-Vaus, France       poet, novelist, critic, ...
Aldiss, Brian W.
▪ English author in full  Brian Wilson Aldiss   born Aug. 18, 1925, East Dereham, Norfolk, Eng.       prolific English author of science-fiction short stories and ...
Aldm.
Alderman. Also, aldm. * * *
Aldo
(as used in expressions) Leopold Rand Aldo Aldo Manuzio il Vecchio Moro Aldo * * *
aldohexose
/al'doh hek"sohs/, n. Chem. any of several hexoses in which one carbon atom is part of an aldehyde structure. [1905-10; ALD(EHYDE) + -O- + HEXOSE] * * *
aldol
/al"dawl, -dol/, n. Chem. 1. Also called acetaldol. a colorless, syrupy, water-soluble liquid, C4H8O2, formed by the condensation of acetaldehyde: used chiefly in the manufacture ...
aldolase
/al"deuh lays', -layz'/, n. Biochem. any of a group of enzymes catalyzing reversible aldol condensations. [1935-40; < G Aldolase; see ALDOL, -ASE] * * *
Aldomet
/al"deuh met'/, Pharm., Trademark. a brand of methyldopa. * * *
aldose
/al"dohs/, n. Chem. a sugar containing the aldehyde group or its hemiacetal equivalent. [1890-95; ALD(EHYDE) + -OSE2] * * *
aldosterone
/al'doh sti rohn", al"doh sti rohn', al dos"teuh rohn'/, n. Biochem. a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium ...
aldosteronism
/al'doh ster"euh niz'euhm, al dos"teuh roh-/, n. Pathol. an abnormality of the body's electrolyte balance, caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and ...
Aldous Huxley
➡ Huxley * * *
Aldrich
/awl"drich/, n. Thomas Bailey, 1836-1907, U.S. short-story writer, poet, and novelist. * * * (as used in expressions) Aldrich Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich Robert Aldrich Thomas ...
Aldrich, Bess Genevra Streeter
▪ American author née  Bess Genevra Streeter , pseudonym (until 1918)  Margaret Dean Stevens  born Feb. 17, 1881, Cedar Falls, Iowa, U.S. died Aug. 3, 1954, Lincoln, ...
Aldrich, Nelson W(ilmarth)
born Nov. 6, 1841, Foster, R.I., U.S. died April 16, 1915, New York, N.Y. U.S. senator and financier. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1879–81) and the Senate ...
Aldrich, Nelson W.
▪ United States senator in full  Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich  born Nov. 6, 1841, Foster, R.I., U.S. died April 16, 1915, New York City  U.S. senator and financier whose work ...
Aldrich, Robert
born Aug. 9, 1918, Cranston, R.I., U.S. died Dec. 5, 1983, Los Angeles, Calif. U.S. film director and producer. He held various jobs at RKO from 1941, working under such ...
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey
born Nov. 11, 1836, Portsmouth, N.H., U.S. died March 19, 1907, Boston, Mass. U.S. poet, short-story writer, and editor. Aldrich left school at age 13 and soon began to ...
Aldridge
/awl"drij/, n. Ira Frederick ("the African Roscius"), 1804?-67, U.S. actor, primarily in Europe. * * *
Aldridge, Ira Frederick
▪ British actor born c. July 24, 1807, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Aug. 7, 1867, Łódź, Pol.  American-born English tragedian, considered one of the greatest interpreters of ...
aldrin
/awl"drin/, n. Chem. a brown, water-insoluble, toxic solid consisting of more than 95 percent of the chlorinated hydrocarbon C12H8Cl6: used as an insecticide. [1949; named after ...
Aldrin
/awl"drin/, n. Edwin Eugene, Jr. ("Buzz"),born 1930, U.S. astronaut. * * * ▪ chemical compound       one of the several isomers (compounds with the same composition but ...
Aldrin, Edwin Eugene, Jr.
known as Buzz Aldrin born Jan. 20, 1930, Montclair, N.J., U.S. U.S. astronaut. He graduated from West Point and flew 66 combat missions in the Korean War. In 1963 he received ...
Aldrin, Edwin Eugene,Jr.
Al·drin (ôlʹdrĭn, ŏlʹ-), Edwin Eugene, Jr. Known as “Buzz.” Born 1930. American astronaut who as a crew member of Apollo 11 became the second person to walk on the ...
Aldrovandi, Ulisse
▪ Italian naturalist born Sept. 11, 1522, Bologna, Bologna died May 4, 1605, Bologna       Renaissance naturalist and physician noted for his systematic and accurate ...
Aldus Manutius
/awl"deuhs meuh nooh"shee euhs, -nyooh"-, al"deuhs/. See Manutius, Aldus. * * *
AldusManutius
Al·dus Ma·nu·tius (ôlʹdəs mə-no͞oʹshəs, -shē-əs, -nyo͞oʹ-, ŏlʹ-) See Manutius, Aldus. * * *
Aldwych farces
➡ Aldwych Theatre * * *
Aldwych Theatre
a theatre in the West End of London, famous for the Aldwych farces, comedy plays by Ben Travers which were performed there in the 1920s and 1930s. It was the London home of the ...
ale
/ayl/, n. 1. a malt beverage, darker, heavier, and more bitter than beer, containing about 6 percent alcohol by volume. 2. Brit. beer. [bef. 950; ME; OE (e)alu (gen. ealoth); c. ...
Alea
/ay"lee euh/, n. 1. Class. Myth. an epithet of Athena referring to a sanctuary built in her honor by Aleus. 2. an ancient city on the E border of Arcadia, near Argolis. * * *
Alea, Tomás Gutiérrez
born Dec. 11, 1928, Havana, Cuba died April 16, 1996, Havana Cuban film director. After earning a law degree in Cuba, he studied filmmaking in Rome (1951–53). A supporter of ...
Aleandro, Girolamo
▪ Italian cardinal Dutch  Hieronymus Aleander   born Feb. 13, 1480, Motta di Treviso, near Venice died Feb. 1, 1542, Rome  cardinal and Humanist who was an important ...
Aleardi
/ah'le ahrdd"dee/, n. Count Aleardo /ah'le ahrdd"daw/, 1812-78, Italian poet and patriot. * * *
Aleardi, Aleardo, Conte
▪ Italian poet and politician (Count),original name  Gaetano Aleardi   born Nov. 4, 1812, Verona, Austrian Empire died July 17, 1878, Verona, Italy       poet, ...
aleatoric
aleatoric [ā΄lē ə tôr′ik] adj. designating or of music that involves chance or unpredictability in composition or performance or both * * *
aleatory
/ay"lee euh tawr'ee, -tohr'ee, al"ee-/, adj. 1. Law. depending on a contingent event: an aleatory contract. 2. of or pertaining to accidental causes; of luck or chance; ...
aleatory music
(from Latin, alea: "dice game") Any 20th-century music, particularly that of the 1950s and '60s, the composition or performance of which incorporates elements of chance. In ...
aleatory poem.
See cut-up poem. * * *
Alebion
/euh lee"bee on'/, n. Class. Myth. a son of Poseidon who, with his brother Dercynus, was killed by Hercules while attempting to steal the cattle that Hercules had taken from ...
alec
alec1 /al"ik/, n. Obs. 1. a herring. 2. a sauce or relish made from small herring or anchovies. [1510-20; < L (h)al(l)ec fish sauce] alec2 /al"ik/, n. Australian. a simpleton or ...
Alec
/al"ik/, n. a male given name, form of Alexander. Also, Aleck. * * *
Alec Douglas-Home
➡ Douglas-Home * * *
Alec Guinness
➡ Guinness (II) * * *
Alec Issigonis
➡ Issigonis * * *
alecithal
/ay les"euh theuhl/, adj. Embryol. having little or no yolk in the cytoplasm of the egg or ovum. Also, alecithic /ay'leuh sith"ik/. [1875-80; A-6 + Gk lékith(os) yolk + -AL1] * ...
Alecsandri, Vasile
▪ Romanian author born June 14, 1821, Bacău, Moldavia [now in Romania] died Aug. 22, 1890, Mirceşti, Rom.       lyric poet and dramatist, the first collector of ...
Alecto
/euh lek"toh/, n. Class. Myth. one of the Furies. * * *
alectryomancy
/euh lek"tree euh man'see/, n. an ancient form of divination, using a rooster to select grains of food placed on letters of the alphabet. Also, alectoromancy /euh lek"teuh roh ...
alee
/euh lee"/, adv., adj. Naut. upon or toward the lee side of a vessel; away from the wind (opposed to aweather). [1350-1400; ME. See A-1, LEE1] * * *
alegar
/al"euh geuhr, ay"leuh-/, n. Brit. Informal. ale vinegar; sour ale. [1535-45; ALE + (VIN)EGAR] * * *
Alegre, Caetano da Costa
▪ African poet born April 26, 1864, São Tomé, Portuguese Africa died April 18, 1890, Alcobaça, Port.       first significant black African poet writing in Portuguese ...
Alegrete
/aw li grdde"ti/, n. a city in SW Brazil. 63,945. * * *
Alegría, Ciro
▪ Peruvian author born Nov. 4, 1909, Saltimbanca, Peru died Feb. 17, 1967, Lima  Peruvian novelist who wrote about the lives of the Peruvian Indians.       Educated at ...
Alegría, Claribel
▪ Nicaraguan author born May 12, 1924, Estelí. Nicaragua       poet, essayist, and journalist who was a major voice in the literature of contemporary Central America. ...
alehouse
/ayl"hows'/, n., pl. alehouses /-how'ziz/. a tavern where ale or beer is sold; bar; pub. [bef. 1000; ME, OE. See ALE, HOUSE] * * *
Aleichem
/ah lay"khem/, n. Sholom /shaw"leuhm/ or Sholem /shoh"lem, -leuhm/ or Shalom /shah lohm"/, (pen name of Solomon Rabinowitz), 1859-1916, Russian author of Yiddish novels, plays, ...
aleichem shalom
Seph. /ah le khem" shah lawm"/; Ashk. /euh lay"kheuhm shaw"leuhm/, Hebrew. a conventional greeting, meaning "peace to you": used in reply to the greeting shalom aleichem. * * *
Aleichem,Shalom
A·lei·chem (ä-lāʹkĕm, -KHĕm), Shalom or Sholem Originally Solomon Rabinowitz. 1859-1916. Russian-born Jewish humorist whose stories and plays, originally written in ...
Aleijadinho
▪ Brazilian sculptor and architect byname of  Antônio Francisco Lisboa   born Aug. 9, 1738?, Villa Rica [now Ouro Prêto], Brazil died Nov. 18, 1814, Mariana  prolific and ...
Aleixandre
/ah'lay ksahn"drdde/, n. Vicente /bee then"te/, 1898-1984, Spanish poet: Nobel prize 1977. * * *
Aleixandre, Vicente
born April 26, 1898, Sevilla, Spain died Dec. 14, 1984, Madrid Spanish poet. A member of the group of Spanish writers known as the Generation of 1927, he was strongly ...
Aleixandre,Vicente
A·leix·an·dre (ä'lĕk-sänʹdrə), Vicente. 1898-1984. Spanish poet. He won the 1977 Nobel Prize for literature. * * *
Alekan, Henri
▪ 2002       French cinematographer (b. Feb. 10, 1909, Paris, France—d. June 15, 2001, Auxerre, France), was one of the most accomplished filmmakers of the 20th ...
Alekhine, Alexander
▪ Russian-French chess player Alekhine also spelled  Alekhin  or  Aljechin , original name  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alyokhin  born October 31, 1892, Moscow, Russian ...
Aleksandr
(as used in expressions) Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandr Nikolayevich Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Blok Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Borodin Aleksandr Porfiryevich Glazunov Aleksandr ...
Aleksandra
(as used in expressions) Aleksandra Fyodorovna Kollontay Aleksandra Mikhaylovna Aleksandra Mikhaylovna Domontovich * * *
Aleksandra Fyodorovna
/al'ik zan"dreuh fyaw'deuh rawv"neuh, -rov"-, -zahn"-/; Russ. /u lyi ksahn"drddeuh fyaw"deuh rddeuhv neuh/. See Alexandra Feodorovna. * * *
Aleksandropol
Russ. /u lyi ksun drddaw"peuhl/, n. a former name of Gumri. * * *
Aleksandrov, Pavel Sergeevich
▪ Soviet mathematician also spelled  Pavel Sergeyevich Aleksándrov  or  Alexandroff  born April 25 [May 7, New Style], 1896, Bogorodsk, Russia died November 16, 1982, ...
Aleksandrovich
(as used in expressions) Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Bakunin Mikhail Aleksandrovich Blok Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Iosip Aleksandrovich Brodsky Bulganin Nikolay ...
Aleksandrovsk
Russ. /u lyi ksahn"drddeuhfsk/, n. former name of Zaporozhye. * * *
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky
▪ Russia       city, Sakhalin oblast (province), far-eastern Russia, on the western coast of Sakhalin Island. It was founded in 1881 as a centre for penal ...
Aleksey
(as used in expressions) Aleksey Mikhaylovich Arakcheyev Aleksey Andreyevich Count Brusilov Aleksey Alekseyevich Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov Kosygin Aleksey ...
Aleksey II
▪ 2009 Aleksey Mikhailovich Ridiger, or Rüdiger        Russian Orthodox prelate born Feb. 23, 1929, Tallinn, Est. died Dec. 5, 2008, near Moscow, Russia as the ...
Alekseyev, Mikhail Vasilyevich
▪ Russian general Alekseyev also spelled  Alekseev   born Nov. 15 [Nov. 3, old style], 1857, Tver, Russia died Oct. 8, 1918, Yekaterinodar [now ...
Alekseyev, Vasiliy
born Jan. 7, 1942, Pokrovo-Shishkino, Russia, U.S.S.R. Soviet weight lifter. A superheavyweight, he broke 80 world records between 1970 and 1978 and won Olympic gold medals in ...
Alekseyev, Vasily Ivanovich
▪ Soviet athlete born January 7, 1942, Pokrovo-Shishkino, Russia, U.S.S.R.    Soviet superheavyweight weightlifter who between 1970 and 1978 set 80 world records and won two ...
Alekseyevich
(as used in expressions) Balakirev Mily Alekseyevich Brusilov Aleksey Alekseyevich Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Fyodor Alekseyevich Gagarin Yury Alekseyevich Ivan ...
Aleksin
▪ Russia       city, Tula oblast (province), western Russia, on the Oka River, 40 miles (65 km) northwest of Tula city. Aleksin, first documented in 1236, was at ...
Alemán
/ah'le mahn"/, n. 1. Mateo /mah te"aw/, 1547?-1610, Spanish novelist. 2. Miguel /mee gel"/, born 1902, president of Mexico 1946-52. * * *
Aleman Lacayo
/ah'le mahn" lah kah"yoh/, n. Jose Arnoldo /hoh zay" ahr nohl"doh/, born 1946, president of Nicaragua since 1997. * * *
Alemán, Mateo
(baptized Sept. 28, 1547, Sevilla, Spain died с 1614, Mexico) Spanish novelist. Descended from Jews who had been forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism, he expressed many ...
Alemán, Miguel
▪ president of Mexico in full  Miguel Alemán Valdés  born Sept. 29, 1902, Sayula, Mex. died May 14, 1983, Mexico City  president of Mexico from 1946 to ...
Alemanni
/al'euh man"uy/, n. (used with a pl. v.) a confederation of Germanic tribes, first recorded in the 3rd century A.D., that settled in the area between the Rhine, Main, and Danube ...
Alemannic
/al'euh man"ik/, n. 1. the high German speech of Switzerland, Alsace, and southwestern Germany. Cf. Bavarian (def. 3). adj. 2. of or pertaining to Alemannic or the ...
Alembert, d'
/dal'euhm bair"/; Fr. /dann lahonn berdd"/ Jean Le Rond /zhahonn leuh rddawonn"/, 1717?-83, French mathematician, philosopher, and writer: associate of Diderot. * * *
Alembert, Jean Le Rond d'
born , Nov. 17, 1717, Paris, France died Oct. 29, 1783, Paris French mathematician, scientist, philosopher, and writer. In 1743 he published a treatise on dynamics containing ...
Alembert,Jean Le Rond d'
A·lem·bert (ăl'əm-bârʹ, ä-läɴ-bĕrʹ), Jean Le Rond d'. 1717-1783. French mathematician and philosopher who wrote the influential Treatise of Dynamics (1743). He also ...
AlembertJean le Rond d'
AlembertJean le Rond d' see D'ALEMBERT Jean le Rond * * *
alembic
/euh lem"bik/, n. 1. a vessel with a beaked cap or head, formerly used in distilling. 2. anything that transforms, purifies, or refines. [1350-1400; ME, var. of alambic < ML ...
Alencar, José de
▪ Brazilian author in full  José Martiniano de Alencar  born May 1, 1829, Mecejana, Braz. died Dec. 12, 1877, Rio de Janeiro       journalist, novelist, and ...
Alençon
/ann lahonn sawonn"/; Eng. /euh len"seuhn, -son/, n. a city in and the capital of Orne, in NW France: lace manufacture. 34,666. * * * ▪ France       town, Orne ...
Alençon lace
1. Also called point d'Alençon. a delicate needlepoint lace having a solid design outlined with twisted yarn on a background of hexagonal mesh. 2. a machine reproduction of this ...
alendronate
a·len·dro·nate (ə-lĕnʹdrə-nāt') n. A synthetic drug analogue of pyrophosphate that acts primarily on bone to inhibit its resorption and is used to treat and prevent ...
Alene
/ay leen"/, n. a female given name, form of Helen. * * *
Aleni, Giulio
▪ Italian priest born 1582, Brescia, republic of Venice [Italy] died Aug. 3, 1649, Fu-chow, China       Jesuit priest who was the first Christian missionary in the ...
Alentejo
formerly Alemtejo Historical province, Portugal. Lying southeast of the Tagus River, it borders Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. The region produces two-thirds of the world's ...
alenu
(Hebrew: "it is our duty") Opening words of a Jewish prayer recited at the end of the three periods of daily prayer since the Middle Ages. The first section is a prayer of ...
alenuʿ
▪ Judaism       (Hebrew: “it is our duty”), the opening word of an extremely old Jewish prayer, which has been recited at the end of the three periods of daily ...
Alep
A·lep (ə-lĕpʹ) See Aleppo. * * *
aleph
/ah"lif/; Heb. /ah"lef/, n. 1. the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 2. the glottal stop consonant or, alternatively, long vowel represented by this letter. [1250-1300; ME < ...
aleph-null
/ah"lif nul"/, n. Math. the cardinal number of the set of all positive integers; the smallest transfinite cardinal number. Also called aleph-zero /ah"lif zear"oh/. [1905-10] * * *
aleph-zero
a·leph-ze·ro (ä'lĕf-zîrʹō, -zēʹrō, -ləf-) n. See aleph-null. * * *
Aleppo
/euh lep"oh/, n. a city in NW Syria. 710,636. French, Alep /ann lep"/. * * * Arabic Ḥalab City (pop., 1994: 1,582,930), northwestern Syria. Syria's largest city, it is about ...
Aleppo earthquake of 1138
       earthquake, among the deadliest ever recorded, that struck the Syrian city of Aleppo (Ḥalab) on Oct. 11, 1138. The city suffered extensive damage, and it is ...
Aleppo gall
a nutlike gall produced by gall wasps on certain oaks in western Asia and eastern Europe, used as a source of astringent and tannic and gallic acids. * * *
Aleppo grass.
See Johnson grass. * * *


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