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arabica
a·rab·i·ca (ə-răbʹĭ-kə) n. 1. a. A species of coffee, Coffea arabica, originating in Ethiopia and widely cultivated for its high-quality, commercially valuable ...
arabica coffee
/euh rab"i keuh/ 1. a tree, Coffea arabica, of the madder family, the principal species of coffee cultivated in Latin America and the chief coffee tree of commerce. 2. the seeds ...
Arabicize
—Arabicization, n. /euh rab"euh suyz'/, v.t., v.i., Arabicized, Arabicizing. 1. (of a language or a linguistic feature) to make or become Arabic in form. 2. Arabize. Also, esp. ...
Arabicnumeral
Arabic numeral n. One of the numerical symbols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 0. * * *
arability
See arable. * * *
arabinose
—arabinosic /euh rab'euh nos"ik, ar'euh beuh-/, adj. /euh rab"euh nohs', ar"euh beuh-/, n. Chem. a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, C5H10O5, obtained from plant gums or ...
arabinoside
/ar'euh bin"euh suyd', euh rab"euh neuh-/, n. Biochem. a glycoside of arabinose, esp. any of those used in antiviral therapy as structural analogs of ribonucleosides. [1925-30; ...
arabis
/ar"euh bis/, n. any plant of the genus Arabis, including the rock cresses. [1570-80; < NL < Gk árabis (s. arabid-) Arabian mustard (deriv. with arab-, as in Arabía Arabia, ...
Arabist
/ar"euh bist/, n. 1. a person who specializes in or studies the Arabic language or Arab culture. 2. a supporter of Arab interests, esp. in international affairs. [1745-55; ARAB + ...
Arabization
See Arabize. * * *
Arabize
—Arabization, n. /ar"euh buyz'/, v.t., v.i., Arabized, Arabizing. to place or come under Arab influence or domination: Middle Eastern countries began to Arabize their oil ...
arable
—arability, n. /ar"euh beuhl/, adj. 1. capable of producing crops; suitable for farming; suited to the plow and for tillage: arable land; arable soil. n. 2. land that can be or ...
ArabLeague
Arab League also League of Arab States Abbr. AL An association of Arab states established in 1945 to promote cooperation among member nations in matters relating to economic and ...
Araby
/ar"euh bee/, n. Literary. Arabia. [1125-75; ME Arabye < OF Arabie < L Arabia] * * *
Aracaju
/ah'rddeuh kah"zhoo/, n. a seaport in E Brazil. 299,622. * * * ▪ Brazil       port city and capital, Sergipe estado (state), northeastern Brazil, lying on the ...
aracari
/ahr'euh sahr"ee/, n. any of several small toucans of the genus Pteroglossus, having strongly serrate bills and yellow underparts marked with black and red. [ < Pg araçari < ...
Aracatuba
/ah'rddeuh seuh tooh"beuh/, n. a city in SE Brazil. 95,946. * * * ▪ Brazil       city, western São Paulo estado (state), Brazil, near the Tietê River, which is ...
araceous
/euh ray"sheuhs/, adj. Bot. belonging to the plant family Araceae. Cf. arum family. [ < NL Arace(ae) (see ARUM, -ACEAE) + -OUS] * * *
arachidic
/ar'euh kid"ik/, adj. Chem. of or derived from arachidic acid. Also, arachic /euh rak"ik/. [1850-55; arachid- ( < NL, s. of Arachis the groundnut genus, irreg. < Gk arakís, dim. ...
arachidic acid
Chem. a white, crystalline, water-insoluble solid, C20H40O2, obtained from peanut oil: used chiefly in the manufacture of lubricants, plastics, and waxes. [1870-75] * * *
arachidonic acid
/ar"euh ki don"ik, ar'-/, Biochem. an essential fatty acid, C20H32O2, found in the lipids of most tissues, that is a precursor in the synthesis of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, ...
arachidonicacid
ar·a·chi·don·ic acid (ăr'ə-kĭ-dŏnʹĭk) n. An unsaturated fatty acid, C20H32O2, found in animal fats, that is essential in human nutrition and is a precursor in the ...
arachis oil
/ar"euh kis/. See peanut oil. [1885-90] * * *
Arachne
/euh rak"nee/, n. Class. Myth. a Lydian woman who challenged Athena to a weaving contest and was changed into a spider for her presumption. * * * In Greek mythology, the ...
arachnid
—arachnidan /euh rak"ni deuhn/, adj., n. /euh rak"nid/, n. 1. any wingless, carnivorous arthropod of the class Arachnida, including spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, and ...
arachnidan
See arachnid. * * *
arachnoid
/euh rak"noyd/, adj. 1. resembling a spider's web. 2. of or belonging to the arachnids. 3. Anat. of or pertaining to the arachnoid membrane. 4. Bot. formed of or covered with ...
arachnophobe
See arachnophobia. * * *
arachnophobia
a·rach·no·pho·bi·a (ə-răk'nə-fōʹbē-ə, -nō-) n. An abnormal fear of spiders.   [arachnid + -phobia.]   a·rachʹno·phobe' n. a·rach'no·phoʹbic adj. * * *
arachnophobic
See arachnophobe. * * *
Arachosia
Ancient province, eastern Persian empire. The province encompassed much of what is now southern Afghanistan in the area of the city of Kandahār. It was conquered by Alexander ...
Arad
/ah rahd"/ n. 1. a city in W Rumania, on the Mures River. 171,110. 2. a town in southern Israel: site of ancient Canaanite town. 11,600. * * * ▪ Romania       city, ...
Aradʿ
▪ Israel  town, southern Israel, in the northeast Negev, named for the biblical Arad, the ruins of which are visible at Tel ʿArad, about 5 1/2 miles (9 km) east-northeast. ...
araeostyle
/euh ree"euh stuyl'/, adj. Archit. having an intercolumniation of four diameters. See illus. under intercolumniation. Also, areostyle. [1555-65; < L araeostylus < Gk araióstylos ...
araeosystyle
/euh ree'euh sis"tuyl/, adj. Archit. having an intercolumniation alternately of two and four diameters. Also, areosystyle. [1825-35; AERO(STYLE) + SYSTYLE] * * *
Arafat
/ar"euh fat', ahr"euh faht'/, n. Yasir /yah"seuhr, -sir, yas"euhr/, born 1929, Palestinian leader: head of the Palestine Liberation Organization. * * *
Arafat, Yasir
▪ 2005 Muhammad ʿAbd al-Raʾuf al-Qudwah al-Husayni        Palestinian leader (b. Aug. 24?, 1929, Cairo, Egypt?—d. Nov. 11, 2004, Paris, France), was credited with ...
Arafāt, Yāsirʿ
▪ Palestinian leader byname of  Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raʾūf al-Qudwah al-Ḥusaynī  born August 24?, 1929, Cairo?, Egypt died November 11, 2004, Paris, ...
Arafat,Yasir
Ar·a·fat (ărʹə-făt', ärʹə-fät'), Yasir also Yasser Born 1929. Leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization who in 1996 was elected the first president of the ...
Arafura Sea
/ahr"euh foor"euh, ahr'euh-/ a part of the Pacific between N Australia and SW New Guinea. * * * ▪ sea, Pacific Ocean       shallow sea of the western Pacific Ocean, ...
ArafuraSea
A·ra·fu·ra Sea (ä'rə-fo͞oʹrə) A shallow part of the western Pacific Ocean between the Timor and Coral seas, separating New Guinea from Australia. * * *
Aragats
/ar'euh gats"/; Russ. /u rddu gahts"/, n. Mount, an extinct volcano in NW Armenia. 13,435 ft. (4095 m). Also called Mount Alagez. Turkish, Alagöz. * * *
Aragats, Mount
▪ mountain, Armenia Russian  Gora Aragats,  also spelled  Gora Aragac,         mountain in Armenia, northwest of Yerevan and north of the Ararat Plain. The highest ...
Arago
▪ anthropological and archaeological site, France       site of paleoanthropological excavation near the town of Tautavel in the French Pyrenees where more than 50 ...
Arago man
/euh ray"goh, euh rag"oh, ar"euh goh'/ the skeletal remains of Homo erectus of the middle Pleistocene Epoch found in a cave in the French Pyrenees. Also called Tautauvel ...
Arago, François
▪ French physicist in full  Dominique-françois-jean Arago   born Feb. 26, 1786, Estagel, Roussillon, France died Oct. 2, 1853, Paris       French physicist who ...
Aragon
/ann rddann gawonn"/ for 1; /ar"euh gon'/ for 2, n. 1. Louis /lwee/, 1897-1982, French novelist, poet, and journalist. 2. Spanish, Aragón /ah'rddah gawn"/, a region in NE Spain: ...
Aragon, Louis
orig. Louis Andrieux born Oct. 3, 1897, Paris, Fr. died Dec. 24, 1982, Paris French poet, novelist, and essayist. He was introduced by André Breton into avant-garde circles, ...
Aragon,Louis
A·ra·gon (är-ä-gôɴʹ), Louis. 1897-1982. French writer who was a founder of literary surrealism. * * *
Aragonese
/ar'euh geuh neez", -nees"/, adj., n., pl. Aragonese. adj. 1. of Aragon, its people, or their language. n. 2. a native or inhabitant of Aragon. 3. the dialect of Spanish spoken ...
aragonite
/euh rag"euh nuyt', ar"euh geuh-/, n. a mineral, orthorhombic calcium carbonate, CaCO3, chemically identical with calcite but differing in crystallization and in having a higher ...
Aragua
▪ state, Venezuela       estado (state), northern Venezuela. It is bounded north by the Caribbean Sea, east by the Distrito Federal and Miranda state, south by Guárico ...
Araguaía
Araguaia [ä΄rə gwä′yə] river in central Brazil, flowing north into the Tocantins: c. 1,300 mi (2,092 km) * * * A·ra·guaí·a or A·ra·gua·ya (är'ə-gwīʹə) A ...
Araguaia River
River, central Brazil. Rising in the Brazilian highlands, it flows north some 1,600 mi (2,600 km) to join the Tocantins River at São João do Araguaia. In midcourse it divides ...
Araguarí
/ah'rddeuh gweuh rddee"/, n. a city in central Brazil. 59,798. * * * ▪ Brazil       city, western Minas Gerais estado (state), Brazil, on the Jordão River, a ...
Araguaya
/ah'rddeuh gwah"yah/, n. a river flowing N from central Brazil to the Tocantins River. ab. 1100 mi. (1770 km) long. * * *
Arai Hakuseki
born March 24, 1657, Edo [Tokyo], Japan died June 29, 1725, Edo Japanese scholar of Confucianism and government official of the mid-Tokugawa period. Arai was tutor and later ...
arak
/ar"euhk, euh rak"/, n. arrack. * * *
Arakan
▪ state, Myanmar       coastal geographic region in southern Myanmar (Burma). It comprises a long, narrow strip of land along the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal and ...
Arakan Yoma
/ahr'euh kahn" yoh"meuh, ar'euh kan"/ a mountain range on the W border of Burma (Myanmar). Highest peak, Saramati, 12,633 ft. (3851 m). * * *
Arakanese
▪ people also called  Rakhine         ethnic group centred in the Arakan coastal region of southern Myanmar (Burma). Most Arakanese speak an unusual variety of the ...
Arakcheyev, Aleksey (Andreyevich), Count
born Oct. 4, 1769, Novgorod province, Russia died May 3, 1834, Gruzino, Novgorod province Russian soldier and statesman. Appointed inspector general of artillery in 1803, he ...
Arakcheyev, Aleksey Andreyevich, Graf
▪ Russian general and statesman born October 4 [September 23, Old Style], 1769, Novgorod province, Russia died May 3 [April 21], 1834, Gruzino, Novgorod province  military ...
Araki Sadao
▪ Japanese general and statesman born May 26, 1877, Tokyo, Japan died Nov. 2, 1966, Totsukawa  Japanese general, statesman, and a leader of the Kōdō-ha (Imperial Way) ...
Araks
Araks [ä räks′] river flowing from E Turkey along the S border of Armenia & Azerbaijan, into the Kura River and the Caspian Sea: c. 600 mi (966 km) * * * A·raks ...
Aral Sea
/ar"euhl/; Russ. /u rddahl"/ an inland sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, E of the Caspian Sea. 26,166 sq. mi. (67,770 sq. km). Also called Lake Aral. Russian, Aralskoye More ...
Araldite{™}
n [U] a make of very strong glue: She mended the vase with Araldite. * * *
aralia
/euh ray"lee euh, euh rayl"yeuh/, n. any of various plants of the genus Aralia and related genera, several of which are cultivated as houseplants or have been used medicinally. [ ...
Araliaceae
▪ plant family       the ginseng family of flowering plants, in the order Apiales, comprising approximately 700 species centred in Southeast Asia and tropical America. ...
araliaceous
/euh ray'lee ay"sheuhs/, adj. Bot. belonging to the Araliaceae, the ginseng family of plants. Cf. ginseng family. [1865-70; < NL Araliace(ae) (see ARALIA, -ACEAE) + -OUS] * * *
Arallu
/ah rah"looh/, n. the ancient Babylonian world of the dead. Also, Aralu. * * *
AralSea
Ar·al Sea (ărʹəl) An inland sea lying between southern Kazakhstan and northwest Uzbekistan. Once the fourth-largest inland body of water in the world, it is fast ...
Aram
/ay"ram, air"euhm/, n. Biblical name of ancient Syria. See map under Philistia. Aramaic (def. 1). * * * Ancient country, South Asia. It extended from the Lebanon Mountains to ...
Aram, Eugene
▪ English scholar born , c. September 1704, Ramsgill, Yorkshire, Eng. died Aug. 6, 1759, York, Yorkshire       noted English scholar and murderer, whose notoriety was ...
Aram.
Aramaic. * * *
Aramaean
Aramaean or Aramean [ar΄ə mē′ən, er΄ə mē′ən] n. 1. a member of a people that lived in ancient Syria (Aram) and Mesopotamia 2. ARAMAIC adj. of the Aramaeans or their ...
Aramaic
/ar'euh may"ik/, n. 1. Also, Aramean, Aramaean. a northwest Semitic language that from c300 B.C.-A.D. 650 was a lingua franca for nearly all of SW Asia and was the everyday ...
Aramaic alphabet
      major writing system in the Middle East in the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. Derived from the North Semitic script, the Aramaic alphabet was developed in the ...
Aramaic language
Semitic language originally spoken by the ancient Aramaeans. The earliest Aramaic texts are inscriptions in an alphabet of Phoenician origin found in the northern Levant dating ...
Aramburu
/ah'rddahm booh"rddooh/, n. Pedro Eugenio /pe"dhrddaw e'ooh he"nyaw/, 1903-70, president of Argentina 1955-58. * * *
Aramco
in full Arabian American Oil Company Oil company founded by the Standard Oil Co. of California (Chevron) in 1933, when the government of Saudi Arabia granted it a ...
arame
ar·a·me (ărʹə-mā, ə-räʹ-) n. An edible, mild-flavored seaweed.   [Japanese.] * * *
Aramean
/ar'euh mee"euhn/, n. 1. a Semite of the division associated with Aram. 2. Aramaic (def. 1). Also, Aramaean. [1825-35; < L Aramae(us) ( < Gk aramaîos of ARAM) + -AN] * * *
aramid
/ar"euh mid/, n. Chem. any of a class of synthetic aromatic long-chain polyamides capable of extrusion into fibers having resistance to high temperatures and great ...
aramidfiber
ar·a·mid fiber (ărʹə-mĭd) n. A strong, heat-resistant fiber formed of polymers with repeating aromatic groups branching from a carbon backbone, used in materials for ...
Aramis
▪ anthropological and archaeological site, Ethiopia       site of paleoanthropological excavations in the Awash River valley in the Afar region of Ethiopia, best known ...
Aran Islands
/ar"euhn/ a group of three islands off the W central coast of Ireland. ab. 18 sq. mi. (47 sq. km). * * * Islands (pop., 2001: 543), Galway Bay, western Ireland. The group of ...
Aran jumper
(also Aran sweater) n a sweater (= a piece of clothing for the upper body) made of thick wool knitted in the traditional raised patterns of the Aran Islands. * * *
Aran sweater
➡ Aran jumper * * *
Aranda
/euh ran"deuh, euh rahn"-/, n., pl. Arandas, (esp. collectively) Aranda for 1. 1. a member of an Australian aboriginal people living in the vicinity of Alice Springs, Northern ...
Aranda, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, conde de
▪ Spanish statesman born December 18, 1719, Siétamo, Spain died January 9, 1798, Épila       Spanish general, diplomat, and minister, one of the most prominent ...
araneid
/euh ray"nee id/, n. a member of the order Araneae (Araneida), comprising the spiders. [1895-1900; < NL Araneida, equiv. to Arane(a) a genus (L aranea; see ARANEOSE) + -ida ...
araneose
/euh ray"nee ohs'/, adj. arachnoid, esp. as a plant. Also, araneous /euh ray"nee euhs/. [1875-80; < L araneosus pertaining to a spider, equiv. to arane(a) spider, spiderweb, ...
Arango, Debora
▪ 2006       Colombian artist (b. Nov. 11, 1907, Medellín, Colom.—d. Dec. 4, 2005, Medellín), earned an international reputation for her inventive and provocative ...
Aranha
/ah rddah"nyah/, n. Oswaldo /aws wahl"daw/, 1894-1960, Brazilian politician. * * *
AranIslands
Ar·an Islands (ărʹən) Three small islands of western Ireland at the entrance to Galway Bay. They are the site of many prehistoric and early Christian remains. * * *
Aranjuez
▪ Spain ancient (Latin)  Ara Jovis        town, Madrid provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain, on the southern bank of ...
Aranrhod
/ah rddahn"rddawd/, n. Welsh Legend. the daughter of the goddess Dôn and the mother of Lleu Llaw Gyffes. * * *
Aransas National Wildlife Refuge
▪ refuge, Texas, United States       coastal habitat conservation area in southern Texas, U.S., located about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Corpus Christi. The refuge, ...
Arany János
born March 2, 1817, Nagyszalonta, Hung. died Oct. 22, 1882, Budapest Hungarian epic poet. His main work is the trilogy of Toldi (1847), Toldi szerelme (1848–79), and Toldi ...
Arany, János
▪ Hungarian poet born March 2, 1817, Nagyszalonta, Hung. died Oct. 22, 1882, Budapest  the greatest Hungarian epic poet.       Born of an impecunious farming family, ...
Aranyaka
/ah run"yeuh keuh/, n. Hinduism. one of a class of the Vedic texts that, together with the Upanishads, make up the closing portions of the Brahmanas. [ < Skt: a forest book] * * *
Āraṇyakas
▪ Hindu literature       (Sanskrit: “Books of the Forest”), a later development of the Brāhmaṇas, or expositions of the Vedas, which were composed in India in ...
Arányi, Jelly d'
▪ Hungarian musician born May 30, 1895, Budapest, Hungary died March 30, 1966, Florence, Italy  violinist known for her performances of contemporary music. Béla Bartók's ...
Arao
▪ Japan       city, Kumamoto ken (prefecture), Kyushu, Japan, facing Ariake Bay. It was a poor village until the opening of the Miike coal mine and the arrival of a ...
Arapaho
/euh rap"euh hoh'/, n., pl. Arapahos, (esp. collectively) Arapaho. 1. a member of a tribe of North American Indians of Algonquian speech stock, once dwelling in the Colorado ...
Arapahoe
/euh rap"euh hoh'/, n., pl. Arapahoes, (esp. collectively) Arapahoe. Arapaho. * * *
ArapahoePeak
Arapahoe Peak A mountain, 4,119.3 m (13,506 ft) high, of north-central Colorado in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains east of Boulder. * * *
arapaima
/ar'euh puy"meuh/, n. a large freshwater fish, Arapaima gigas, of Brazil and Guiana, reputed to reach a length of 15 ft. (4.5 m) and a weight of 500 lb. (225 kg). [1830-40; < Pg ...
Arapesh
/ahr"euh pesh'/, n., pl. Arapeshes, (esp. collectively) Arapesh. a member of a Papuan people of Papua New Guinea. * * *
Araraquara
▪ Brazil       city, in the highlands of central São Paulo estado (state), Brazil, at 2,119 feet (646 metres) above sea level on a tributary of the Rio Jacaré-Guaçu. ...
Ararat
/ar"euh rat'/, n. a mountain in E Turkey, near the borders of Iran and Armenia: traditionally considered the landing place of Noah's Ark. 16,945 ft. (5165 m). Also called Mount ...
Ararat, Mount
Turkish Ağrı Dağı Extinct volcanic massif, eastern Turkey. Located in Ağrı province, near the Iranian border, Ararat has two peaks, Great Ararat, at 16,853 ft (5,137 m) ...
Ararat,Mount
Ar·a·rat (ărʹə-răt'), Mount A massif of extreme eastern Turkey near the Iranian border rising to about 5,168 m (16,945 ft). It is the traditional resting place of Noah's ...
araroba
/ar'euh roh"beuh/, n. 1. the wood of a Brazilian, leguminous tree, Andira araroba, from which Goa powder is derived. 2. Pharm. See Goa powder. [ < Pg < Tupi, perh. var. of ...
arartree
▪ plant also called  alerce, or evergreen timber conifer        (Tetraclinis articulata), only species of the genus Tetraclinis of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), ...
Aras
/ah rahs"/ for 1; /ar"euhs/ for 2, n. 1. Ancient, Araxes. a river in SW Asia, flowing from E Turkey along part of the boundary between NW Iran and Armenia and Azerbaijan into the ...
Aras River
or Araks River River in Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. It rises in the mountains south of Erzurum, Turkey, and flows east to join the Kura River in Azerbaijan about 60 ...
Arason, Jón
▪ Icelandic poet and bishop born 1484, Eyjafjördur, Ice. died Nov. 7, 1550, Skálholt       poet and last Roman Catholic bishop in Iceland, remembered as a national as ...
Aratus
▪ Greek poet flourished c. 315–c. 245 BC, Macedonia       Greek poet of Soli in Cilicia, best remembered for his poem on astronomy, Phaenomena.       He ...
Aratus of Sicyon
/euh ray"teuhs euhv sish"ee on', sis"-, euh rah"-/ 271-213 B.C., Greek general: leader of the Achaean League. * * * born 271 died 213 BC Hellenistic Greek statesman, diplomat, ...
Arauca
A·rau·ca (ə-rouʹkə) A river rising in northern Colombia and flowing about 805 km (500 mi) eastward to the Orinoco River in central Venezuela. * * * ▪ department, ...
Arauca River
▪ river, South America Spanish  Río Arauca,         western tributary of the Orinoco River, flowing through Venezuela and Colombia. It rises in the Cordillera ...
Araucan
/euh raw"keuhn/, n., pl. Araucans, (esp. collectively) Araucan, adj. Araucanian. [ < Sp araucano, equiv. to Arauc(o) province in central Chile + -ano -AN] * * *
Araucana
/ar'euh kah"neuh/, n. 1. any of numerous varieties of domestic chickens derived from South American wild fowl, noted for producing pale blue, green, or pinkish eggs. 2. a breed ...
Araucania
/ar'aw kay"nee euh/; Sp. /ah'rddow kah"nyah/, n. a region in central Chile. * * * ▪ region, Chile  region, southern Chile. It lies between the Bío-Bío and Toltén rivers ...
Araucanian
/ar'aw kay"nee euhn/, n. 1. a member of an Indian people of central Chile. 2. the language of the Araucanians, spoken in central Chile and northern Argentina. adj. 3. pertaining ...
araucaria
—araucarian, adj. /ar'aw kair"ee euh/, n. any of several coniferous trees of the genus Araucaria, of warm regions. Cf. monkey puzzle, Norfolk Island pine. [1825-35; < NL, named ...
Araujo, Guilherme
▪ 2008       Brazilian music producer born 1937, Rio de Janeiro, Braz. died March 21, 2007, Rio de Janeiro was a marketing specialist who popularized (1967) the ...
Arausio, Battle of
▪ Roman history       (Oct. 6, 105 BC), the defeat of a Roman army by Germanic tribes near Arausio (now Orange in southern France). The Cimbri and the Teutoni had ...
Aravalli Range
▪ hill system, India also spelled  Aravali Range        hill system of northern India, running northeasterly for 350 miles (560 km) through Rajasthan (Rājasthān) ...
Aravidu dynasty
▪ Indian dynasty       fourth and last dynasty of the Hindu empire of Vijayanagar in southern India. Its founder was Tirumala, whose brother Rama Raya had been the ...
Arawa
▪ Papua New Guinea       town, southeast coast of Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Arawa is a planned suburban town on flatland near Arawa Bay. It was built to ...
Arawak
/ar"euh wahk', -wak'/, n., pl. Arawaks, (esp. collectively) Arawak. 1. a member of an Indian people once widespread in the Antilles but now confined to northeastern South ...
Arawakan
/ar'euh wah"keuhn, -wak"euhn/, n. 1. a family of numerous and widely scattered languages spoken formerly from Florida to Chile but now only in South America. 2. a member of a ...
Arawakan languages
or Maipuran languages Largest family of American Indian languages. The family comprises an estimated 65 known languages, of which at least 30 are now extinct. They stretch from ...
arawana
▪ fish       (species Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), freshwater fish of tropical South America in the family Osteoglossidae (order Osteoglossiformes). Arawanas seldom reach ...
Arawn
/ahrdd"own/, n. Welsh Myth. the lord of Annwfn. * * *
Araxá
/ah'rddah shah"/, n. a city in E Brazil. 32,798. * * *
Araxes
/euh rak"seez/, n. ancient name of Aras. * * *
arb
/ahrb/, n. an arbitrager. [1980-85; by shortening] * * *
arba kanfoth
Seph. /ahrdd bah" kahn fawt"/; Ashk. /ahrdd"beuh kahn"feuhs/, Hebrew. a rectangular piece of cloth with fringes at the four corners and a hole in the center for the head, worn ...
arbalest
—arbalester, arbalister /ahr"beuh lis'teuhr/, n. /ahr"beuh list/, n. a powerful medieval crossbow with a steel bow, used to shoot stones, metal balls, arrows, etc. Also, ...
arbalester
See arbalest. * * *
arbaʿ kanfot
▪ Jewish garment also spelled  arbaʿ kanfoth (Hebrew: “four corners”) , also called  ṭallit qaṭan , or  tallith katan        (“small shawl”), Jewish ...
Arbeau, Thoinot
▪ French dance theorist and historian original name  Jehan Tabourot  born March 17, 1520, Dijon, Fr. died July 23, 1595, Langres       theoretician and historian of ...
ARBED SA
▪ Luxembourger company in full  Aciéries Réunies De Burbach-eich-dudelange,         integrated steelproducing company that is the largest industrial concern in ...
Arbela
/ahr bee"leuh/, n. an ancient city of Assyria, E of the Tigris, on the site of modern Erbil: headquarters of Darius III before his defeat by Alexander the Great at Gaugamela 331 ...
Arbenz (Guzmán), Jacobo
born Sept. 14, 1913, Quezaltenango, Guat. died Jan. 27, 1971, Mexico City, Mex. Soldier and president of Guatemala (1951–54). The son of a Swiss emigré, Arbenz joined the ...
Arber, Agnes
▪ British botanist née  Robertson  born February 23, 1879, London died March 22, 1960, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.       botanist noted chiefly for her studies ...
Arber, Edward
▪ British scholar born Dec. 4, 1836, London died Nov. 23, 1912, London       scholar whose editing, and publication at reasonable prices, of Elizabethan and Restoration ...
Arber, Werner
born June 3, 1929, Gränichen, Switz. Swiss microbiologist. He has taught chiefly at the University of Basel. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. ...
Arber,Werner
Ar·ber (ärʹbər), Werner. Born 1929. Swiss microbiologist. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to molecular ...
Arbil
/ir"bil/, n. Erbil. * * *
arbiter
/ahr"bi teuhr/, n. 1. a person empowered to decide matters at issue; judge; umpire. 2. a person who has the sole or absolute power of judging or determining. [1350-1400; ME ...
arbiter elegantiae
/ahrdd"bi terdd' ay'le gahn"tee uy'/; Eng. /ahr"bi teuhr el'euh gan"shee ee'/, Latin. a judge of elegance or matters of taste. Also, arbiter elegantiarum /ahrdd"bi terdd' ay'le ...
arbitrable
/ahr"bi treuh beuhl/, adj. capable of arbitration; subject to the decision of an arbiter or arbitrator: an arbitrable dispute. [1525-35; ( < MF) < L arbitr(ari) to decide (see ...
arbitrage
/ahr"bi trahzh'/ for 1, 3; /ahr"bi trij/ for 2, n., v., arbitraged, arbitraging. n. 1. Finance. the simultaneous purchase and sale of the same securities, commodities, or foreign ...
arbitrager
/ahr"bi trah'zheuhr/, n. a person who engages in arbitrage. Also, arbitrageur /ahr'bi trah zherr"/. [1865-70; < F arbitrageur, equiv. to arbitrage ARBITRAGE + -eur -EUR] * * *
arbitrageur
arbitrageur [är′bə träzh΄ər] n. 〚Fr〛 a person who engages in arbitrage: also sp. arbitrager * * * ar·bi·tra·geur (är'bĭ-trä-zhûrʹ) also ar·bi·tra·ger ...
arbitral
/ahr"bi treuhl/, adj. pertaining to an arbiter or to arbitration. [1600-10; ( < OF) < LL arbitralis. See ARBITER, -AL1] * * *
arbitrament
/ahr bi"treuh meuhnt/, n. 1. the act of arbitrating; arbitration. 2. the decision or sentence pronounced by an arbiter. 3. the power of absolute and final decision. Also, ...
arbitrarily
See arbitrary. * * *
arbitrariness
See arbitrarily. * * *
arbitrary
—arbitrarily /ahr"bi trer'euh lee, ahr'bi trair"-/, adv. —arbitrariness, n. /ahr"bi trer'ee/, adj., n., pl. arbitraries. adj. 1. subject to individual will or judgment ...
arbitrate
—arbitrative, adj. /ahr"bi trayt'/, v., arbitrated, arbitrating. v.t. 1. to decide as arbitrator or arbiter; determine. 2. to submit to arbitration; settle by arbitration: to ...
arbitration
—arbitrational, adj. —arbitrationist, n. /ahr'bi tray"sheuhn/, n. 1. the hearing and determining of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or ...
arbitration bar
Metall. a bar of cast iron used as a sample for the batch to which it belongs. * * *
Arbitration, The
a comedy (c300 B.C.) by Menander, extant only as a fragment. * * *
arbitrative
See arbitrate. * * *
arbitrator
/ahr"bi tray'teuhr/, n. a person chosen to decide a dispute or settle differences, esp. one formally empowered to examine the facts and decide the issue. [1400-50; late ME ...
arbitrement
/ahr bi"treuh meuhnt/, n. arbitrament. * * *
arbitrer
/ahr"bi treuhr/, n. Obs. arbitrator. [1350-1400; ME arbitrour < AF < LL arbitrator-; see ARBITRATOR] * * *
arbitress
/ahr"bi tris/, n. a woman who is an arbiter. [1300-50; ME < MF arbitresse, equiv. to arbitre ARBIT(E)R + -esse -ESS] Usage. See -ess. * * *
Arblay, d'
/dahr"blay/; Fr. /dannrdd blay"/ Madame Frances. See Burney, Frances. * * *
Arbogast
▪ Roman general died September 8, 394       barbarian general of the Roman Empire, the first to establish a Roman nominee of his own as a puppet emperor and attempt a ...
arbor
arbor1 /ahr"beuhr/, n. 1. a leafy, shady recess formed by tree branches, shrubs, etc. 2. a latticework bower intertwined with climbing vines and flowers. 3. Obs. a grass plot; ...
Arbor Day
a day, varying in date but always in the spring, observed in certain states of the U.S. by the planting of trees. [1870-75, Amer.] * * * ▪ holiday       holiday ...
arbor vitae
/ahr"beuhr vuy"tee/, Anat. a treelike appearance in a vertical section of the cerebellum, due to the arrangement of the white and gray nerve tissues. * * *
ArborDay
Ar·bor Day (ärʹbər) n. An unofficial holiday observed in all 50 states of the United States, most often on the last Friday in April, for the public planting of trees. * * *
arboreal
—arboreally, adv. /ahr bawr"ee euhl, -bohr"-/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to trees; treelike. 2. Also, arboreous. living in or among trees. 3. Zool. adapted for living and moving ...
arboreally
See arboreal. * * *
arbored
/ahr"beuhrd/, adj. 1. furnished with an arbor. 2. lined with trees; shaded. Also, esp. Brit., arboured. [ARBOR1 + -ED3] * * *
arboreous
/ahr bawr"ee euhs, -bohr"-/, adj. 1. abounding in trees; wooded. 2. arboreal (def. 2). 3. arborescent. [1640-50; < L arboreus of trees, equiv. to arbor tree + -eus -EOUS] * * *
arbores
ar·bo·res (ärʹbə-rēz') n. Plural of arbor2. * * *
arborescence
See arborescent. * * *
arborescent
—arborescence, n. —arborescently, adv. /ahr'beuh res"euhnt/, adj. treelike in size and form. [1665-75; < L arborescent- (s. of arborescens), prp. of arborescere to grow into ...
arboretum
/ahr'beuh ree"teuhm/, n., pl. arboretums, arboreta /-teuh/. a plot of land on which many different trees or shrubs are grown for study or display. [1830-40; < L arboretum a ...
arboricultural
See arboriculture. * * *
arboriculture
—arboricultural, adj. /ahr"beuhr i kul'cheuhr, ahr bawr"-, -bohr"-/, n. the cultivation of trees and shrubs. [1820-30; ARBOR3 + (AGR)ICULTURE] * * * Cultivation of trees, ...
arborio
/ahr bawr"ee oh', -bohr"-/, n. a variety of cultivated short-grain rice with a high starch content: used esp. for risotto. * * *
arborio rice
arborio rice [är bôr′ē ō] n. a type of short-grained rice, grown mainly in Italy, used esp. for making risotto * * *
arboriorice
ar·bo·ri·o rice (âr-bôrʹē-ō, -bōrʹ-) n. A rounded, medium-grain rice from Italy that is both firm and creamy when cooked.   [AfterArborio, town in the Po valley in ...
arborist
/ahr"beuhr ist/, n. a specialist in the cultivation and care of trees and shrubs, including tree surgery, the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tree diseases, and the ...
arborization
/ahr'beuhr euh zay"sheuhn/, n. 1. a treelike appearance, as in certain minerals or fossils. 2. Anat. the branchlike appearance characteristic of certain nerve-cell ...
arborize
ar·bo·rize (ärʹbə-rīz') intr.v. ar·bo·rized, ar·bo·riz·ing, ar·bo·riz·es To have or produce branching formations, as the bronchial tubes of the lungs.   [From ...
arborous
/ahr"beuhr euhs/, adj. of or pertaining to trees. [1660-70; ARBOR3 + -OUS] * * *
arborvitae
/ahr'beuhr vuy"tee/, n. 1. any of several ornamental or timber-producing evergreen trees belonging to the genus Thuja, of the cypress family, native to North America and eastern ...
arbour
/ahr"beuhr/, n. Chiefly Brit. arbor1. * * *
Arbour, Louise
▪ 2005       When Louise Arbour became UN high commissioner for human rights in June 2004, she had already had a distinguished career. She replaced Sérgio Vieira de ...
arboviral
See arbovirus. * * *
arbovirology
See arboviral. * * *
arbovirus
/ahr"beuh vuy'reuhs/, n., pl. arboviruses. any of several groups of RNA-containing viruses that are transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods, as ticks, fleas, or mosquitoes, and ...
Arbroath
▪ Scotland, United Kingdom       royal burgh (town), North Sea fishing port, and holiday resort, Angus council area and historic county, Scotland. Arbroath Abbey, once ...
arbtrn.
arbitration. * * *
Arbuckle, Roscoe
▪ American actor and director in full  Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle , byname  Fatty Arbuckle  born March 24, 1887, Smith Center, Kansas, U.S. died June 29, 1933, New York, New ...
Arbus, Diane
orig. Diane Nemerov born March 14, 1923, New York, N.Y., U.S. died July 26, 1971, New York City U.S. photographer. The sister of the poet and critic Howard Nemerov, she worked ...
Arbus,Diane
Ar·bus (ärʹbəs), Diane. 1923-1971. American photographer best known for her portraits of prostitutes, transvestites, persons with physical deformities, and other ...
Arbuthnot
/ahr buth"neuht, ahr"beuhth not'/, n. John, 1667-1735, Scottish satirist and physician: friend of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift. * * *
Arbuthnot, John
born April 1667, Inverbervie, Scot. died Feb. 27, 1735, London, Eng. Scottish mathematician, physician, and satirist. His satirical writings include a political allegory, The ...
Arbuthnot,John
Ar·buth·not (är-bŭthʹnət, ärʹbəth-nŏt'), John. 1667-1735. Scottish physician and writer noted for his satirical anti-Whig pamphlets published as Law Is a Bottomless ...
arbutus
/ahr byooh"teuhs/, n., pl. arbutuses. 1. any of the evergreen shrubs or trees belonging to the genus Arbutus, of the heath family, esp. A. unedo, of southern Europe, with scarlet ...
arc
/ahrk/, n., v., arced /ahrkt/ or arcked, arcing /ahr"king/ or arcking. n. 1. Geom. any unbroken part of the circumference of a circle or other curved line. 2. Also called ...
ARC
/ahrk/ n. Pathol. See AIDS-related complex. American Red Cross. Also, A.R.C. * * * (as used in expressions) Arc de Triomphe arc furnace island arc Joan of Arc Saint * * *
arc cos
See arc cosine. * * *
arc cosecant
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a cosecant equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc csc; Symbol: csc-1 Also called inverse cosecant. [1905-10] * * *
arc cosine
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a cosine equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc cos; Symbol: cos-1 Also called inverse cosine. [1905-10] * * *
arc cot
See arc cotangent. * * *
arc cotangent
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a cotangent equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc cot Symbol: cot-1 Also called inverse cotangent. [1905-10] * * *
arc csc
See arc cosecant. * * *
Arc de Triomphe
/annrddk deuh trddee awonnf"/ an arch, located in Paris, begun in 1806 by Napoleon in honor of his victorious armies and completed in 1836. The unknown soldier of France and the ...
arc furnace
a furnace in which heat is generated by an electric arc. * * * Type of electric furnace in which heat is generated by an arc between carbon electrodes above the surface of the ...
arc lamp
arc lamp n. a lamp in which brilliant light is produced by maintaining an arc between two electrodes, used as a spotlight, searchlight, etc.: also called arc light * * ...
arc light
1. Also, arc lamp. a lamp in which the light source is a high-intensity electric arc either between carbon rods in air or between metal electrodes in a xenon gas atmosphere ...
Arc of Lowitz
/loh"vits/, Meteorol. a halo or arc of light, occurring infrequently, which extends diagonally downward from a 22° parhelion. Also, Lowitz arc. [named after Tobias Lowitz ...
arc sec
See arc secant. * * *
arc secant
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a secant equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc sec; Symbol: sec-1 Also called inverse secant. [1905-10] * * *
arc second
Astron. second2 (def. 4). Also, arc- second. * * *
arc sin
See arc sine. * * *
arc sine
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a sine equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc sin; Symbol: sin-1 Also called inverse sine. [1905-10] * * *
arc spectrum
Physics. a spectrum formed from the light produced by an electric arc, characteristic of the gas or vapor through which the arc passes. * * *
arc tan
See arc tangent. * * *
arc tangent
Trig. the angle, measured in radians, that has a tangent equal to a given number. Abbr.: arc tan; Symbol: tan-1 Also called inverse tangent. [1905-10] * * *
arc welding
welding by means of the heat of an electric arc. Also called electric arc welding. [1930-35] * * * ▪ metallurgy       use of a sustained luminous electrical discharge ...
Arc, d'
/dannrddk/ Jeanne /zhahn/. See Joan of Arc. * * *
arc-back
/ahrk"bak'/, n. Electronics. an undesirable phenomenon, occurring in rectifier tubes, in which current flows in the reverse direction, from anode to cathode, as a result of ...
arc-boutant
/annrddk booh tahonn"/, n., pl. arcs-boutants /annrddk booh tahonn"/. French. See flying buttress. [lit., thrusting arch] * * *
Arc-en-Ciel
▪ Hungarian puppet theatre French‘‘Rainbow "       Hungarian puppet theatre in Paris from 1929 until 1940 under the leadership of the painter and puppeteer Géza ...
arc-jetengine
arc-jet engine (ärkʹjĕt') n. A rocket engine that operates by heating the propellant gas with an electric arc. * * *
arca
/ahr"keuh/, n., pl. arcae /-see/. a chest for valuables, used in medieval Spain and Italy. [ < L: chest, box. See ARK] * * *
arcade
/ahr kayd"/, n., v., arcaded, arcading. n. 1. Archit. a. a series of arches supported on piers or columns. b. an arched, roofed-in gallery. Cf. colonnade. 2. an arched or covered ...
arcade game
a game or type of game available in arcades. * * *
arcaded
/ahr kay"did/, adj. 1. decorated with an arcade: an arcaded entryway. 2. housed in an arcade: arcaded shops. [1795-1805; ARCADE + -ED3] * * *
Arcadelt, Jacob
▪ French composer Arcadelt also spelled  Arcadel, Archadelt, Archadente, Archadet, or Harchadelt, Jacob  also spelled  Jacques, or Jakob  born c. 1500, Liège? [now in ...
Arcadia
/ahr kay"dee euh/, n. 1. a mountainous region of ancient Greece, traditionally known for the contented pastoral innocence of its people. 2. any real or imaginary place offering ...
Arcadia, Academy of
▪ Italian literary academy Italian  Accademia Dell'arcadia,         Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690 to combat Marinism, the dominant Italian poetic ...
Arcadian
—Arcadianism, n. —Arcadianly, adv. /ahr kay"dee euhn/, adj. 1. of Arcadia. 2. rural, rustic, or pastoral, esp. suggesting simple, innocent contentment. n. 3. a native of ...
Arcadian League
Confederation of ancient Greek city-states of Arcadia. Arcadian towns had been forced to ally with Sparta by 550 BC, and most Arcadians remained faithful to Sparta during the ...
Arcadius
▪ Roman emperor born 377/378 died May 1, 408       Eastern Roman emperor conjointly with his father, Theodosius I, from 383 to 395, then solely until 402, when he ...
Arcado-Cyprian
/ahr kay"doh sip"ree euhn/, n. an ancient language group of eastern Greece. * * *
Arcady
/ahr"keuh dee/, n. Literary. Arcadia. [earlier Arcadie < L Arcadia < Gk Arkadía] * * *
arcana
ar·ca·na (är-kāʹnə) n. A plural of arcanum. * * *
Arcand, Denys
▪ 2005       In 2004 the career of French Canadian filmmaker Denys Arcand reached climatic heights as his 2003 film Les Invasions barbares (The Barbarian Invasions) ...
arcane
/ahr kayn"/, adj. known or understood by very few; mysterious; secret; obscure; esoteric: She knew a lot about Sanskrit grammar and other arcane matters. [1540-50; ( < MF) < L ...
arcanist
/ahr kay"nist/, n. a person professing special secret knowledge concerning ceramics, esp. concerning the making of porcelain. [1900-05; ARCAN(UM) + -IST] * * * ▪ history of ...
arcanum
/ahr kay"neuhm/, n., pl. arcana /-neuh/. 1. Often, arcana. a secret; mystery. 2. a supposed great secret of nature that the alchemists sought to discover. 3. a secret and ...
arcanum arcanorum
/ahrdd kah"noom ahrdd'kah noh"rddoom/; Eng. /ahr kay"neuhm ahr'keuh nawr"euhm, -nohr"-/, Latin. secret of secrets. * * *
Arcaro
/ahr kair"oh/, n. Edward (Eddie), 1916-97, U.S. jockey. * * *
Arcaro, Eddie
orig. George Edward Arcaro born Feb. 19, 1916, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. died Nov. 14, 1997, Miami, Fla. U.S. jockey. He became the first jockey to ride five Kentucky Derby ...
Arcaro, George Edward
▪ 1998       American jockey (b. Feb. 19, 1916, Cincinnati, Ohio—d. Nov. 14, 1997, Miami, Fla.), was one of the greatest riders in the history of thoroughbred horse ...
Arcaro,George Edward
Ar·car·o (är-kârʹō), George Edward. Known as “Eddie.” 1916-1997. American jockey who rode to victory in the Kentucky Derby five times and swept the Triple Crown (the ...
Arcas
/ahr"keuhs/, n. Class. Myth. a son of Zeus and Callisto, the ancestor of the Arcadians who was set among the stars with his mother as the Little Bear and the Great Bear ...
Arcata
/ahr kay"teuh/, n. a town in NW California. 12,338. * * *
arcature
/ahr"keuh cheuhr/, n. Archit. 1. an arcade of small dimensions. 2. a blind arcade, as a series of arches superimposed on the walls of a building for decoration. [ < ML arcat(a) ...
arccosecant
arc cosecant n. The inverse of the cosecant function. * * *


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