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Arif, 'Abd al-Rahman
▪ 2008       Iraqi army officer and politician born 1916, Baghdad, Iraq died Aug. 24, 2007, Amman, Jordan assumed the Iraqi presidency on April 17, 1966, four days ...
Ārif, ʿAbd al-Salāmʿ
▪ president of Iraq born 1921, Baghdad, Iraq died April 13, 1966, near Al-Nashwah       Iraqi army officer and politician who was president of Iraq from 1963 to ...
arigato
/ah"rddee gah"taw/; Eng. /ahr'ee gah"toh/, interj. Japanese. thank you. [1965-70] * * *
Arigböge
▪ Mongol chief also spelled  Arikböge, or Ariböx   died 1266       brother of the great Mongol leader Kublai Khan and the Mongol chief most disposed toward ...
aright
/euh ruyt"/, adv. rightly; correctly; properly: I want to set things aright. [bef. 1000; ME; OE ariht, on riht. See A-1, RIGHT] * * *
Arikara
/euh rik"euhr euh/, n., pl. Arikaras, (esp. collectively) Arikara for 1. 1. a member of a group of North American Indians of Pawnee origin who now inhabit the Dakota region. 2. ...
ariki
/ah ree"kee/, n., pl. ariki. (in Polynesia) a chief or king. [ < Maori] * * *
aril
—arilloid, adj. /ar"il/, n. Bot. a usually fleshy appendage or covering of certain seeds, as of the bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, or the nutmeg. [1785-95; < NL arillus; ML: ...
ariled
See aril. * * *
arillate
/ar"euh layt', -lit/, adj. Bot. having an aril. [1825-35; < NL arill(us) ARIL + -ATE1] * * *
arillode
arillode [ar′ə lōd΄, er′ə lōd΄] n. 〚< ModL arillus (see ARIL) + -ODE2〛 a false aril, developing from an opening in the covering of the ovule instead of from its ...
Arimathaea
—Arimathaean, Arimathean, adj. /ar'euh meuh thee"euh/, n. a town in ancient Palestine. Matt. 27:57. Also, Arimathea. * * *
Arimathea
Arimathea or Arimathaea [ar΄ə mə thē′ə] town in ancient Palestine, possibly in Samaria * * *
Ariminum
/euh rim"euh neuhm/, n. ancient name of Rimini. * * *
Ariminum, Council of
▪ Roman Catholic history also called  Council of Rimini        (AD359), in early Christianity, one of the several 4th-century church councils concerned with Arianism; ...
Arinnitti
▪ Hittite goddess Hattian  Wurusemu        Hittite sun goddess, the principal deity and patron of the Hittite empire and monarchy. Her consort, the weather god Taru ...
Arinos River
▪ river, Brazil Portuguese  Rio Arinos,         river, west-central Brazil. It rises in the Araporé Mountains northeast of Cuiabá near Diamantino and flows west ...
Ariobarzanes
▪ satrap of Phrygia died c. 360 BC       Persian satrap (provincial governor) of Phrygia after about 387. The son of a nobleman, he cultivated the friendship of Athens ...
Arion
/euh ruy"euhn/, n. 1. fl. 7th century B.C., Greek poet: inventor of the dithyramb. 2. Class. Myth. a winged horse often believed to be the offspring of Poseidon and Demeter. * * ...
ariose
/ar"ee ohs', ar'ee ohs"/, adj. characterized by melody; songlike. [1735-45; Anglicized var. of ARIOSO] * * *
arioso
/ahr'ee oh"soh, ar'-/; It. /ah rddyaw"saw/, adj., adv., n., pl. ariosos. Music. adj., adv. 1. in the manner of an air or melody. n. 2. an arioso composition or section. [1735-45; ...
Ariosto
/ahr'ee os"toh, -oh"stoh, ar'-/; It. /ah'rddee aws"taw/, n. Ludovico /looh'daw vee"kaw/, 1474-1533, Italian poet: author of Orlando Furioso. * * *
Ariosto, Ludovico
born Sept. 8, 1474, Reggio Emilia, duchy of Modena [Italy] died July 6, 1533, Ferrara Italian poet. His epic poem Orlando Furioso (1516) is regarded as the finest literary ...
Ariosto,Ludovico
A·ri·os·to (är'ē-ŏsʹtō, -ōʹstō, ăr'-), Ludovico or Lodovico 1474-1533. Italian writer primarily known for his epic comic poem Orlando Furioso (1532). * * *
Ariovistus
/ar'ee oh vis"teuhs/, n. fl. c71-58 B.C., Germanic leader of the Suevi. * * *
Arisaema
▪ plant genus  genus of stemless, tuberous-rooted herbs, comprising about 190 species in the arum family (Araceae), native mostly to the Old World but including a few notable ...
arise
/euh ruyz"/, v.i., arose, arisen /euh riz"euhn/, arising. 1. to get up from sitting, lying, or kneeling; rise: He arose from his chair when she entered the room. 2. to awaken; ...
Arīsh, Al-ʿ
▪ Egypt also spelled  El-Arish,         town and largest settlement of the Sinai Peninsula in the northeastern section, on the Mediterranean coast, the capital of ...
Arishima Takeo
▪ Japanese writer born March 4, 1878, Tokyo, Japan died June 9, 1923, Karuizawa  Japanese novelist known for his novel Aru onna (1919; A Certain Woman) and for his strong ...
Arishtanemi
▪ Jaina saint also called  Neminatha        the 22nd of the 24 Tirthankaras (Tirthankara) (“Ford-maker,” i.e., saviour) of Jainism, a traditional religion of ...
arista
/euh ris"teuh/, n., pl. aristae /-tee/. 1. Bot. a bristlelike appendage of the spikelets of grains or grasses; an awn. 2. Entomol. a prominent bristle on the antenna of some ...
Arista
/ah rddees"tah/, n. Mariano /mah rddyah"naw/, 1802-55, Mexican general: president of Mexico 1851-53. * * *
Aristaeus
▪ Greek mythology       Greek divinity whose worship was widespread but concerning whom myths are somewhat obscure. The name is derived from the Greek aristos ...
Aristagoras
died 497 Tyrant of Miletus. He assumed his regency from his father-in-law, Histiaeus (d. 494 BC), who had lost the trust of the Persian emperor, Darius I. Possibly incited by ...
aristarch
—Aristarchian, adj. /ar"euh stahrk'/, n. a severe critic. [1615-25; after ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, who, in editing Homer, rejected many lines as spurious interpolations] * * ...
Aristarchus
/ar'euh stahr"keuhs/, n. 1. of Samos. late 3rd century B.C., Greek astronomer. 2. of Samothrace. c216-144 B.C., Greek philologist and critic. 3. an extremely bright crater in the ...
Aristarchus of Samos
Aristarchus of Samos [ar΄is tär′kəs] fl. 3d cent. B.C.; Gr. astronomer * * * born с 310 BC died с 230 BC Greek astronomer. His advanced ideas on the movement of the ...
Aristarchus Of Samothrace
▪ Greek critic and grammarian born c. 217 BC died 145 BC, Cyprus       Greek critic and grammarian, noted for his contribution to Homeric ...
Aristarchusof Samos
Aristarchus of Sa·mos (sāʹmŏs', sămʹōs', säʹmôs), fl. 270B.C. Greek astronomer who was among the first to propose that the sun is the center of the universe and that ...
aristate
/euh ris"tayt/, adj. 1. Bot. having aristae; awned. 2. Zool. tipped with a bristle. [1830-40; < LL aristatus awned. See ARISTA, -ATE1] * * *
Aristeas, Letter of
      pseudepigraphal work of pseudo-history produced in Alexandria, probably in the mid-2nd century BC, to promote the cause of Judaism. Though the size and prestige of ...
Aristide
(as used in expressions) Aristide Jean Bertrand Briand Aristide Cavaillé Coll Aristide Maillol Aristide * * *
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand
born July 15, 1953, Port Salut, Haiti First president of Haiti (1991, 1994–96, 2001–04) to be elected in free democratic elections. A priest in the Roman Catholic Salesian ...
Aristide,Jean-Bertrand
Ar·is·tide (är'ĭs-tēdʹ, ä'rēs-), Jean-Bertrand. Born 1953. Haitian priest and politician who served as the first elected president of Haiti (1991-1996). Having spent ...
Aristides
/ar'euh stuy"deez/, n. ("the Just") 530?-468? B.C., Athenian statesman and general. * * * (2nd century AD) Athenian philosopher, one of the earliest Christian Apologists. His ...
Aristides Quintilianus
▪ Greek author flourished late 3rd–early 4th century AD       Greek author of the treatise Perì musikē (De musica, “On Music”). This three-volume work ...
Aristides the Just
flourished 5th century BC Athenian statesman and general. He was ostracized in 482 BC, probably for opposing Themistocles but was recalled in 480 and helped defeat the Persians ...
Aristippus
/ar'euh stip"euhs/, n. 435?-356? B.C., Greek philosopher: founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. * * * ▪ Greek philosopher born c. 435 BC, , Cyrene, Libya died 366, ...
Aristippusof Cyrene
Ar·is·tip·pus of Cy·re·ne (ăr'ĭ-stĭpʹəs; sī-rēʹnē), 435?-366?B.C. Greek philosopher who founded the Cyrenaic school, based on the pursuit of pleasure tempered by ...
aristo
/euh ris"toh/, n., pl. aristos. Chiefly Brit. Informal. aristocrat. [1860-65; by shortening; cf. -O] * * *
aristo-
a learned borrowing from Greek meaning "best," occurring either in direct loans (aristocratic), or in the formation of compound words: aristotype. [ < Gk, comb. form of áristos ...
Aristobulus I
▪ king of Judaea also called  Judas Aristobulus  died 103 BC       Hasmonean (Maccabean) Hellenized king of Judaea (104–103 BC).       The son of Hyrcanus I, ...
Aristobulus II
▪ king of Judaea died 49 BC       last of the Hasmonean (Maccabean) kings of Judaea.       On the death (67 BC) of his mother, Salome Alexandra, he succeeded to ...
Aristobulus Of Paneas
▪ Jewish philosopher flourished 2nd century BC       Jewish Hellenistic philosopher who, like his successor, Philo, attempted to fuse ideas in the Hebrew Scriptures ...
aristocracy
/ar'euh stok"reuh see/, n., pl. aristocracies. 1. a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, esp. the hereditary nobility. 2. a government or state ruled by an ...
aristocrat
/euh ris"teuh krat', ar"euh steuh-/, n. 1. a member of an aristocracy, esp. a noble. 2. a person who has the tastes, manners, etc., characteristic of members of an ...
aristocratic
—aristocratically, adv. —aristocraticalness, aristocraticness, n. /euh ris'teuh krat"ik, ar'euh steuh-/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to government by an aristocracy. 2. ...
aristocratical
See aristocratic. * * *
aristocratically
See aristocratic. * * *
aristolochiaceous
/euh ris'tl oh'kee ay"sheuhs/, adj. belonging to the Aristolochiaceae, the birthwort family of plants. Cf. birthwort family. [ < NL Aristolochi(a) genus name ( < Gk ...
Aristomenes
▪ Greek hero       traditional hero of an unsuccessful revolt against the Spartans by the Messenians, who had been enslaved by Sparta in the 8th century BC. Although ...
Ariston Of Chios
▪ Greek philosopher Ariston also spelled  Aristo   flourished 3rd century BC       Greek philosopher who studied under Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school of ...
Aristophanes
—Aristophanic /euh ris'teuh fan"ik/, adj. /ar'euh stof"euh neez'/, n. 448?-385? B.C., Athenian comic dramatist. * * * born с 450 died с 388 BC Greek playwright. An ...
Aristophanes Of Byzantium
▪ Greek critic and grammarian born c. 257 BC died 180 BC, Alexandria       Greek literary (literary criticism) critic and grammarian who, after early study under ...
Aristophanesof Byzantium
Aristophanes of By·zan·ti·um (bĭ-zănʹshē-əm, -tē-əm), 257?-180?B.C. Greek philologist who systematized the punctuation, pronunciation, and accentuation of Greek. * * *
Aristoteles
/ar'euh stot"l eez'/, n. a walled plain in the first quadrant of the face of the moon: about 60 miles (97 km) in diameter. * * *
Aristotelian
/ar'euh steuh teel"yeuhn, -tee"lee euhn, euh ris'teuh-/ adj. 1. of, pertaining to, based on, or derived from Aristotle or his theories. n. 2. a follower of Aristotle. Also, ...
Aristotelian logic
1. the logic of Aristotle, esp. in the modified form taught in the Middle Ages. 2. See traditional logic. [1830-40] * * *
Aristotelianism
/ar'euh steuh teel"yeuh niz'euhm, -tee"lee euh-, euh ris'teuh-/, n. 1. the philosophy of Aristotle. 2. emphasis upon deduction and upon investigation of concrete and particular ...
Aristotelianlogic
Aristotelian logic n. 1. Aristotle's deductive method of logic, especially the theory of the syllogism. 2. The formal logic based on Aristotle's and dealing with the relations ...
Aristotle
/ar"euh stot'l/, n. 384-322 B.C., Greek philosopher: pupil of Plato; tutor of Alexander the Great. * * * born 384, Stagira died 322 BC, Chalcis Greek philosopher and scientist ...
Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer
a painting (1653) by Rembrandt. * * *
Aristotle's lantern
Zool. a complex arrangement of muscles and calcareous teeth and plates forming an eversible organ in most echinoids, functioning in mastication. [so called from a reference by ...
aristotype
/euh ris"teuh tuyp'/, n. 1. a process of photographic printing in which paper coated with silver chloride in gelatin is used. 2. a print made by this process. [ARISTO- + -TYPE] * ...
Aristoxenus
▪ Greek philosopher flourished 4th century BC       Greek Peripatetic philosopher, the first authority for musical theory in the classical ...
arith.
1. arithmetic. 2. arithmetical. * * *
arithmancy
/ar"ith man'see/, n. divination by the use of numbers, esp. by the number of letters in names. Also, arithmomancy /euh rith"meuh man'see, ar"ith-/. [1570-80; < NL arithmomantia < ...
arithmetic
—arithmetically, adv. n. /euh rith"meuh tik/; adj. /ar'ith met"ik/, n. 1. the method or process of computation with figures: the most elementary branch of mathematics. 2. Also ...
arithmetic function
      any mathematical function defined for integers (…, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …) and dependent upon those properties of the integer itself as a number, in ...
arithmetic mean
Statistics. the mean obtained by adding several quantities together and dividing the sum by the number of quantities: the arithmetic mean of 1, 5, 2, and 8 is 4. Also called ...
arithmetic progression
a sequence in which each term is obtained by the addition of a constant number to the preceding term, as 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 6, 1, -4, -9, -14. Also called arithmetic ...
arithmetic/logic unit
/ar"ith met"ik loj"ik/, Computers. See ALU. * * *
arithmetically
See arithmetic. * * *
arithmetician
/euh rith'mi tish"euhn, ar'ith-/, n. an expert in arithmetic. [1550-60; < MF arithmeticien; see ARITHMETIC, -IAN] * * *
arithmeticmean
arithmetic mean n. The value obtained by dividing the sum of a set of quantities by the number of quantities in the set. Also called average. * * *
arithmeticprogression
arithmetic progression n. A sequence, such as the positive odd integers 1, 3, 5, 7,..., in which each term after the first is formed by adding a constant to the preceding term. * ...
Arithmometer
▪ calculating machine       early calculating machine, built in 1820 by Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France. Whereas earlier calculating machines, such as Blaise ...
Arius
/euh ruy"euhs, air"ee-/, n. died A.D. 336, Christian priest at Alexandria: founder of Arianism. * * * born с 250, Libya died 336, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire Christian ...
ariya-puggala
▪ Buddhism (Pāli: “noble person”),abbreviation  Ariya,  Sanskrit  Arya-pudgala,         in Theravāda Buddhism, a person who has attained one of the four ...
ārīyahʿ
▪ Islamic law       (Arabic: “gratuitous loan”), in Islāmic law, the gratuitous loan of some object—e.g., a utensil, a tool, or a work animal—to another person ...
Ariyoshi Sawako
▪ Japanese author born Jan. 21, 1931, Wakayama City, Japan died Aug. 30, 1984, Tokyo       Japanese novelist, short-story writer, and playwright who reached a popular ...
Ariz
Ariz abbrev. Arizona * * *
Ariz.
Arizona. * * *
Arizin, Paul
▪ 2007 “Pitchin' Paul”        American basketball player (b. April 9, 1928, Philadelphia, Pa.—d. Dec. 12, 2006, Philadelphia), was a jump-shot specialist who was ...
Arizona
—Arizonan, Arizonian /ar'euh zoh"nee euhn/, adj., n. /ar'euh zoh"neuh/, n. a state in SW United States. 2,717,866; 113,909 sq. mi. (295,025 sq. km). Cap.: Phoenix. Abbr.: AZ ...
Arizona Cardinals
▪ American football team  American professional gridiron football (football, gridiron) team based in Phoenix. The Cardinals are the oldest team in the National Football ...
Arizona State University
▪ university, Arizona, United States       public, coeducational institution of higher learning with its main campus in Tempe, Arizona, U.S. The university offers ...
Arizona, flag of
▪ Flag History       U.S. state flag consisting of red and yellow rays emanating from a copper-coloured star above a horizontal blue stripe.       On February ...
Arizona, University of
▪ university, Tucson, Arizona, United States       public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Tucson, Arizona, U.S. The university has a broad curriculum ...
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
▪ museum, Tucson, Arizona, United States       zoo, natural history museum, and botanical garden located outside Tucson, Arizona, U.S., near the western entrance to ...
Arizonan
Arizonan [Ar΄i zo′nē ənAr΄i zo′nən] adj. of Arizona n. a person born or living in Arizona: Also Arizonian [Ar΄i zo′nē ən] * * * See Arizona. * * *
Arizonian
See Arizonan. * * *
Arjan
born 1581 died 1606 Fifth Guru of the Sikhs (1581–1606) and its first martyr. He compiled the volume of Sikh scripture on which the Ādi Granth is based, and he completed the ...
Arjuna
/ahr"jeuh neuh/; Skt. /urdd"joo neuh/, n. Hinduism. the chief hero of the Bhagavad-Gita, befriended by Krishna, who appears as his charioteer and advises him on duty and the ...
ark
/ahrk/, n. 1. (sometimes cap.) Also called Noah's Ark. the large boat built by Noah in which he saved himself, his family, and a pair of every kind of creature during the Flood. ...
ark of the covenant
ark (def. 2). * * * In Judaism and Christianity, the ornate, gold-plated wooden chest that in biblical times housed the two tablets of the Law given to Moses by God. The ...
Ark Royal
a British aircraft carrier (= a large ship with an area where aircraft can take off and land). There is a tradition in the Royal Navy of naming important ships Ark Royal. The ...
ark shell
any marine bivalve of the family Arcidae, esp. of the genus Arca, characterized by a heavy shell with a toothed hinge and a deep, boatlike inner surface. [1850-55] * * * ▪ ...
Ark.
Arkansas. * * *
Arkadelphia
/ahr'keuh del"fee euh/, n. a city in central Arkansas. 10,005. * * * ▪ Arkansas, United States       city, seat (1842) of Clark county, south-central Arkansas, U.S., ...
Arkan
▪ 2001 Zeljko Raznatovic        Serbian paramilitary leader (b. April 17, 1952, Brezice, Slovenia—d. Jan. 15, 2000, Belgrade, Yugos.), was head of the Serbian ...
Arkansan
Arkansan [är kan′zən] adj. of Arkansas n. a person born or living in Arkansas * * * See Arkansas. * * *
Arkansas
—Arkansan /ahr kan"zeuhn/, Arkansian /ahr kan"zee euhn/, n., adj. /ahr"keuhn saw'/; also for 2 /ar kan"zeuhs/, n. 1. state in S central United States; 2,285,513. 53,103 sq. mi. ...
Arkansas City
/ahr kan"zeuhs/ a city in S Kansas. 13,201. * * * ▪ Kansas, United States       city, Cowley county, southern Kansas, U.S. It lies near the confluence of the Arkansas ...
Arkansas Post
▪ historical village, Arkansas, United States       historic village site, Arkansas county, southeastern Arkansas, U.S., on the Arkansas River, near its confluence ...
Arkansas River
River, rising in central Colorado, U.S. At 1,450 mi (2,333 km) long, it flows east through southern Kansas and southeast across northeastern Oklahoma and bisects Arkansas, where ...
Arkansas River Navigation System
▪ waterway, United States official name  Mcclellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation Systems        improved portion of the Verdigris and Arkansas rivers, extending ...
Arkansas State University
▪ university, Arkansas, United States       public, coeducational institution of higher education in Jonesboro, Arkansas, U.S. The university offers bachelor's and ...
Arkansas toothpick
Slang. a bowie knife or similar sharp knifelike implement. * * *
Arkansas, flag of
▪ Flag History       U.S. state flag consisting of a red field (background) bearing a blue-and-white design. In the centre is a white diamond with four blue stars and ...
Arkansas, University of
▪ university, Arkansas, United States       state university system of Arkansas, U.S., with campuses in Fayetteville (main), Little Rock, Pine Bluff, and Monticello. ...
ArkansasRiver
Ar·kan·sas River (ärʹkən-sô', är-kănʹzəs) A river of the south-central United States rising in the Rocky Mountains in central Colorado and flowing about 2,333 km ...
Arkansasstone
Ar·kan·sas stone (ärʹkən-sô') n. A stone used for sharpening and grinding metals, especially the metal blades of knives. * * *
Arkansawyer
/ahr"keuhn saw'yeuhr, -soy'euhr/, n. Informal. an Arkansan. [1905-10, Amer.; ARKANSAS + -YER, with s respelled as y on model of SAWYER] * * *
Arkatag Mountains
▪ mountains, China also spelled  Arkha Tagh , Chinese (Pinyin)  A'erge Shan  or  (Wade-Giles romanization)  A-erh-ko Shan , also called  Przhevalsky ...
Arkayev, Leonid Yakovlevich
▪ 1997       At the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Ga., legendary Russian gymnastics coach Leonid Arkayev turned in a performance worthy of a 10 as he led the Russian ...
Arkell, Anthony John
▪ British Egyptologist born July 29, 1898, Hinxhill, Kent, Eng. died Feb. 26, 1980, Chelmsford, Essex       historian and Egyptologist, an outstanding colonial ...
Arkell, William Joscelyn
▪ British paleontologist born June 9, 1904, Highworth, Wiltshire, Eng. died April 18, 1958, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire       paleontologist, an authority on Jurassic ...
Arkhangelsk
/urdd khahn"gyilsk/, n. Russian name of Archangel. * * * or Archangel City (pop, 1999 est.: 366,200), northwestern Russia. Located at the head of the Dvina Gulf, it has a ...
Arkie
/ahr"kee/, n. Often Disparaging. a migrant worker originally from Arkansas. [1925-30; ARK(ANSAS) + -IE] * * *
Arklow
▪ Ireland Irish  An tInbhear Mór        port, seaside resort, and urban district on the Irish Sea coast, in County Wicklow, southeast Ireland. In 431 St. Palladius, ...
Arkof the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant n. Bible See ark. * * *
Arkoff, Samuel Zachary
▪ 2002       American film producer (b. June 12, 1918, Fort Dodge, Iowa—d. Sept. 16, 2001, Burbank, Calif.), was the cofounder (1954), with James Nicholson, of the ...
Arkona
W. Slavic citadel-temple of the war-god Svantovit, built in the 9th–10th century AD and destroyed in 1168/69 by Christian Danes when they stormed the island of Rügen in the ...
arkose
—arkosic, adj. /ahr"kohs/, n. a granular sedimentary rock composed of quartz and feldspar or mica; a feldspathic sandstone. [1830-40; < F] * * * Coarse sandstone that has ...
arkwright
/ahrk"ruyt'/, n. a maker of chests, boxes, or coffers. [ARK + WRIGHT] * * *
Arkwright
/ahrk"ruyt'/, n. Sir Richard, 1732-92, English inventor of the spinning jenny. * * *
arkwright furniture
late medieval English furniture of simple construction. * * *
Arkwright, Sir Richard
born Dec. 23, 1732, Preston, Lancashire, Eng. died Aug. 3, 1792, Cromford, Derbyshire British textile industrialist and inventor. His first spinning machine was patented in ...
Arkwright,Sir Richard
Ark·wright (ärkʹrīt'), Sir Richard. 1732-1792. British inventor and manufacturer who patented a machine for spinning cotton thread (1769) and established cotton mills that ...
Arky
n (infml) a person from Arkansas. * * *
ARL
Association of Research Libraries. * * *
Arland, Marcel
▪ French writer born July 5, 1899, Varennes-sur-Amance, France died Jan 12, 1986, Brinville, near Fountainebleau       French writer who first achieved wide literary ...
Arlberg
/ahrddl"berddk'/, n. 1. a mountain pass in W Austria. 5946 ft. (1812 m) high. 2. a tunnel beneath this pass. * * * ▪ mountain pass, Austria       mountain pass and ...
Arledge, Roone
born July 8, 1931, Forest Hills, N.Y., U.S. died Dec. 5, 2002, New York City U.S. television executive. He began work at ABC-TV in 1960 as a sports producer. He later became ...
Arledge, Roone Pinckney
▪ 2003       American television executive (b. July 8, 1931, Forest Hills, N.Y.—d. Dec. 5, 2002, New York, N.Y.), transformed television sports broadcasting in the ...
Arleen
/ahr leen"/, n. a female given name. * * *
Arlen
/ahr"leuhn/, n. 1. Harold (Hymen Arluck), born 1905, U.S. songwriter. 2. Michael (Dikran Kouyoumdjian), 1895-1956, English novelist, born in Bulgaria. 3. a male given name. * * *
Arlen, Harold
orig. Hyman Arluck born Feb. 15, 1905, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S. died April 23, 1986, New York, N.Y. U.S. songwriter. After working as a performer and arranger, in 1929 he began a ...
Arlen, Michael
▪ British author original name  Dikran Kouyoumdjian   born Nov. 16, 1895, Ruse, Bulg. died June 23, 1956, New York, N.Y., U.S.       British author whose novels and ...
Arlen,Harold
Ar·len (ärʹlən), Harold. 1905-1986. American composer of more than 500 songs, including the 1939 Oscar winner “Over the Rainbow.” * * *
Arlene
/ahr leen"/, n. a female given name. * * *
Arles
/ahrlz/; Fr. /annrddl/, n. a city in SE France, on the Rhone River: Roman ruins. 50,345. * * * City (pop., 1999: 50,453), southeastern France. Occupied and built up by the ...
Arles, Council of
▪ Christian history       (AD 314), the first representative meeting of Christian bishops in the Western Roman Empire. It was convened at Arles in southern Gaul in ...
Arletty
▪ French actress pseudonym of  Arlette-léonie Bathiat   born May 15, 1898, Courbevoie, near Paris, Fr. died July 24, 1992, Paris       French actress with a ...
Arlington
/ahr"ling teuhn/, n. 1. a county in NE Virginia, opposite Washington, D.C.: national cemetery. 152,599. 2. a city in N Texas. 160,123. 3. a city in E Massachusetts. 48,219. 4. a ...
Arlington Heights
a city in NE Illinois, near Chicago. 66,116. * * * ▪ Illinois, United States       village, Cook county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) ...
Arlington National Cemetery
a national cemetery located in Arlington, Virginia, across the Potomac from Washington, D.C.: site of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. * * * ▪ cemetery, Virginia, United ...
Arlington, Henry Bennet, 1st earl of
▪ English statesman also called (1663–72)  Baron Arlington   born 1618, Little Saxham, Suffolk, Eng. died July 28, 1685, Euston, Suffolk       secretary of state ...
ArlingtonHeights
Arlington Heights A village of northeast Illinois, a manufacturing and residential suburb of Chicago. Population: 75,460. * * *
Arliss
/ahr"lis/, n. George, 1868-1946, English actor. * * *
Arliss, George
▪ British actor original name  Augustus George Andrews   born April 10, 1868, London died Feb. 5, 1946, London       actor noted for his portrayal of historic ...
Arlott
(1914–91) a popular English cricket commentator who described cricket matches on BBC radio and television regularly from 1947 to 1980. Many people in Britain associated the ...
Arlt, Roberto
▪ Argentine author born April 2, 1900, Buenos Aires, Arg. died July 26, 1942, Buenos Aires       novelist, short-story writer, dramatist, and journalist who pioneered ...
arm
arm1 —armed, adj. —armlike, adj. /ahrm/, n. 1. the upper limb of the human body, esp. the part extending from the shoulder to the wrist. 2. the upper limb from the shoulder ...
ARM
adjustable-rate mortgage. * * * I Upper limb of a biped, particularly a primate. Primate arms have one long bone, the humerus, in the upper arm above the elbow, and two thinner ...
Arm
Armenian. * * * I Upper limb of a biped, particularly a primate. Primate arms have one long bone, the humerus, in the upper arm above the elbow, and two thinner bones, the ...
arm candy
Slang. a very attractive person who accompanies someone on a date, as to a public event, but is not romantically involved with that person. [1990-95] * * *
arm wrestling
a form of wrestling in which two opponents, usually facing each other across a table, rest their right or left elbows on the table and, placing their corresponding forearms ...
arm's-length
/ahrmz"lengkth', -length'/, adj. not closely or intimately connected or associated; distant; remote: an arm's-length relationship. [1645-55] * * *
arm-twist
—arm-twister, n. /ahrm"twist'/, v.t. to subject to arm-twisting: The unions arm-twisted the government into negotiating by threatening widespread strikes. [back formation from ...
arm-twisting
/ahrm"twis'ting/, n. the use of threat, coercion, or other forms of pressure and persuasion to achieve one's purpose: It took a lot of arm-twisting but he finally agreed to work ...
arm-wrestle
—arm wrestler. /ahrm"res'euhl/, v.t., v.i., arm-wrestled, arm-wrestling. to engage in arm wrestling. * * *
arm-wrestler
See arm-wrestle. * * *
arm-wrestling
☆ arm-wrestling [ärm′res΄liŋ ] n. INDIAN WRESTLING (sense 1) * * *
Arm.
1. Armenian. 2. Armorican. * * *
Armada
/ahr mah"deuh, -may"-/, n. 1. Also called Invincible Armada, Spanish Armada. the fleet sent against England by Philip II of Spain in 1588. It was defeated by the English navy and ...
Armada chest
an iron or iron-bound strongbox of the 17th or 18th century. * * *
Armada, Spanish
Great fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England in conjunction with a Spanish army from Flanders. Philip was motivated by a desire to restore the Roman Catholic ...
armadillo
/ahr'meuh dil"-oh/, n., pl. armadillos. any of several burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals constituting the family Dasypodidae, ranging from the southern U.S. through South ...
armadillo lizard
▪ reptile       (species Cordylus cataphractus), a southern African member of the family Cordylidae, known for its defensive body posture. This lizard is about 25 cm (10 ...
Armageddon
/ahr'meuh ged"n/, n. 1. the place where the final battle will be fought between the forces of good and evil (probably so called in reference to the battlefield of Megiddo. Rev. ...
Armagh
/ahr mah"/, n. 1. a county in S Northern Ireland. 133,969; 489 sq. mi. (1267 sq. km). Co. seat: Armagh. 2. an administrative district in this county. 46,850; 261 sq. mi. (676 sq. ...
Armagnac
/ahr'meuhn yak"/; Fr. /annrdd mah nyannk"/, n. a dry brandy distilled in the district of Armagnac in SW France. [1840-50] * * * Small territory in historical Gascony, ...
Armah, Ayi Kwei
▪ Ghanaian writer born 1939, Takoradi, Gold Coast [now Ghana]       Ghanaian novelist whose work deals with corruption and materialism in contemporary ...
Armalite rifle
▪ weapon       any of several lightweight, small-calibre assault rifles designed by the American manufacturer Armalite, Inc. The first Armalite rifle, the AR-10, was a ...
armament
/ahr"meuh meuhnt/, n. 1. the arms and equipment with which a military unit or military apparatus is supplied. 2. a land, sea, or air force equipped for war. 3. armor (def. 5). 4. ...
armamentarium
/ahr'meuh meuhn tair"ee euhm, -men-/, n., pl. armamentaria /-tair"ee euh/. 1. the aggregate of equipment, methods, and techniques available to one for carrying out one's duties: ...
armamentary
See armament. * * *
Arman
▪ 2006 Armand Pierre Fernandez; Armand Pierre Arman        French-born artist (b. Nov. 17, 1928, Nice, France—d. Oct. 22, 2005, New York, N.Y), was a founding member ...
Armand
/ahr"meuhnd/; Fr. /annrdd mahonn"/, n. a male given name, French form of Herman. * * * (as used in expressions) Caulaincourt Armand Augustin Louis marquis de Hammer Armand La ...
Armand Hammer
➡ Hammer (I) * * *
Armani, Giorgio
born July 11, 1934, Piacenza, Italy Italian fashion designer. He abandoned medical school and worked as a buyer for a department store (1957–64) before training as a fashion ...
Armant
▪ ancient town, Egypt Greek  Hermonthis , Egyptian  Per-month        ancient town in Upper Egypt, near Thebes on the west bank of the Nile River. It was the seat ...
armarian
/ahr mair"ee euhn/, n. Hist. a monk in charge of the library and scriptorium in a monastery. [1840-50; < ML armari(us), equiv. to armari(a) library, orig. neut. pl., deriv. of L ...
armarium
/ahr mair"ee euhm/, n., pl. armaria /-mair"ee euh/. ambry (def. 1). [ < L: cupboard, safe, equiv. to arm(a) weapons, tools + -arium -ARIUM] * * *
armatole
▪ Greek police Greek  Armatolos,  plural  Armatoloi,         any of the Greeks who discharged certain military and police duties under Ottoman authority in ...
Armatrading, Joan
▪ British singer-songwriter born December 9, 1950, Basseterre, St. Kitts    singer-songwriter (singer-songwriters), the first black among the first British females to make ...
armature
/ahr"meuh cheuhr/, n. 1. armor. 2. Biol. the protective covering of an animal or plant, or any part serving for defense or offense. 3. Elect. a. the part of an electric machine ...
armature reaction
Elect. a change in the magnetic field of a dynamo caused by the magnetic field induced by the current flowing through the armature. * * *
Armavir
/ahr'meuh vear"/; Russ. /urdd mu vyeerdd"/, n. a city in the SW Russian Federation, E of Krasnodar. 162,000. * * * ▪ Russia       city, Krasnodar kray (region), ...
armband
/ahrm"band'/, n. a fabric band worn around the upper arm as a badge or symbol; brassard. [1790-1800; ARM1 + BAND2] * * *
Armbruster, Peter
▪ 1997       On Feb. 9, 1996, German physicist Peter Armbruster and a multinational team of scientists at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Darmstadt, Ger., ...
armchair
/ahrm"chair'/, n. 1. a chair with sidepieces or arms to support a person's forearms or elbows. adj. 2. theorizing without the benefit of practical experience: an armchair ...
Armco Inc.
▪ American company formerly (1948–78)  Armco Steel Corporation , or (1899–1948)  American Rolling Mill Company        American corporation first incorporated, ...
armed
/ahrmd/, adj. 1. bearing firearms; having weapons: a heavily armed patrol. 2. maintained by arms: armed peace. 3. involving the use of weapons: armed conflict. 4. equipped: The ...
armed bullhead
pogge. * * *
armed forces
military, naval, and air forces, esp. of a nation or of a number of nations. Also called armed services. [1685-95] * * *
Armed Forces Day
the third Saturday in May, observed in some areas of the U.S. as a holiday in honor of all branches of the armed forces. [1965-70] * * * ▪ Egyptian holiday       public ...
Armed forces mobilized and casualties in World War I
▪ Table Armed forces mobilized and casualties in World War I* country total mobilized forces killed and died wounded prisoners and missing total casualties percentage of ...
Armed Islamic Group
French Groupe Islamique Armée (GIA) Algerian militant group. It was formed in 1992 after the government nullified the likely victory of the Islamic Salvation Front in 1991 ...
armed neutrality
military preparedness without commitment, esp. as the expressed policy of a neutral nation in wartime; readiness to counter with force an invasion of rights by any belligerent ...
armed robbery
a robbery in which the robber is armed with a dangerous weapon. [1975-80] * * *
armedforces
armed forces pl.n. The military forces of a country. Also called armed services. * * *
Armen.
Armenian. * * *
Armenia
/ahr mee"nee euh, -meen"yeuh/; for 3 also Sp. /ahrdd me"nyah/, n. 1. an ancient country in W Asia: now divided between Armenia, Turkey, and Iran. 2. Also called, Armenian ...
Armenia, flag of
▪ Flag History       horizontally striped red-blue-orange national flag. Its width-to-length proportion is 1 to 2.       Long without an independent state of ...
Armenian
/ahr mee"nee euhn, -meen"yeuhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Armenia, its inhabitants, or their language. n. 2. a native of Armenia. 3. the language of the Armenians, an ...
Armenian alphabet
▪ writing system  script developed for the Armenian language in the 5th century AD and still in use. It was probably derived from the Pahlavi alphabet of Persia, with some ...
Armenian Apostolic Church
      independent Oriental Orthodox Christian (Christianity) church and the national church of Armenia.       According to tradition, Armenia was evangelized by the ...
Armenian Catholic Church
      an Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic church. The Armenians embraced Christianity about AD 300 and were the first people to do so as a nation. About 50 years ...
Armenian chant
▪ vocal music       vocal music of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the religious poetry that serves as its texts. Armenia was Christianized quite early by ...
Armenian Church
a Monophysite church organized in 1899 in the U.S. Also called Armenian Apostolic Church. * * *
Armenian Highland
▪ region, Asia Russian  Armyanskoye Nagorye,  also spelled  Arm'anskoje Nagor'e,         mountainous region of Transcaucasia. It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all ...
Armenian language
Indo-European language of the Armenians. It is spoken by perhaps five to six million people worldwide. Armenian has undergone phonetic and grammatical changes that make it ...
Armenian literature
      body of writings in the Armenian language. There is evidence that a pagan oral literature existed in Armenia before the invention of the Armenian alphabet in the 5th ...
Armenian massacres
Murder and expulsion of Turkish Armenians by the Ottoman Empire under Abdülhamid II in 1894–96 and by the Young Turk government in 1915–16. In 1894, when the Armenians ...
Armenian rite
▪ Armenian liturgy       the system of liturgical practices and discipline observed by both the Armenian Apostolic (Armenian Apostolic Church) (Orthodox) Church and the ...
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic a republic of the U.S.S.R.: now ARMENIA (the country) * * *
ArmenianChurch
Armenian Church n. An autonomous Christian church established in Armenia in the fourth century A.D. It differs from other Eastern churches in professing a form of ...
Armentières
/annrdd mahonn tyerdd"/; Eng. /ahr'meuhn tearz", -tyair"/, n. a city in extreme N France: World War I battles 1914, 1918. 27,473. * * * ▪ France       town, Nord ...
armer
See arm2. * * *
armet
/ahr"met/, n. Armor. a completely enclosed helmet having a visor and hinged cheek pieces fastened under the chin. Cf. close helmet. [1500-10; < MF, equiv. to arme ARM2 + -et ...
Armfelt, Gustaf Mauritz
▪ Swedish statesman born March 31, 1757, St. Mårtens, near Turku, Finland, Kingdom of Sweden [now in Finland] died Aug. 19, 1814, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], near St. ...
armful
/ahrm"fool'/, n., pl. armfuls. 1. as much as a person can hold or carry in an arm or both arms. 2. Informal. a girl or woman with a well-rounded figure. 3. Informal. an ...
armguard
/ahrm"gahrd'/, n. 1. a band of leather or other material worn about the wrist or lower part of the arm for protection and support. 2. Archery. bracer2. [ARM1 + GUARD] * * *
armhole
/ahrm"hohl'/, n. an opening in a garment, for the arm. [1275-1325; ME arm-hol armpit. See ARM1, HOLE] * * *
Armidale
▪ New South Wales, Australia       city, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the valley slopes of Dumaresq Creek in the New England Range. Founded in ...
armiger
—armigeral /ahr mij"euhr euhl/, adj. /ahr"mi jeuhr/, n. 1. a person entitled to armorial bearings. 2. an armorbearer to a knight; a squire. [1755-65; < ML: squire, L: ...
armigeral
See armiger. * * *
armigerous
/ahr mij"euhr euhs/, adj. bearing or entitled to use a coat of arms. [1725-35; ARMIGER + -OUS] * * *
armill
/ahr"mil/, n. a garment resembling a stole, worn by a British king at his coronation. Also, armil, armilla. [1425-75; late ME armille bracelet < MF < L armilla. See ARMILLARY] * ...
armilla
/ahr mil"euh/, n., pl. armillae /-mil"ee, -mil"uy/, armillas. armill. * * *
Armillaria
▪ fungus genus       genus of about 35 species of fungi in the order Agaricales (q.v.; class Agaricomycetes, kingdom Fungi), found throughout northern North America and ...
armillaria root rot
/ahr'meuh lair"ee euh/ a widespread rot caused by the honey mushroom, Armillariella mellea, seriously damaging to the roots of various hardwoods, conifers, and other trees. [ < ...
armillary
/ahr"meuh ler'ee, ahr mil"euh ree/, adj. consisting of hoops or rings. [1655-65; < L armill(a) bracelet, hoop (arm(us) shoulder (see ARM1) + -illa dim. suffix) + -ARY] * * *
armillary sphere
Astron. an ancient instrument consisting of an arrangement of rings, all of which are circles of the same sphere, used to show the relative positions of the celestial equator, ...
armillarysphere
ar·mil·lar·y sphere (ärʹmə-lĕr'ē, är-mĭlʹə-rē) n. An old astronomical model with solid rings, all circles of a single sphere, used to display relationships among ...
Armilus
▪ Jewish legend       in Jewish legends, an enemy who will conquer Jerusalem and persecute Jews until his final defeat at the hands of God or the true Messiah. His ...
Armin
Ar·min (är-mēnʹ) See Arminius. * * *
Armin, Robert
▪ English actor born c. 1568 died November 1615, London, Eng.       English actor and playwright best known as a leading comic actor in the plays of William ...
arming chest
a chest for holding armor and weapons. * * *
Arminian
Ar·min·i·an (är-mĭnʹē-ən) adj. Of or relating to the theology of Jacobus Arminius and his followers, who rejected the Calvinist doctrines of predestination and election ...
Arminianism
—Arminian, adj., n. /ahr min"ee euh niz'euhm/, n. Theol. the doctrinal teachings of Jacobus Arminius or his followers, esp. the doctrine that Christ died for all people and not ...
Arminius
/ahr min"ee euhs/, n. 1. (Hermann) 17? B.C.-A.D. 21, Germanic hero who defeated Roman army A.D. 9. 2. Jacobus /jeuh koh"beuhs/, (Jacob Harmensen), 1560-1609, Dutch Protestant ...
Arminius, Jacobus
▪ Dutch theologian Dutch  Jacob Harmensen or Jacob Hermansz   born October 10, 1560, Oudewater, Netherlands died October 19, 1609, Leiden       theologian and ...
Arminius,Jacobus
Arminius, Jacobus. 1560-1609. Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism, which opposed the absolute predestinarianism of John Calvin and was influential throughout Europe. * * *
armipotent
/ahr mip"euh tnt/, adj. Archaic. strong in battle. [1350-1400; < L armipotent- (s. of armipotens potent in arms). See ARM2, -I-, POTENT] * * *
Armistead Maupin
➡ Maupin * * *
armistice
/ahr"meuh stis/, n. a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement of the warring parties; truce: World War I ended with the armistice of 1918. [1655-65; < F < ML ...
Armistice Day
former name of Veterans Day. [1915-20] * * *
ArmisticeDay
Ar·mi·stice Day (ärʹmĭ-stĭs) n. November 11, formerly observed in the United States in commemoration of the signing of the armistice ending World War I in 1918. Since 1954 ...
Armitage
/ahr"mi tij/, n. Kenneth, born 1916, English sculptor. * * *
Armitage, Kenneth
▪ 2003       British sculptor (b. July 18, 1916, Leeds, Eng.—d. Jan. 22, 2002, London, Eng.), created semiabstract bronzes, many of which displayed quirky humour, that ...
armless
—armlessness, n. /ahrm"lis/, adj. lacking an arm or arms: The Venus de Milo is an armless statue. [1350-1400; ME; see ARM1, -LESS] * * *


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