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See rapaciously. * * *
See rapaciously. * * *
Rapacki, Adam
▪ Polish politician and economist born Dec. 24, 1909, Lwów, Galicia, Austria-Hungary [now Lviv, Ukraine] died Oct. 10, 1970, Warsaw, Pol.       Polish socialist who ...
/rddah pahl"law/, n. a seaport in NW Italy, on the Gulf of Genoa: treaties 1920, 1922. 27,042. * * * ▪ Italy       city, Genova provincia, Liguria regione, northwestern ...
Rapallo, Treaty of
(April 16, 1922) Treaty between Germany and the Soviet Union, signed at Rapallo, Italy. Negotiated by Germany's Walther Rathenau and the Soviet Union's Georgy V. Chicherin, it ...
Rapa Nu·i (no͞oʹē) See Easter Island. * * *
rape1 —rapable, rapeable, adj. —rapist, raper, n. /rayp/, n., v., raped, raping. n. 1. the unlawful compelling of a woman through physical force or duress to have sexual ...
Rape of Lucrece, The
/looh krees", looh"krees/ a narrative poem (1594) by Shakespeare. * * *
Rape of the Lock
a long humorous poem (1712) by Alexander Pope, about a man who cuts off a small piece of a woman’s hair (= a lock). Pope describes this rather unimportant act in grand and ...
Rape of the Lock, The
a mock-epic poem (1712) by Alexander Pope. * * *
rape oil
Chem. a brownish-yellow oil obtained by expression from rapeseed and used chiefly as a lubricant, an illuminant, and in the manufacture of rubber substitutes. Also called ...
rape oil n. The edible oil extracted from rapeseed, also used as a lubricant and in the manufacture of various products. Also called rapeseed oil. * * *
See rape1. * * *
/rayp"seed'/, n. 1. the seed of the rape. 2. the plant itself. [1525-35; RAPE2 + SEED] * * *
rapeseed oil n. See rape oil. * * *
rapeshield law
rape shield law n. A law that prohibits the defense in a rape case from cross-examination regarding the plaintiff's prior sexual conduct. * * *
/raf"ee euhl, ray"fee-, rah'fuy el"/, n. 1. (Raffaello Santi or Sanzio) 1483-1520, Italian painter. 2. one of the archangels. 3. a male given name: from a Hebrew word meaning ...
Raphael I Bidawid
▪ 2004       Iraqi cleric (b. April 17, 1922, Mosul, Iraq—d. July 7, 2003, Beirut, Lebanon), as patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church, based in Baghdad, Iraq, was ...
/raf'ee euh lesk", ray'fee-, rah'fee-/, adj. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the style of the painter Raphael. [1830-35; RAPHAEL + -ESQUE] * * *
/ray"fee/, n., pl. raphae /-fee/. 1. Anat. a seamlike union between two parts or halves of an organ or the like. 2. Bot. a. (in certain ovules) a ridge connecting the hilum with ...
/ray"fee euh, raf"ee euh/, n. raffia. * * *
raphide [rā′fid, raf′id] n. pl. raphides [raf′ə dēz΄, rā′fidz] 〚ModL < Gr rhaphis (gen. rhaphidos), needle: for IE base see RAPHE〛 Bot. a needle-shaped crystal, ...
/raf"i deez'/, n.pl. Bot. acicular crystals, usually composed of calcium oxalate, that occur in bundles in the cells of many plants. [1835-45; < NL < Gk rhaphídes, pl. of ...
—rapidly, adv. /rap"id/, adj., rapider, rapidest, n. adj. 1. occurring within a short time; happening speedily: rapid growth. 2. moving or acting with great speed; swift: a ...
Rapid City
a city in SW South Dakota. 46,492. * * * ▪ South Dakota, United States       city, seat (1877) of Pennington county, western South Dakota, U.S. It lies at the eastern ...
Rapid Deployment Force
a U.S. military organization consisting of one Marine division and four Army divisions, established in 1979 to respond quickly to any distant threat to national interests. * * *
rapid eye movement
rapid eye movement n. REM * * *
rapid eye movement sleep.
See REM sleep. [1960-65] * * *
rapid eye movement.
rapidly shifting, continuous movements of the eyes beneath closed lids during the stage of sleep characterized by dreaming. Also called REM [1915-20] * * *
rapid fire
Mil. a rate of firing small arms that is intermediate between slow fire and quick fire. * * *
rapid transit
—rapid-transit, adj. a system of public transportation in a metropolitan area, usually a subway or elevated train system. Cf. mass transit. [1870-75, Amer.] * * *  system of ...
/rap"id fuyeur"/, adj. 1. characterized by, delivered, or occurring in rapid succession: rapid-fire questions; rapid-fire events. 2. Mil. discharging in rapid fire: rapid-fire ...
/rap'i dan"/, n. a river in N Virginia, flowing E from the Blue Ridge Mountains into the Rappahannock River: Civil War battle 1862. * * *
rapid chess n. A form of chess in which all moves must be completed during a fixed time, usually 30 minutes per player. * * *
Rap·id City (răpʹĭd) A city of southwest South Dakota west-southwest of Pierre in the eastern part of the Black Hills. It is a trade, transportation, and tourist center. ...
rapideye movement
rapid eye movement n. REM. * * *
/reuh pid"i tee/, n. a rapid state or quality; quickness; celerity. Also, rapidness /rap"id nis/. [1610-20; < L rapiditas. See RAPID, -ITY] Syn. swiftness, fleetness. See ...
See rapidity. * * *
rapidly advancing juvenile periodontitis
Dentistry. a rare, rapidly progressive and destructive infectious periodontal disease that usually affects the front teeth and first permanent molars of children. * * *
See rapidity. * * *
/rah"pee doh'/; Sp. /rddah"pee dhaw'/; It. /rddah"pee daw/, n., pl. rapidos /-dohz'/; Sp. /-dhaws'/, It. rapidi /-dee/. (esp. in Spain, Italy, and Latin America) an express ...
rapid transit n. An urban passenger transportation system using elevated or underground trains or a combination of both. * * *
—rapiered, adj. /ray"pee euhr/, n. 1. a small sword, esp. of the 18th century, having a narrow blade and used for thrusting. 2. a longer, heavier sword, esp. of the 16th and ...
rapier loom
▪ weaving       a shuttleless weaving loom in which the filling yarn is carried through the shed of warp yarns to the other side of the loom by fingerlike carriers ...
Rapier, James T(homas)
born Nov. 13, 1837, Florence, Ala., U.S. died May 31, 1883, Montgomery, Ala. U.S. politician. The son of a slave and a wealthy planter, he was educated in Canada and Scotland. ...
Rapier, James T.
▪ American politician in full  James Thomas Rapier   born Nov. 13, 1837, Florence, Ala., U.S. died May 31, 1883, Montgomery, Ala.       black planter and labour ...
/rap"in, -uyn/, n. the violent seizure and carrying off of another's property; plunder. [1375-1425; late ME < L rapina robbery, pillage. See RAPE1, -INE2] * * *
/ra pee"nee/, n. the leaves of the turnip, Brassica rapa, eaten cooked or raw as greens. Also, rappini. [perh. < It, pl. of rapino a plant of the genus Erysimum, perh. orig. dim. ...
☆ rapist [rāp′ist ] n. a person who has committed rape * * * rap·ist (rāʹpĭst) n. One who commits rape. * * *
/rap/; Ger. /rddahp/, n. George, 1757-1847, U.S. religious preacher, born in Germany: leader of the Harmonists. * * * ▪ Soviet organization abbreviation of  Rossiyskaya ...
Rapp, George
▪ American religious leader original name  Johann Georg Rapp   born Nov. 1, 1757, Iptingen, Württemberg [Germany] died Aug. 7, 1847, Economy, Pa., ...
/rap'euh han"euhk/, n. a river flowing SE from N Virginia into the Chesapeake Bay: Civil War battle 1863. 185 mi. (300 km) long. * * *
Rappahannock River
▪ river, Virginia, United States       river flowing entirely through Virginia, U.S. It rises near Chester Gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains east of Front Royal and ...
/rap'euh ree"/, n. 1. an armed Irish freebooter or plunderer, esp. of the 17th century. 2. any freebooter or robber. [1680-90; < Ir rapaire] * * * ▪ Irish ...
rappé pie
/rap"ee, rah"pee/, Canadian (chiefly the Maritime Provinces). a pie containing grated potatoes and chicken, duck, or rabbit meat. Also, rappie pie. [1930-35; < CanF (Acadian) ...
/ra pee"/, n. a strong snuff made from dark, rank tobacco leaves. [1730-40; < F râpé grated (ptp. of râper); see RAPE3] * * *
/ra pel", reuh-/, n., v., rappelled, rappelling. n. 1. (in mountaineering) the act or method of moving down a steep incline or past an overhang by means of a double rope secured ...
/rah"peuhn/, n., pl. rappen. a bronze coin and monetary unit of Switzerland; centime. [1830-40; < Swiss G; late MHG rappen a type of coin first minted in Alsace, lit., raven (a ...
/rap"euhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that raps or knocks. 2. the knocker of a door. 3. Slang. a person who chats or talks, esp. freely. 4. a person who performs rap music, esp. ...
/rap"ing/, n. 1. the act or sound of a person or thing that raps. 2. communication by the sound of taps or knocks, as between medium and spirit during a séance. [1350-1400; ME. ...
/ra pee"nee/, n. rapini. * * *
/rap"ist/, n. Harmonist. Also, Rappite /rap"uyt/. [1835-45, Amer.; after G. RAPP; see -IST] * * *
/ra pawr", -pohr", reuh-/, n. relation; connection, esp. harmonious or sympathetic relation: a teacher trying to establish close rapport with students. [1530-40; < F, deriv. of ...
/rap'awr terr"/; Fr. /rddann pawrdd tuerdd"/, n., pl. rapporteurs /-terrz"/; Fr. /-tuerdd"/. a person responsible for compiling reports and presenting them, as to a governing ...
/rap'rohsh mahonn"/; Fr. /rddann prddawsh mahonn"/, n. an establishment or reestablishment of harmonious relations: a rapprochement reached between warring factions. [1800-10; < ...
/rap skal"yeuhn/, n. a rascal; rogue; scamp. [1690-1700; earlier rascallion, based on RASCAL] * * *
rap session n. Slang An informal discussion held especially by a group of people with similar concerns. * * *
rap sheet n. Slang A police arrest record. * * *
—raptly, adv. —raptness, n. /rapt/, adj. 1. deeply engrossed or absorbed: a rapt listener. 2. transported with emotion; enraptured: rapt with joy. 3. showing or proceeding ...
See rapt. * * *
/rap"teuhr, -tawr/, n. a raptorial bird. [1600-10; < L raptor one who seizes by force, robber, equiv. to rap(ere) (see RAPE1) + -tor -TOR] * * * In general, any bird of prey, ...
/rap tawr"ee euhl, -tohr"-/, adj. 1. preying upon other animals; predatory. 2. adapted for seizing prey, as the bill or claws of a bird. 3. belonging or pertaining to the ...
—raptureless, adj. /rap"cheuhr/, n., v. raptured, rapturing. n. 1. ecstatic joy or delight; joyful ecstasy. 2. Often, raptures. an utterance or expression of ecstatic ...
rapture of the deep
Pathol. See nitrogen narcosis. [1950-55; coined by J. Y. Cousteau as a trans. of the F phrase ivresse des grandes profondeurs] * * *
/rap"cheuhrd/, adj. Theol. (esp. of saints) experiencing religious ecstasy as a result of one's faith. [1675-85; RAPTURE + -ED2] * * *
—rapturously, adv. —rapturousness, n. /rap"cheuhr euhs/, adj. 1. full of, feeling, or manifesting ecstatic joy or delight. 2. characterized by, attended with, or expressive ...
See rapturous. * * *
See rapturously. * * *
/rap"teuhs/, n. a state of intense or overwhelming excitement; rapture; ecstasy. [1840-50; < L: a seizing, equiv. to rap(ere) to seize, abduct, RAPE1 + -tus suffix of v. ...
Raqqah ware
▪ pottery       Islāmic (Islamic arts) earthenware produced at Ar-Raqqah, Syria, between the 9th and 14th centuries. The body of the ware, which is white tending to ...
Raqqah, Al-
▪ Syria also spelled  Ar-Raqqah,  Raqqah also spelled  Raqqa,  or  Rakka         town, northern Syria, on the Euphrates River just west of its confluence with ...
rara avis
/rair"euh ay"vis/; Lat. /rddah"rddah ah"wis/, pl. rarae aves /rair"ee ay"veez/; Lat. /rddah"rdduy ah"wes/. a rare person or thing; rarity. [1600-10; < L rara avis rare bird] * * *
ra·ra a·vis (rârʹə āʹvĭs) n. pl. ra·ra a·vis·es or ra·rae a·ves (rârʹē āʹvēz) A rare or unique person or thing.   [Latin rāra avis: rāra, feminine of ...
rare1 —rareness, n. /rair/, adj., rarer, rarest. 1. coming or occurring far apart in time; unusual; uncommon: a rare disease; His visits are rare occasions. 2. thinly ...
rare book
a book that is distinguished by its early printing date, its limited issue, the special character of the edition or binding, or its historical interest. [1890-95] * * *
rare earth
Chem. the oxide of any of the rare-earth elements contained in various minerals. [1875-80] * * *
rare earth metal
Any of a large class of chemical elements including scandium (atomic number 21), yttrium (39), and the 15 elements from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (see lanthanides). The rare earths ...
rare-earth element
/rair"errth"/, Chem. any of a group of closely related metallic elements, comprising the lanthanides, scandium, and yttrium, that are chemically similar by virtue of having the ...
rare-earth element (râr'ûrthʹ) n. Any of the abundant metallic elements of atomic number 57 through 71. Also called lanthanide.   [So called because they were originally ...
/rair"bit/, n. See Welsh rabbit. [1715-25] * * *
raree show
/rair"ee/ 1. See peep show. 2. a carnival or street show; spectacle. [1695-1705; allegedly imit. of a foreign pron. of rare show] * * *
rare earth n. 1. Any of various oxides of the rare-earth elements. 2. A rare-earth element. * * *
rar·ee show (rârʹē) n. 1. See peepshow. 2. A street show.   [Alteration of rare1 + show.] * * *
—rarefactional, adj. —rarefactive /rair'euh fak"tiv/, adj. /rair'euh fak"sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of rarefying. 2. the state of being rarefied. [1595-1605; < ML ...
See rarefaction. * * *
See rarefy. * * *
/rair"euh fuyd'/, adj. 1. extremely high or elevated; lofty; exalted: the rarefied atmosphere of a scholarly symposium. 2. of, belonging to, or appealing to an exclusive group; ...
—rarefiable, adj. —rarefier, n. /rair"euh fuy'/, v., rarefied, rarefying. v.t. 1. to make rare or rarer; make less dense: to rarefy a gas. 2. to make more refined, spiritual, ...
/rair"lee/, adv. 1. on rare occasions; infrequently; seldom: I'm rarely late for appointments. 2. exceptionally; in an unusual degree. 3. unusually or remarkably well; ...
See rare1,2. * * *
/rair"ruyp'/, Bot. adj. 1. ripening early. n. 2. a fruit or vegetable that ripens early. [1715-25, Amer.; rare, early var. (obs. except Brit. dial.) of RATHE + RIPE] * * *
rar·i·fied (rârʹə-fīd') adj. Variant of rarefied. * * *
rarify [rer′ə fī΄] vt., vi. rarified, rarifying alt. sp. of RAREFY * * * rar·i·fy (rârʹə-fī') v. Variant of rarefy. * * *
/rair"ing/, adj. Informal. very eager or anxious; enthusiastic: raring to go. [1905-10; RARE3 + -ING2] * * *
Rar·i·tan (rărʹĭ-tən) A river, about 129 km (80 mi) long, formed by the confluence of two tributaries in north-central New Jersey and flowing eastward to Raritan Bay, the ...
Raritan River
▪ river, New Jersey, United States       largest stream lying wholly within New Jersey, U.S., formed by the confluence of the North Branch Raritan and the South Branch ...
/rair"i tee/, n., pl. rarities. 1. something rare, unusual, or uncommon: Snowstorms are a rarity in the South. 2. something esteemed or interesting in being rare, uncommon, or ...
—Rarotongan, adj., n. /rar'euh tong"geuh/, n. one of the Cook Islands, in the S Pacific, 11,433; 26 sq. mi. (67 sq. km). * * * ▪ island, Cook Islands       largest ...
Ras Addar
/rahs" a dahr"/. See Bon, Cape. * * *
Ras Algethi
▪ star also called  Alpha Herculis        red supergiant star, whose diameter is probably larger than the orbit of the Earth. It lies in the constellation Hercules ...
Ras Shamra
/rahs sham"reuh/ a locality in W Syria, near the Mediterranean Sea: site of ancient Ugarit; many archaeologically important objects dating to the Bronze Age. * * *
Ras Tanura
▪ Saudi Arabia also spelled  Ras Tannura , Arabic  Raʾs At-tannūrah,    port on the Persian Gulf, in eastern Saudi Arabia, at the tip of a small peninsula. Developed by ...
/rus"euh/, n. (in Hindu aesthetics) flavor, sentiment, or emotion: regarded as one of the fundamental qualities of classical music, dance, and poetry. [1790-1800; < Skt rasa sap, ...
/raz bawr"euh, -bohr"euh, raz"beuhr euh/, n. any of several minnows of the genus Rasbora, inhabiting fresh waters of southeastern Asia and the Malay Archipelago, esp. the silvery ...
—rascallike, adj. /ras"keuhl/, n. 1. a base, dishonest, or unscrupulous person. 2. a mischievous person or animal: That child is a real rascal. [1300-50; ME rascaile, raskaille ...
/ra skal"i tee/, n., pl. rascalities. 1. rascally or knavish character or conduct. 2. a rascally act. [1570-80; RASCAL + -ITY] * * *
/ras"keuh lee/, adj. 1. being, characteristic of, or befitting a rascal. adv. 2. in a rascally manner. [1590-1600; RASCAL + -LY] * * *
/ra skas"/, n. any of several scorpionfishes, as Scorpaena scrofa or S. porcus, of the Mediterranean Sea, used in making bouillabaisse. [1920-25; < F < Pr rascasso, deriv. of ...
Rasch, Albertina
▪ American dancer born 1896, Vienna, Austria died Oct. 2, 1967, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.       Austrian-born American dancer, choreographer, and teacher whose troupes ...
Rascher, Sigurd
▪ 2002       German-born Scandinavian saxophonist (b. May 15, 1907, Elberfeld [now Wuppertal], Ger.—d. Feb. 25, 2001, Shushan, N.Y.), was a virtuoso performer who ...
Ras Da·shan (räs də-shänʹ) A mountain, 4,623.2 m (15,158 ft) high, in northern Ethiopia. Of volcanic origin, it is the highest peak in the country. * * *
—raser, n. /rayz/, v.t., rased, rasing. raze. * * *
rash1 —rashly, adv. —rashness, n. /rash/, adj. rasher, rashest. 1. acting or tending to act too hastily or without due consideration. 2. characterized by or showing too great ...
Rashad, Phylicia
▪ 2009 Phylicia Ayers Allen  American actress Phylicia Rashad, the first black woman to win (2004) a Tony Award for best actress (for her role as Lena Younger, the matriarch ...
rasher1 /rash"euhr/, n. 1. a thin slice of bacon or ham for frying or broiling. 2. a portion or serving of bacon, usually three or four slices. [1585-95; orig. ...
/rah"shee/, n. (Solomon ben Isaac) 1040-1105, French Hebrew scholar. * * * in full Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi born 1040, Troyes, Champagne died July 13, 1105, Troyes Medieval ...
(as used in expressions) Rashid al Ghannushi Harun al Rashid Rashid Rida Muhammad * * *
Rashīd ad-Dīn
▪ Islamic leader in full  Rashīd Ad-dīn As-sinān   died 1192       leader of the Syrian branch of the Assassins (Assassin) (an Ismāʿīlī Shīʿī Muslim sect) ...
Rashīd Riḍā, Muḥammad
born 1865, Syria died 1935, Syria Syrian Islamic scholar. As founder (1898) and publisher of the newspaper Al-Manār, he helped Muslims formulate an intellectual response to ...
Rashīd, al-
▪ ʿAlawī ruler of Morocco died 1672, Marrakech, Mor.       founder (1666) of the reigning ʿAlawī (Filālī) dynasty of Morocco. By force of arms he filled a power ...
/rah shee"deuh, rah"shi dah'/, n. a female given name: from a Swahili word meaning "righteous." * * *
(Arabic; "Rightly Guided") First four caliphs of the Islamic community: Abū Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattāb, Uthmān ibn Affān, and Alī. As Islam's first rulers after Muhammad, ...
See rash1. * * *
See rashly. * * *
In Zoroastrianism, the god of justice, who determines the fates of the dead. Assisted by Mithra and Sraosha, Rashnu stands at the Bridge of the Requiter and weighs on his golden ...
/rasht/, n. a city in NW Iran, about 10 mi. (16 km) S of the Caspian Sea. 175,000. Also, Resht. * * * City (pop., 1996: 417,748), north-central Iran. It is situated on a branch ...
Rašín, Alois
▪ Czech statesman born Oct. 18, 1867, Nechanice, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] died Feb. 18, 1923, Prague, Czechoslovakia  Czech statesman, one of the ...
/rask/; Dan. /rddahsk/, n. Rasmus Christian /ras"meuhs kris"cheuhn/; Dan. /rddahs"moos krddees"tyahn/, 1787-1832, Danish philologist. * * *
Rask, Rasmus
▪ Danish language scholar born Nov. 22, 1787, Braendekilde, Den. died Nov. 14, 1832, Copenhagen  Danish language scholar and a principal founder of the science of ...
Rask, Rasmus (Kristian)
born Nov. 22, 1787, Braendekilde, Den. died Nov. 14, 1832, Copenhagen Danish linguist. A scholar of Indo-European languages, he was a principal founder of the science of ...
Rask,Rasmus Christian
Rask (răsk, räsk), Rasmus Christian. 1787-1832. Danish philologist who was a founder of comparative linguistics. * * *
Raskin, Jef
▪ 2006       American computer scientist (b. March 9, 1943, New York, N.Y.—d. Feb. 26, 2005, Pacifica, Calif.), revolutionized the personal computer industry by ...
Raskob, John Jakob
born March 19, 1879, Lockport, N.Y., U.S. died Oct. 15, 1950, Centreville, Md. U.S. financier. He went to work for E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. in 1902 and played a major role ...
▪ Russian Orthodoxy       (Russian: “Schism”), division in the Russian Orthodox Church in the 17th century over reforms in liturgy and forms of worship. Over the ...
/reuh skawl"nik/, n., pl. Raskolniks, Raskolniki /-ni kee'/. a member of any of several sects founded by dissenters from the Russian Orthodox Church who opposed the liturgical ...
▪ dance       folk dance drama of northern India, mainly Uttar Pradesh, based on scenes from the life of Krishna. Solo and group dancing are combined with singing, ...
Rasminsky, Louis
▪ 1999       Canadian economist who helped form the post-World War II international finance and trade system; his half century of public service included the executive ...
/rddas"moo seuhn/, n. Knud Johan Victor /knoohdh yoo hahn" veek"tawrdd/, 1879-1933, Danish arctic explorer. * * *
Rasmussen, Anders
▪ prime minister of Denmark in full  Anders Fogh Rasmussen  born Jan. 26, 1953, Ginnerup, Den.    Danish politician who served as prime minister of Denmark (2001– ) and ...
Rasmussen, Halfdan
▪ Danish poet born January 29, 1915, Copenhagen, Denmark died March 2, 2002       Danish poet of social protest, as well as an excellent writer of nonsense ...
Rasmussen, Knud
▪ Greenlander polar explorer in full  Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen  born , June 7, 1879, Jakobshavn, Greenland died Dec. 21, 1933, Gentofte, Den.       Danish- Eskimo ...
Rasmussen, Poul Nyrup
▪ 1994       When Prime Minister Poul Schlüter was forced from office by Denmark's ongoing "Tamilgate" affair on Jan. 14, 1993, Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, the leader of the ...
Rasmussen,Knud Johan Victor
Ras·mus·sen (răsʹmə-sən, räsʹmo͝os-ən), Knud Johan Victor. 1879-1933. Danish ethnologist and Arctic explorer who conducted extensive research on Eskimo and Inuit ...
/rddah"sawn/; Eng. /ras"on/, n., pl. rasa /rddah"sah/; Eng. /ras"euh/. Gk. Orth. Ch. a long, loose, black gown with wide sleeves, worn by the clergy. [1930-35; < MGk rháson a ...
/raz"euh fawr', -fohr'/, n. Gk. Orth. Ch. a monk authorized to wear the rason. [1885-90; < MGk rhasophóros. See RASON, -PHORE] * * *
/reuh sawr"ee euhl, -sohr"-/, adj. 1. given to scratching the ground for food, as chickens; gallinaceous. 2. pertaining to a bird's foot adapted for scratching. [1830-40; < NL ...
—raspish, adj. /rasp, rahsp/, v.t. 1. to scrape or abrade with a rough instrument. 2. to scrape or rub roughly: The glacier rasped the valley floor. 3. to grate upon or ...
/raz"ber'ee, -beuh ree, rahz"-/, n., pl. raspberries. 1. the fruit of any of several shrubs belonging to the genus Rubus, of the rose family, consisting of small and juicy red, ...
raspberry sawfly
a black sawfly, Monophadnoides geniculatus, the larvae of which feed on the leaves of the raspberry and blackberry. * * *
Raspe, Rudolf Erich
▪ German scholar and adventurer born 1737, Hannover, Hanover [Germany] died 1794, Muckross, County Kerry, Ireland       German scholar and adventurer best remembered as ...
/ras"peuhr, rah"speuhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that rasps. 2. a machine for scraping sugarcane. [1715-25; RASP + -ER1] * * *
—raspingly, adv. —raspingness, n. /ras"ping, rah"sping/, adj. 1. harsh; grating: a rasping voice. n. 2. a minute piece removed by rasping: raspings of sawed wood. 3. ...
See rasper. * * *
/ra spyooh"tin, -tn/; Russ. /rddu spooh"tyin/, n. 1. Grigori Efimovich /gri gawr"ee i fee"meuh vich/; Russ. /grddyi gaw"rddyee yi fyee"meuh vyich/, 1871-1916, Siberian peasant ...
Rasputin, Grigory (Yefimovich)
orig. Grigory (Yefimovich) Novykh born 1872?, Pokrovskoye, near Tyumen, Siberia, Russian Empire died Dec. 30, 1916, Petrograd Russian mystic influential at the court of Tsar ...
Rasputin, Grigory Yefimovich
▪ Russian mystic original name  Grigory Yefimovich Novykh   born 1872?, Pokrovskoye, near Tyumen, Siberia, Russian Empire died December 30 [December 17, Old Style], 1916, ...
Rasputin,Grigori Efimovich
Ras·pu·tin (răs-pyo͞oʹtĭn, rə-spo͞oʹtyĭn), Grigori Efimovich. 1872?-1916. Russian starets whose magnetic personality and relative success in the treatment of the ...
—raspiness, n. /ras"pee, rah"spee/, adj., raspier, raspiest. 1. harsh; grating; rasping. 2. easily annoyed; irritable. [1830-40; RASP + -Y1] * * *
Rassam, Hormuzd
▪ Turkish Assyriologist born 1826, Mosul, Ottoman Mesopotamia [now in Iraq] died 1910       Assyriologist who excavated some of the finest Assyrian and Babylonian ...
      small Asiatic mammal, a species of civet (q.v.). * * *
/ras"euhl/, v.i., v.t., rassled, rassling, n. Dial. wrestle. * * *
/ras"teuh, rah"steuh/, n. 1. Rastafarian (def. 1). 2. Rastafarianism. adj. 3. Rastafarian (def. 2). [by shortening] * * *
/ras'teuh fair"ee, -fahr"ee, -fair"uy, rah'steuh-/; in Jamaica often /rah'stah fah ruy"/, n. 1. Rastafarian (def. 1). 2. Rastafarianism. adj. 3. Rastafarian (def. 2). * * * ▪ ...
/ras'teuh fair"ee euhn, -fahr"-, rah'steuh-/, n. 1. a follower of Rastafarianism. adj. 2. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Rastafarianism or Rastafarians. [ < Amharic ras ...
/ras'teuh fair"ee euh niz'euhm, -fahr"-, rah'steuh-/, n. a religious cult, originally of Jamaica, that regards Africa as the Promised Land, to which all true believers will ...
Rastatt and Baden, treaties of
(March 6 and Sept. 7, 1714) Two peace treaties between Charles VI, the Holy Roman emperor, and France that ended Charles's attempt to continue the War of the Spanish ...
Rastell, William
▪ English printer and lawyer born 1508, Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng. died Aug. 27, 1565, Leuven, duchy of Brabant [now in Belgium]       English printer, lawyer, and ...
/ras"teuhr/, n. 1. Television. a pattern of scanning lines covering the area upon which the image is projected in the cathode-ray tube of a television set. 2. Computers. a set of ...
raster graphics
▪ computer science also called  bit-map graphics        a type of digital image that uses tiny rectangular pixels, or picture elements, arranged in a grid formation ...
raster font n. See bit-mapped font. * * *
raster graphic n. See bit-mapped image. * * *
/ras"euhl/, v.i., v.t., rastled, rastling, n. Dial. wrestle. * * *
Rāṣṭrakūṭa Dynasty
▪ Indian dynasty       Hindu dynasty that ruled the Deccan and neighbouring areas of India from c. 755 to 975.       Probably originally Dravidian farmers, they ...
Rasūlid dynasty
▪ Muslim dynasty       Muslim dynasty that ruled Yemen and Ḥaḍramawt (1229–1454) after the Ayyūbids of Egypt abandoned the southern provinces of the Arabian ...
/ray"zheuhr, -sheuhr/, n. an erasure. [ < MF < LL rasura, equiv. to L ras(us) (ptp. of radere to scratch, scrape; cf. RASORIAL, RAZE) + -ura -URE] * * *
—ratlike, adj. /rat/, n., interj., v., ratted, ratting. n. 1. any of several long-tailed rodents of the family Muridae, of the genus Rattus and related genera, distinguished ...
rat cheese
Informal. inexpensive cheese, esp. domestic cheddar. [1935-40, Amer.; presumably so called because it is deemed suitable only for rattraps] * * *
rat claw foot
Furniture. an elongated foot having the form of a thin claw grasping a ball. * * *
rat fink
rat fink n. Slang 1. a person who is obnoxious or contemptible 2. an informer or traitor * * *
rat guard
a disk of sheet metal fitted around a hawser to prevent rats from boarding a vessel moored at a dock. * * *
Rat Islands
▪ islands, Alaska, United States       uninhabited group of the Aleutian Islands, southwestern Alaska, U.S. They extend about 110 miles (175 km) southeast of the Near ...
rat kangaroo
rat kangaroo n. any of various ratlike kangaroos (esp. genera Bettongia and Potorous) about the size of a rabbit * * * ▪ marsupial       any of the nine species of ...
rat mite
rat mite n. a widespread tropical mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) of the same order (Parasitiformes) as ticks: it is carried by rats and can cause skin inflammations or transmit ...
rat opossum
▪ marsupial also called  Selva,         any of several South American marsupial mammals of the family Caenolestidae. The seven species, together with opossums ...
rat race
Informal. any exhausting, unremitting, and usually competitive activity or routine, esp. a pressured urban working life spent trying to get ahead with little time left for ...
rat snake
any of several New and Old World colubrid snakes, of the genus Elaphe, that feed chiefly on small mammals and birds. Also called house snake. [1855-60] * * * Any of 40–55 ...
rat terrier
a terrier of any of several breeds developed esp. for catching rats, as the Manchester terrier. [1850-55] * * *
rat's nest.
See mare's nest (def. 2). * * *
rat's nest (răts) n. Informal A place of great clutter or disorder. * * *
/rat"euh tat"/, n. a sound of knocking or rapping: a sharp rat-a-tat on the window. Also, rat-a-tat-tat. [1675-85; imit.] * * *
rat-a-tat-tat (răt'ə-tăt'tătʹ) n. A series of short sharp sounds, as that made by knocking on a door.   [Imitative.] * * *
rat-bite fever
▪ pathology also called  spirillary rat-bite fever  or  sodoku        relapsing type of infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum ...
rat-bite fever (rătʹbīt') n. Either of two infectious diseases contractible from the bite of a rat, specifically: a. A disease caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus ...
/rat"kang'geuh rooh'/, n., pl. rat-kangaroos. any of several rabbit-sized, ratlike Australian kangaroos of the subfamily Potoroinae. [1840-50] * * *
/rat"tayl'/, n. grenadier (def. 4). Also, rattail. [1695-1705] * * *
rat-tail cactus
a cactus, Aporocactus flagelliformis, of Mexico, having slim, cylindrical stems that are easily trained into strange designs, and crimson flowers. [1895-1900] * * *
rat-tail file
a long, narrow file having a circular cross section. [1840-50] * * *
rat-tailed maggot
/rat"tayld'/ the aquatic larva of any of several syrphid flies of the genus Eristalis, that breathes through a long, thin tube at the posterior end of its body. * * *
Rata, Matiu
▪ 1998       New Zealand Maori politician who spent 33 years in Parliament fighting to resolve historic Maori grievances; he set up the Waitangi Tribunal, which dealt ...
See ratable. * * *
—ratability, ratableness, n. —ratably, adv. /ray"teuh beuhl/, adj. 1. capable of being rated or appraised. 2. proportional: ratable distribution of wealth. Also, ...
See ratability. * * *
rat·a·bles (rāʹtə-bəlz) pl.n. 1. Income from property taxes: netted the city over $30 million in new ratables. 2. Properties or buildings, especially those used for ...
See ratability. * * *
/rat'euh fee"euh/, n. a sweet liqueur made from wine or grape juice combined with brandy or other spirits and often flavored with almonds, fruit, or fruit kernels. Also, ratafee ...
ratafia biscuit
Brit. a macaroon. * * *
Ra·tak Chain (räʹtäk') The eastern group of the Marshall Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The chain comprises 2 coral islands and 14 atolls, including Majuro. * * *
/rayt"l/, n. Brit. the amount on which rates or taxes are assessed. [1855-60; RATE1 + -AL1] * * *
/ra tan", reuh-/, n. rattan. * * *
Ratana church
▪ Maori religion       20th-century religious awakening among the New Zealand Maoris (Maori) and a national political influence, especially during the period 1943–63, ...
/rat'euh plan"/, n., v., rataplanned, rataplanning. n. 1. a sound of or as of the beating of a drum. v.i. 2. to produce such a sound. [1840-50; < F; imit.] * * *
/rat'euh tooh"ee, -twee"/; Fr. /rddann tann tooh"yeu/, n. a vegetable stew of Provence, typically consisting of eggplant, zucchini, onions, green peppers, tomatoes, and garlic, ...
ratbite fever
/rat"buyt'/, Pathol. either of two relapsing febrile diseases, widely distributed geographically, caused by infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor and ...
/rat"kach'euhr/, n. 1. a person, animal, or thing that catches and exterminates rats, esp. a person whose business it is to rid a property of rats. 2. Chiefly Brit. an informal ...
/rach/, n. a ratchet. * * *
▪ Thailand also spelled  Ratburi, or Rat Buri,         town, western Thailand, west of Bangkok. Prehistoric relics, cave drawings, and old Buddhist temples indicate ...
rat cheese n. Cheddar. * * *
/rach"it/, n. 1. a toothed bar with which a pawl engages. 2. (not in technical use) a pawl or the like used with a ratchet or ratchet wheel. 3. a mechanism consisting of such a ...
ratchet effect
intermittent growth, increase, expansion, or the like: the ratchet effect of defense expenditures. [1965-70] * * *
ratchet jack
a screw jack rotated by a ratchet mechanism. [1870-75] * * *
ratchet wheel
a wheel, with teeth on the edge, into which a pawl drops or catches, as to prevent reversal of motion or convert reciprocating motion into rotatory motion. [1770-80] * * *
rate1 /rayt/, n., v., rated, rating. n. 1. the amount of a charge or payment with reference to some basis of calculation: a high rate of interest on loans. 2. a certain quantity ...
rate base
1. a guaranteed minimum amount or number used to compute advertising rates, as the number of subscribers to a publication. 2. a basic amount or number used to compute charges to ...
rate card
a list showing the rates charged by a magazine, newspaper, radio or television station, etc., for various types of advertising. [1900-05, Amer.] * * *
rate of exchange
rate of exchange n. EXCHANGE RATE * * *
rate of exchange.
See exchange rate. [1720-30] * * *
rate-of-climb indicator
/rayt"euhv kluym"/, Aeron. a flight instrument that indicates the rate of climb or descent of an aircraft. [1945-50] * * *
—rateability, rateableness, n. —rateably, adv. /ray"teuh beuhl/, adj. ratable. * * *
rated load
1. the load a machine or vehicle is rated to carry. 2. the power an engine, dynamo, etc., is rated at or designed to produce. [1920-25] * * *
/rayt"l, raht"l/, n. a badgerlike carnivore, Mellivora capensis, of Africa and India. Also called honey badger. [1770-80; < Afrik < D dial. ratel, var. of raat honeycomb; perh. ...
rate·mak·ing (rātʹmā'kĭng) n. The practice of establishing rates of payment, as for public transportation or utilities.   rateʹmak'ing adj. * * *
rateof exchange
rate of exchange n. pl. rates of exchange The ratio at which the unit of currency of one country is or may be exchanged for the unit of currency of another country. * * *
—ratepaying, adj., n. /rayt"pay'euhr/, n. 1. a person who pays a regular charge for the use of a public utility, as gas or electricity, usually based on the quantity ...
/ray"teuhr/, n. 1. a person who makes rates or ratings. 2. a person or thing that is of a specific rating (usually used in combination): The show's star is a first-rater. 3. ...
n [pl] a tax which was formerly paid in Britain by owners of houses and businesses and used to provide money for local services. Rates on houses were replaced in 1989–90 by the ...
/rat"fingk'/, n. Slang. fink (defs. 3, 4). [1960-65; RAT + FINK] * * *
/rat"fish'/, n., pl. (esp. collectively) ratfish, (esp. referring to two or more kinds or species) ratfishes. a chimaera, Hydrolagus colliei, of the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to ...
▪ Hindu festival  Hindu (Hinduism) festival of India, observed by taking an image of a deity in a procession through the streets. This affords darshan (auspicious viewing) ...
/rath"bohn/, n. Basil, 1892-1967, English actor, born in South Africa. * * *
Rathbone, (Philip St. John) Basil
born June 13, 1892, Johannesburg, S.Af. died July 21, 1967, New York, N.Y., U.S. British actor. He made his stage debut in 1911 and later played classical roles in London and ...
Rathbone, Basil
▪ British actor in full  Philip St. John Basil Rathbone  born June 13, 1892, Johannesburg, S.Af. died July 21, 1967, New York, N.Y., U.S.  British character actor whose ...
Rathbun, Mary Jane
▪ American marine zoologist born June 11, 1860, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S. died April 4, 1943, Washington, D.C.       American marine zoologist known for establishing the ...
—rathely, adv. —ratheness, n. /raydh/, adj. Archaic. growing, blooming, or ripening early in the year or season. Also, rath /rath/. [bef. 900; ME; OE hraeth, hraed quick, ...
/rddaht"n ow'/, n. Walther /vahl"teuhrdd/, 1867-1922, German industrialist, writer, and statesman. * * *
Rathenau, Emil
▪ German industrialist born December 11, 1838, Berlin, Prussia died June 20, 1915, Berlin, German Empire  German industrialist and a leading figure in the early European ...
Rathenau, Walther
born Sept. 29, 1867, Berlin, Prussia died June 24, 1922, Berlin, Ger. German industrialist and statesman. From 1915 he headed the AEG conglomerate developed by his father, Emil ...
adv. /radh"euhr, rah"dheuhr/; interj. /radh"err", rah"dherr"/, adv. 1. in a measure; to a certain extent; somewhat: rather good. 2. in some degree: I rather thought you would ...
rather than conj. And not: “Gibson guitars—with their carved tops and necks that are fitted and glued to the body, rather than bolted on—are expensive to make” (Joshua ...
Rathke's pouch
/raht"keuhz/, Embryol. an invagination of stomodeal ectoderm developing into the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Also called Rathke's pocket. [1940-45; named after Martin ...
Rathke, Martin H
▪ German anatomist born Aug. 25, 1793, Danzig, Prussia [now Gdańsk, Pol.] died Sept. 3, 1860, Königsberg [now Kaliningrad, Russia]       German anatomist who first ...
Rathke, Martin H(einrich)
born Aug. 25, 1793, Danzig, Prussia died Sept. 3, 1860, Königsberg German anatomist and embryologist. He was the first to describe gill slits and gill arches in mammal and ...
/rat"hohl'/, n. 1. a hole made by a rat, as into a room, barn, etc.: The first chore in the old building is to plug up the ratholes. 2. the burrow or shelter of a rat. 3. any ...
/raht"skel'euhr, rat"-, rath"-/, n. 1. (in Germany) the cellar of a town hall, often used as a beer hall or restaurant. 2. a restaurant patterned on the German rathskeller, ...
—raticidal, adj. /rat"euh suyd'/, n. a substance or preparation for killing rats. [1840-50; RAT + -I- + -CIDE] * * *
—ratificationist, n., adj. /rat'euh fi kay"sheuhn/, n. 1. the act of ratifying; confirmation; sanction. 2. the state of being ratified. [1400-50; late ME < ML ratification- (s. ...

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