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/seuh fee"neuh/, n. See saphenous vein. [1350-1400; ME < ML < Ar safin] * * *
/seuh fee"neuhs/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or situated near the saphenous vein. n. 2. See saphenous vein. [1830-40; SAPHEN(A) + -OUS] * * *
saphenous vein
Anat. either of two large veins near the surface of the foot, leg, and thigh, one on the inner side and the other on the outer and posterior sides. [1830-40] * * *
sa·phe·nous vein (sə-fēʹnəs) n. Either of two main superficial veins of the leg, one larger than the other, that begin at the foot.   [saphenous, pertaining to the ...
—sapidity, sapidness, n. /sap"id/, adj. 1. having taste or flavor. 2. agreeable to the taste; palatable. 3. agreeable, as to the mind; to one's liking. [1625-35; < L sapidus ...
See sapid. * * *
Sapieha Family
▪ Polish family original name  Sopiha,         princely family, important in Polish history, that was descended from Ukrainian boyars subject to ...
See sapient. * * *
/say"pee euhnz/, adj. of, pertaining to, or resembling modern humans (Homo sapiens). [1935-40; < NL] * * *
—sapience, sapiency, n. —sapiently, adv. /say"pee euhnt/, adj. having or showing great wisdom or sound judgment. [1425-75; late ME sapyent < L sapient- (s. of sapiens, prp. ...
—sapientially, adv. /say'pee en"sheuhl/, adj. containing, exhibiting, or affording wisdom; characterized by wisdom. [1475-85; < LL sapientialis, equiv. to sapienti(a) wisdom ...
See sapience. * * *
/sap'in day"sheuhs/, adj. belonging to the Sapindaceae, the soapberry family of plants. Cf. soapberry family. [1835-45; < NL Sapindace(ae) name of the family (Sapind(us) the type ...
▪ plant order Introduction  order of dicotyledonous flowering plants, containing 9 families, about 460 genera, and some 5,700 species of shrubs, woody vines, and trees. It ...
/seuh pear"/, n. Edward, 1884-1939, U.S. anthropologist and linguist, born in Germany. * * *
Sapir, Edward
born Jan. 26, 1884, Lauenburg, Pomerania, Ger. died Feb. 4, 1939, New Haven, Conn., U.S. Polish-born U.S. linguist and anthropologist. He was a founder of ethnolinguistics, ...
Sapir, Pinhas
▪ Israeli politician original name  Pinhas Koslowski , Pinhas also spelled  Pinchas  born 1909, Suwałki, Poland died August 12, 1975, Nevatim, ...
Sa·pir (sə-pîrʹ), Edward. 1884-1939. American linguist and anthropologist noted for his studies of Native American languages and his theories on the ways in which language ...
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
/seuh pear"hwawrf", -hwohrf", -wawrf", -wohrf"/ a theory developed by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf that states that the structure of a language determines or greatly ...
Sa·pir-Whorf hypothesis (sə-pîrʹwôrfʹ, -hwôrfʹ) n. A hypothesis holding that the structure of a language affects the perceptions of reality of its speakers and thus ...
—saplessness, n. /sap"lis/, adj. 1. without sap; withered; dry: sapless plants. 2. lacking vitality or spirit; insipid. [1585-95; SAP1 + -LESS] * * *
See sapless. * * *
/sap"ling/, n. 1. a young tree. 2. a young person. [1375-1425; late ME; see SAP1, -LING1] * * *
/sap'euh dil"euh/, n. 1. a large evergreen tree, Manilkara zapota, of tropical America, bearing an edible fruit and yielding chicle. Cf. sapodilla family. 2. Also called ...
sapodilla family
the plant family Sapotaceae, characterized by chiefly tropical trees and shrubs having milky juice, simple leaves, small flowers, and fruit in the form of a berry, and including ...
▪ chemical compound       any of a class of organic compounds occurring in many species of plants as derivatives of the steroid and the triterpenoid groups in the form ...
—saponaceousness, n. /sap'euh nay"sheuhs/, adj. resembling soap; soapy. [1700-10; < NL saponaceus, equiv. to L sapon- (s. of sapo) SOAP + -aceus -ACEOUS] * * *
See saponaceous. * * *
sap·o·na·ted (săpʹə-nā'tĭd) adj. Combined or treated with a soap.   [From Latin sāpō, sāpōn-, hair dye. See saponin.] * * *
See saponify. * * *
saponification [sə pän΄ə fi kā′shən] n. 〚Fr < saponifier: see SAPONIFY〛 the conversion of an ester heated with an alkali into the corresponding alcohol and acid salt; ...
saponification number
Chem. the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify one gram of a given ester, esp. a glyceride. Also called saponification value. [1895-1900; SAPONI(FY) + ...
See saponifiable. * * *
—saponifiable, adj. —saponification, n. —saponifier, n. /seuh pon"euh fuy'/, v., saponified, saponifying. Chem. v.t. 1. to convert (a fat) into soap by treating with an ...
/sap"euh nin/, n. Biochem. any of a group of amorphous glycosides of terpenes and steroids, occurring in many plants, characterized by an ability to form emulsions and to foam in ...
/sap"euh nuyt'/, n. a clay mineral, hydrous magnesium aluminum silicate, belonging to the montmorillonite group: found as a soft filling in rock cavities. [1840-50; < Sw saponit ...
/say"peuhr, -pawr/, n. the quality in a substance that affects the sense of taste; savor; flavor. Also, Brit., sapour. [1470-80; < L; see SAVOR] * * *
/sap'euh rif"ik/, adj. producing or imparting flavor or taste. [1695-1705; < NL saporificus, equiv. to L sapor-, s. of sapor SAVOR + -i- -I- + -ficus -FIC] * * *
—saporosity /sap'euh ros"i tee/, n. /sap"euhr euhs/, adj. full of flavor or taste; flavorful. [1660-70; < LL saporosus, equiv. to L sapor SAVOR + -osus -OUS] * * *
/seuh poh"teuh/, n. 1. sapote. 2. sapodilla. [1550-60; < NL < MexSp zapote sapodilla < Nahuatl tzapotl] * * *
/sap'euh tay"sheuhs/, adj. belonging to the Sapotaceae, the sapodilla family of plants. Cf. sapodilla family. [1835-45; < NL Sapotace(ae) name of the family (see SAPOTA, -ACEAE) ...
/seuh poh"tee, -tay/, n. 1. Also called marmalade tree. a tree, Pouteria sapota, of the sapodilla family, native to Mexico and Central America, having large leaves and sweet, ...
/seuh pan"wood'/, n. 1. a dyewood yielding a red color, produced by a small, East Indian tree, Caesalpinia sappan, of the legume family. 2. the tree itself. Also, ...
/sap"euhr/, n. a soldier employed in the construction of fortifications, trenches, or tunnels that approach or undermine enemy positions. [1620-30; SAP2 + -ER1] * * * Military ...
/saf"ik/, adj. 1. pertaining to Sappho or to certain meters or a form of strophe or stanza used by or named after her. 2. Lesbian (def. 2). n. 3. a Sapphic verse. [1495-1505; < L ...
Sapphic ode
Pros. See Horatian ode. [1870-75] * * *
/seuh fuy"reuh/, n. 1. a woman who, with her husband, Ananias, was struck dead for lying. Acts 5. 2. Also, Sapphire /saf"uyeur/. a female given name. * * *
/saf"uyeur/, n. 1. any gem variety of corundum other than the ruby, esp. one of the blue varieties. 2. a gem of this kind. 3. the color of this gem, a deep blue. adj. 4. ...
/saf"euhr in, -euh reen', -euh ruyn'/, adj. 1. consisting of sapphire; like sapphire, esp. in color. n. 2. a pale-blue or greenish, usually granular mineral, a silicate of ...
—sapphist, n. /saf"iz euhm/, n. lesbianism. [1885-90; SAPPH(O) + -ISM] * * *
/saf"oh/, n. c620-c565 B.C., Greek poet, born in Lesbos. * * * flourished с 610–с 580 BC, Lesbos, Asia Minor Greek lyric poet. Little is known of her life beyond the facts ...
See sappy. * * *
See sappily. * * *
/seuh pawr"oh, -pohr"oh/; Japn. /sah"paw rddaw'/, n. a city on W Hokkaido, in N Japan. 1,401,758. * * * City (pop., 2000 prelim.: 1,822,300), Hokkaido, Japan. Located on the ...
—sappiness, n. /sap"ee/, adj., sappier, sappiest. 1. abounding in sap, as a plant. 2. full of vitality and energy. 3. Slang. silly or foolish. [bef. 1100; ME sapy, OE saepig; ...
—sapremic, adj. /seuh pree"mee euh/, n. Pathol. blood poisoning caused by the toxins produced by bacterial putrefaction, as in gangrene. [1885-90; SAPR- + -EMIA] * * *
See sapremia. * * *
a combining form meaning "rotten," used in the formation of compound words: saprogenic. Also, esp. before a vowel, sapr-. [ < Gk, comb. form of saprós] * * *
—saprobic /seuh proh"bik, -prob"ik/, adj. —saprobically, adv. /sap"rohb/, n. Biol. saprophyte. [1932; SAPRO- + (MICRO)BE] * * *
See saprobe. * * *
saprobic [sa prō′bik] adj. 〚
See saprobial. * * *
See saprobiology. * * *
See saprobiological. * * *
sap·ro·bi·ol·o·gy (săp'rō-bī-ŏlʹə-jē) n. The study of decaying organisms or environments, especially as a branch of ecology.   sap'ro·bi'o·logʹi·cal ...
/sap"reuh jeuhn, -jen'/, n. Biol. a plant or animal that can produce decay. [SAPRO- + -GEN] * * *
/sap'roh jen"ik/, adj. 1. producing putrefaction or decay, as certain bacteria. 2. formed by putrefaction. Also, saprogenous /seuh proj"euh neuhs/. [1875-80; SAPRO- + -GENIC] * * ...
See saprogenic. * * *
—saprolitic /sap'reuh lit"ik/, adj. /sap"reuh luyt'/, n. Petrog. soft, disintegrated, usually more or less decomposed rock remaining in its original place. [1890-95; SAPRO- + ...
—sapropelic, adj. /sap"reuh pel'/, n. mud consisting chiefly of decomposed organic matter formed at the bottom of a stagnant sea or lake. [1905-10; SAPRO- + -pel < Gk pelós ...
See sapropel. * * *
sapropelic coal
▪ coal classification       hydrogen-rich coal, including cannel coal and boghead coal (see torbanite), derived from sapropels (loose deposits of sedimentary rock ...
/sa prof"euh geuhs/, adj. Biol. (of an organism) feeding on dead or decaying animal matter. [1810-20; SAPRO- + -PHAGOUS] * * *
—saprophytic /sap'reuh fit"ik/, adj. —saprophytically, adv. /sap"reuh fuyt'/, n. any organism that lives on dead organic matter, as certain fungi and bacteria. Also called ...
See saprophyte. * * *
See saprophytic. * * *
saprozoic [sap΄rə zō′ik] adj. 〚 SAPRO- + ZO(O)- + -IC〛 1. absorbing simple organic material and dissolved salts for nourishment: said of certain animals 2. of a ...
Sapru, Sir Tej Bahadur
▪ Indian statesman born Dec. 8, 1875 died Jan. 20, 1949, Allahābād, India       jurist and statesman important in the progress of British India toward ...
/sap say"goh, sap"seuh goh'/, n. a strong, hard, usually green cheese of Swiss origin, made with sour skim milk and sweet clover. [1840-50, Amer.; alter. of G Schabziger, ...
/sap"suk'euhr/, n. any of several American woodpeckers of the genus Sphyrapicus that drill holes in maple, apple, hemlock, etc., drinking the sap and eating the insects that ...
▪ Hindu deities       (Sanskrit: “Seven Divine Mothers”), in Hinduism, a group of seven mother-goddesses, each of whom is the śakti, or female counterpart, of a ...
/seuh pul"peuh/, n. a city in E central Oklahoma. 15,853. * * * ▪ Oklahoma, United States       city, seat (1907) of Creek county, northeastern Oklahoma, U.S. In 1886 ...
/sap"wood'/, n. Bot. the softer part of the wood between the inner bark and the heartwood. Also called alburnum. [1785-95; SAP1 + WOOD1] * * * ▪ xylem layer also called ...
▪ people       in medieval Muslim Spain, Slavs, or people from the Black Sea coast north of Constantinople. Later, by extension, the term came to designate all foreign ...
/seuh kahr"euh/, n. a village in S Egypt, S of Cairo: site of the necropolis of ancient Memphis; step pyramids; mastabas. 12,700. Also, Sakkara. * * *
or Sakkara Site of ancient ruins, Lower Egypt. Part of the necropolis of the ancient city of Memphis, it is located southwest of Cairo and west of the modern village of ...
sa·quin·a·vir (sə-kwĭnʹə-vîr) n. A protease-inhibiting drug usually used in combination with other drugs to suppress the replication of HIV.   [saquin-(perhaps ...
SAR abbrev. Sons of the American Revolution * * * SAR abbr. Sons of the American Revolution. * * *
Šar Mountains
▪ mountains, Macedonia Serbo-Croatian  Šar Planina        mountain range in western Macedonia, one of the most rugged and impassable in the Balkans, extending ...
Sardinia. * * *
/sahr"euh/, n., pl. Saras, (esp. collectively) Sara. a member of a people of the Central African Republic. /sair"euh/, n. 1. Douay Bible. Sarah. 2. a female given name, form of ...
Sara Buri
▪ Thailand also spelled  Saraburi,         town, central Thailand, northeast of Bangkok. Sara Buri (locally called Pak Phrieo) is on the south bank of the Pa Sak ...
Sara Lee Corporation
▪ American corporation       major American producer of frozen baked goods, fresh and processed meats, coffee, hosiery and knitwear, and household and shoe-care ...
Sara Lee{™}
a large US food company best known for its frozen sweet dishes. According to its advertisements, ‘Everybody doesn’t like something, but nobody doesn’t like Sara Lee.’ It ...
/sar"euh band'/, n. 1. a slow, stately Spanish dance, esp. of the 17th and 18th centuries, in triple meter, derived from a vigorous castanet dance. 2. a piece of music for or ...
Stately processional dance in triple metre popular in the French court and throughout Europe in the 17th–18th century. Of Spanish or Mexican origin, it began as a vigorous ...
—Saracenism, n. /sar"euh seuhn/, n. 1. Hist. a member of any of the nomadic tribes on the Syrian borders of the Roman Empire. 2. (in later use) an Arab. 3. a Muslim, esp. in ...
See Saracen. * * *
Saracoğlu, Şükrü
▪ prime minister of Turkey born 1887, Ödemiş, near Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] died Dec. 27, 1953, Istanbul       statesman who served as prime minister ...
Sarada script
▪ writing system       writing system used for the Kashmiri language by the educated Hindu minority in Kashmir and the surrounding valleys. It is taught in the Hindu ...
/sah'rddah gaht"/, n. Giuseppe /jooh zep"pe/, born 1898, Italian statesman: president 1964-71. * * *
Saragat, Giuseppe
▪ president of Italy born Sept. 12, 1898, Turin, Italy died June 11, 1988, Rome       statesman and founder of the Socialist Party of Italian Workers (PSLI), who held ...
/sar'euh gos"euh/, n. a city in NE Spain, on the Ebro River. 479,845. Spanish, Zaragoza. * * *
/sair"euh/, n. 1. the wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. Gen. 17:15-22. 2. a female given name. [
Sarah Bernhardt: My Double Life
▪ Primary Source              The French actress Sarah Bernhardt made an indelible mark on the 19th-century stage, though she was not particularly considered a ...
Sarah Ferguson
➡ Ferguson (II) * * *
Sarah Jessica Parker
➡ Parker (III) * * *
Sarah Kane
➡ Kane * * *
Sarah Siddons
➡ Siddons * * *
Sarah Vaughan
➡ Vaughan * * *
Sarah Waters
➡ Waters (II) * * *
/sair"uy, -ay uy'/, n. an earlier name of Sarah. Gen. 17:15. * * *
▪ India also spelled  Seraikela        town, northern Jharkhand state, northeastern India. The town is a road and agricultural-trade centre located on an undulating ...
/sar'euh yay"voh/; Serbo-Croatian. /sah"rddah ye vaw/, n. a city in and the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the central part: assassination of the Austrian Archduke Francis ...
Saralegui, Cristina
▪ 2000       In 1999 Cristina Saralegui celebrated her 10th anniversary as host and executive producer of the Miami, Fla.-based El Show de Cristina, the leading daytime ...
/sar'euh mak"euhn/, n. an English-based creole spoken in the interior of Suriname. [1955-60; Saramacc(a) a river in Surinam (on the upper reaches of which the language is spoken) ...
Saramago, José
Sa·ra·ma·go (sä'rə-mäʹgo͝o), José. Born 1922. Portuguese writer especially noted for his novels, which include Country of Sin (1947), Baltasar and Blimunda (1982), and ...
/seuh ran"/, n. a thermoplastic copolymer of vinylidene chloride and usually small amounts of vinyl chloride or acrylonitrile: used as a fiber, for packaging, and for making ...
Saran Wrap{™}
n [U] a US make of cling film, thin transparent plastic material used for wrapping food, etc. It is produced by S C Johnson. * * *
Saranac Lake
Saranac Lake [sar′ə nak΄] 〚< ? Iroquoian name〛 1. any of three connected lakes ( Upper, Middle, & Lower) in the Adirondacks, NE N.Y. 2. resort village on Lower Saranac ...
Saranac Lakes
/sar"euh nak'/ a group of three lakes in NE New York, in the Adirondack Mountains: includes the Upper Saranac, the Middle Saranac, and the Lower Saranac. * * * Three lakes, ...
Sar·a·nac Lakes (sărʹə-năk') A group of three lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of northeast New York. They are linked by the Saranac River, which flows about 161 km (100 ...
Sarandon, Susan
orig. Susan Abigail Tomalin born Oct. 4, 1946, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. film actress. After reading with her husband, Chris Sarandon (divorced 1979), at one of his auditions, ...
/sahr"euhng gee/, n. (in India) a violinlike instrument used to accompany classical dancing. [1850-55; < Skt sarangi] * * * ▪ musical instrument also called  saran  or ...
▪ India       town, northwestern Madhya Pradesh state, central India, lying just east of the Kali Sindh River. Sarangpur is located on an ancient site. It has a number ...
/su rddahnsk"/, n. the capital of the Mordovian Autonomous Republic in the Russian Federation in Europe. 312,000. * * * ▪ Russia       city and capital of Mordvinia, in ...
/seuh rah"pee/; Sp. /sah rddah"pe/, n., pl. sarapes /-peez/; Sp. /-pes/. serape. * * *
Either of two temples of ancient Egypt that were dedicated to the worship of the Greco-Egyptian god Sarapis. The original temple was built on the western bank of the Nile, near ...
Sarapion, Saint
▪ Egyptian monk also spelled  Serapion   flourished 4th century, ; feast day March 21; Coptic church, March 7       Egyptian monk, theologian, and bishop of Thmuis, ...
/seuh ray"pis/, n. Serapis (def. 1). * * *
/su rddah"poohl/, n. a city in the SE Udmurt Autonomous Republic, in the W Russian Federation in Asia, SE of Izhevsk, on the Kama River. 107,000. * * * ▪ ...
Sarasate (y Navascuéz), Pablo (Martín Melitón) de
born March 10, 1844, Pamplona, Spain died Sept. 20, 1908, Biarritz, France Spanish violinist. After his debut at age eight, he was sent to study in Madrid, where the queen gave ...
Sarasate, Pablo de
▪ Spanish composer in full  Pablo Martin Melitón De Sarasate Y Navascuéz   born March 10, 1844, Pamplona, Spain died Sept. 20, 1908, Biarritz, France  celebrated Spanish ...
Sarasin, Jean-François
▪ French author Sarasin also spelled  Sarrazin, or Sarrasin   born 1614, Caen, France died Dec. 5, 1654, Pézenas       French author of elegant verse, best known ...
/sar'euh soh"teuh/, n. a city in W Florida. 48,868. * * * ▪ Florida, United States  city, seat (1921) of Sarasota county, west-central Florida, U.S. It lies along Sarasota ...
/seuh rus"veuh tee, sur"euhs veuh-/, n. the Hindu goddess of learning and the arts. * * * ▪ Hindu deity  Hindu (Hinduism) goddess of learning and the arts, especially music. ...
Saraswati, Swamigal Chandrasekharendra
▪ 1995       Indian religious leader (b. May 20, 1894, Viluppuram, Tamil Nadu, India—d. Jan. 8, 1994, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu), was a revered Hindu sage and a lifelong ...
/sar'euh toh"geuh/, n. 1. a city in W California. 29,261. 2. former name of Schuylerville. * * * ▪ county, New York, United States       county, eastern New York ...
Saratoga chip.
See potato chip. Also called Saratoga potato. [1870-75, Amer.] * * *
Saratoga Springs
a city in E New York: health resort; horse races. 23,906. * * * ▪ New York, United States       city, Saratoga county, east-central New York, U.S. It lies in the ...
Saratoga trunk
a type of large traveling trunk used mainly by women during the 19th century. [1855-60, Amer.; named after SARATOGA SPRINGS] * * *
Saratoga, Battles of
(1777) Engagements in the American Revolution. British troops under John Burgoyne marched from Canada to join with other British troops, and, after camping at Saratoga, N.Y., ...
Saratoga Springs A city of eastern New York in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains north of Albany. It has been an important horseracing and sporting center since the ...
Saratoga trunk n. A large traveling trunk having a rounded top.   [After Saratoga Springs.] * * *
/su rddah"teuhf/, n. a city in the SW Russian Federation in Europe, on the Volga. 905,000. * * * City (pop., 2001: 864,400), western Russia. Located on the Volga River, it was ...
/seuh rah"wahk, -wah/, n. a state in the federation of Malaysia, on NW Borneo: formerly a British crown colony (1946-63) and British protectorate (1888-1946). 977,013; ab. 50,000 ...
/sar"euh zeuhn/, n. Gene (Eugene Saraceni), born 1902, U.S. golfer. * * *
Sarazen, Eugene
▪ 2000 Eugenio Saraceni; “Gene”        American professional golfer (b. Feb. 27, 1902, Harrison, N.Y.—d. May 13, 1999, Naples, Fla.), won each of the four major ...
Sarazen, Gene
orig. Eugene Saraceni born Feb. 27, 1902, Harrison, N.Y., U.S. died May 13, 1999, Naples, Fla. U.S. golfer, prominent in the 1920s and '30s. Born to a poor Italian immigrant ...
Sar·a·zen (sârʹə-zən), Gene. 1902-1999. American golfer who won the Masters, the British Open, two U.S. Opens, and three PGA championships between 1922 and 1935. * * *
var. of sarco-, esp. before a vowel: sarcoma. * * *
/sahr"kaz euhm/, n. 1. harsh or bitter derision or irony. 2. a sharply ironical taunt; sneering or cutting remark: a review full of sarcasms. [1570-80; < LL sarcasmus < Gk ...
—sarcastically, adv. —sarcasticness, sarcasticalness, n. /sahr kas"tik/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by sarcasm: a sarcastic reply. 2. using or given to the ...
sarcastic fringehead.
See under fringehead. * * *
See sarcastic. * * *
▪ people also spelled  Sarsi , also called  Tsuu T'ina        North American Plains Indians (Plains Indian) of Athabaskan linguistic stock who lived in the 18th and ...
/sahrs"nit/, n. a fine, soft fabric, often of silk, made in plain or twill weave and used esp. for linings. Also, sarsenet, sarsnet. [1425-75; late ME sarsenet < AF sarzinet, ...
/sahr"seuh neuh/, n., pl. sarcinas, sarcinae /-nee'/. Bacteriol. any of several spherical, saprophytic bacteria of the genus Sarcina, having a cuboidal cell ...
a combining form meaning "flesh," used in the formation of compound words: sarcocarp. Also, esp. before a vowel, sarc-. [ < Gk sark- (s. of sárx) + -O-] * * *
/sahr'koh ad'n oh"meuh/, n., pl. sarcoadenomas, sarcoadenomata /-meuh teuh/. Pathol. adenosarcoma. [SARCO- + ADENOMA] * * *
/sahr'koh kahr'seuh noh"meuh/, n., pl. sarcocarcinomas, sarcocarcinomata /-meuh teuh/. Pathol. carcinosarcoma. [SARCO- + CARCINOMA] * * *
/sahr"koh kahrp'/, n. Bot. 1. the fleshy mesocarp of certain fruits, as the peach. 2. any fruit of fleshy consistency. [1810-20; SARCO- + -CARP] * * *
▪ protozoan       genus of sporozoan parasites (phylum Protozoa) that are found in the heart and skeletal muscles of mammals (cattle, pigs, sheep, and man), birds, and ...
/sahr"kohd/, n. protoplasm, esp. the semifluid content of a protozoan. [1850-55; < F, alter. of Gk sarkódes fleshy] * * *
▪ protozoan       any protozoan of the superclass (sometimes class or subphylum) Sarcodina. These organisms have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic ...
/sahr'keuh din"ee euhn/, adj. 1. belonging or pertaining to the protist phylum Sarcodina, comprising protozoa that move and capture food by forming pseudopodia. n. 2. Also called ...
/sahr"koyd/, Pathol. n. 1. a growth resembling a sarcoma. 2. a lesion of sarcoidosis. 3. sarcoidosis. adj. 4. resembling flesh; fleshy. 5. resembling a sarcoma. [1835-45; SARC- + ...
/sahr'koy doh"sis/, n. Pathol. a disease of unknown cause, characterized by granulomatous tubercles of the skin, lymph nodes, lungs, eyes, and other structures. [1935-40; < NL; ...
—sarcolemmic, sarcolemmous, adj. /sahr'keuh lem"euh/, n. Anat. the membranous sheath of a muscle fiber. [1830-40; SARCO- + LEMMA2] * * *
See sarcolemma. * * *
—sarcological /sahr'keuh loj"i keuhl/, sarcologic, adj. /sahr kol"euh jee/, n. Archaic. the branch of anatomy dealing with the soft or fleshy body parts. [1720-30; SARCO- + ...
See sarcoma. * * *
/sahr koh'meuh toh"sis/, n. Pathol. 1. the condition in which a sarcoma has become disseminated throughout the body. 2. a condition marked by the production of an overwhelming ...
See sarcomatoid. * * *
/sahr"keuh mear'/, n. Biol. any of the segments of myofibril in striated muscle fibers. [1890-95; SARCO- + -MERE] * * *
sar·co·phag·ic (sär'kə-făjʹĭk, -fāʹjĭk) also sar·coph·a·gous (sär-kŏfʹə-gəs) adj. Flesh-eating; carnivorous. * * *
/sahr kof"euh geuhs/, adj. carnivorous. Also, sarcophagic /sahr'keuh faj"ik, -fay"jik/. [1880-85; < L sarcophagus < Gk sarkophágos flesh-eating, equiv. to sarko- SARCO- + ...
/sahr kof"euh geuhs/, n., pl. sarcophagi /-juy'/, sarcophaguses. 1. a stone coffin, esp. one bearing sculpture, inscriptions, etc., often displayed as a monument. 2. Gk. Antiq. a ...
/sahr"keuh fuyl'/, n. a flesh-eating animal, esp. the Tasmanian devil. [SARCO- + -PHILE] * * *
/sahr"keuh plaz'euhm/, n. Biol. the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber. [1895-1900; SARCO- + -PLASM] * * *
See sarcoplasm. * * *
See sarcoplasmatic. * * *
sarcoplasmic reticulum
/sahr'keuh plaz"mik/, Cell Biol. a system of membrane-bound tubules that surrounds muscle fibrils, releasing calcium ions during contraction and absorbing them during ...
sarcoplasmic reticulum n. The form of endoplasmic reticulum found in striated muscle fibers. * * *
sarcoptic mange
/sahr kop"tik/, Vet. Pathol. mange caused by burrowing mites of the genus Sarcoptes. [1885-90; < NL Sarcopt(es) genus name (irreg. < Gk sar(k)- SARC- + kópt(ein) to peck, gnaw, ...
sar·cop·tic mange (sär-kŏpʹtĭk) n. Mange caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.   [From New Latin Sarcoptes, genus name : sarco- + Greek koptein, to cut.] * * *
/sahr"keuh seen', -sin/, n. Chem. a crystalline compound, C3H7NO2, with a sweet taste, soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol: used in the manufacture of toothpaste, ...
See sarcosome. * * *
/sahr"keuh sohm'/, n. Cell Biol. a mitochondrion occurring in a muscle fiber. [1895-1900; SARCO- + -SOME3] * * *
sar·co·style (särʹkə-stīl') n. See myofibril. * * *
/sahr"keuhs/, adj. consisting of or pertaining to flesh or skeletal muscle. [1830-40; SARC- + -OUS] * * *
/sahrd/, n. a reddish-brown chalcedony, used as a gem. Also, sardius, sardine. [1350-1400; ME < L sarda < Gk sárdios SARDIUS] * * *
sard and sardonyx
▪ mineral  translucent, light- to dark-brown varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony, historically two of the most widely used semiprecious stones. Sard and its close ...
Sarda River
▪ river, Asia       river of northern India and western Nepal. It rises as the Kali River in far northern Uttarakhand state in the Great Himalayas (Himalayas) on the ...
/sahr dah"neuh/; Sp. /sahrdd dhah"nah/, n., pl. sardanas /-neuhz/; Sp. /-nahs/. 1. a dance of the region of Catalonia, Spain, in which the dancers form a moving circle. 2. the ...
/sahr'dn euh payl"yeuhn, -pay"lee euhn/, adj. excessively luxurious or sensual. [1865-70; Sardanapal(us) a legendary Assyrian king proverbial for his decadence ( < L < Gk ...
▪ legendary king of Assyria also spelled  Sardanapallus,         legendary king of Assyria. He apparently represents an amalgamation of the characters and tragic ...
/seuhr dahr"/, n. sirdar. * * *
Sardica, Council of
▪ ancient ecclesiastical council       (342/343), an ecclesiastical council of the Christian Church held at Sardica, or Serdica (modern Sofia, Bulg.). It was convened by ...
sardine1 /sahr deen"/, n., pl. (esp. collectively) sardine, (esp. referring to two or more kinds or species) sardines. 1. the pilchard, Sardina pilchardus, often preserved in oil ...
/sahr din"ee euh, -din"yeuh/, n. 1. a large island in the Mediterranean, W of Italy: with small nearby islands it comprises a department of Italy. 1,571,499; 9301 sq. mi. (24,090 ...
/sahr din"ee euhn, -din"yeuhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Sardinia, its inhabitants, or their language. n. 2. a native or inhabitant of Sardinia. 3. a Romance language spoken ...
Sardinian language
Romance language spoken in Sardinia, the most similar to Vulgar Latin of the modern Romance languages. Its only standard form is the sardo illustre, a literary language used ...
—Sardian /sahr"dee euhn/, n., adj. /sahr"dis/, n. an ancient city in W Asia Minor: the capital of ancient Lydia. Also, Sardes /sahr"deez/. Also called Tarne. * * * or ...
/sahr"dee euhs/, n. 1. sard. 2. the precious stone, thought to have been a ruby, in the breastplate of the Jewish high priest. Ex. 28:17. [1350-1400; ME < L < Gk sárdios (stone) ...
—sardonically, adv. —sardonicism, n. /sahr don"ik/, adj. characterized by bitter or scornful derision; mocking; cynical; sneering: a sardonic grin. [1630-40; alter. of ...
See sardonic. * * *
See sardonically. * * *
/sahr don"iks, sahr"dn-/, n. a chalcedony that is used for cameos and has sard and chalcedony of another color, usually white, arranged in straight parallel bands. [1300-50; ME < ...
/sahrdd dooh"/, n. Victorien /veek taw rddyeonn"/, 1831-1908, French dramatist. * * *
Sardou, Victorien
born Sept. 5, 1831, Paris, France died Nov. 8, 1908, Paris French playwright. He owed his initial success to the actress Pauline Déjazet, for whom he wrote several of his 70 ...
Sar·dou (sär-do͞oʹ), Victorien. 1831-1908. French playwright known especially for his light comedies, including A Scrap of Paper (1860) and Peril (1861). * * *
Sarduy, Severo
▪ Cuban writer born February 25, 1937, Camagüey, Cuba died June 8, 1993, Paris, France       novelist, poet, critic, and essayist, one of the most daring and brilliant ...
/sahr"ee/ n. sari. * * *
Sarek National Park
▪ park, Norrbotten, Sweden Sarek also spelled  Sarjek,   park in Norrbotten län (county), northwestern Sweden, encompassing most of the Sarek mountain range. It was ...
Sarekat Islam
First nationalist political party in Indonesia to gain wide popular support. Founded in 1912 to promote the interests of Muslim merchants, it soon began working for the ...
Sarema [sä′rə mä΄] alt. sp. of SAAREMAA * * * Sa·re·ma (särʹə-mä') See Saaremaa. * * *
Sarera Bay
/seuh rer"euh/ a large bay on the NW coast of New Guinea, in Irian Jaya, in Indonesia. Formerly, Geelvink Bay. * * *
Sarett, Lewis Hastings
▪ 2000       American organic chemist who, while serving as a research scientist (1942–48) at Merck & Co., Inc., synthesized cortisone, a feat that had wide-ranging ...
/sahrg/, n. Tony (Anthony Frederic Sarg), 1882-1942, U.S. illustrator and marionette maker, born in Guatemala. * * *
/sahr gas"oh/, n., pl. sargassos. a gulfweed. [1590-1600; < Pg, perh. special use of sargaço rockrose < L salicastrum, equiv. to salic- (s. of salix) willow + -astrum, neut. of ...
Sargasso Sea
a relatively calm area of water in the N Atlantic, NE of the West Indies. * * * Body of still water in the North Atlantic Ocean. Elliptical in shape and strewn with a brown ...
Sar·gas·so Sea (sär-găsʹō) A part of the northern Atlantic Ocean between the West Indies and the Azores. The relatively calm sea is noted for the abundance of gulfweed ...
/sahr gas"euhm/, n. any seaweed of the genus Sargassum, widely distributed in the warmer waters of the globe, as S. bacciferum, the common gulfweed. [1900-05; < NL; see ...
/sahr gas"euhm fish'/, n., pl. sargassumfishes, (esp. collectively) sargassumfish. an olive-brown and black frogfish, Histrio histrio, inhabiting tropical Atlantic and western ...
/sahrj/, n. Informal. sergeant. [by shortening and resp.] * * *
Sargeant, Winthrop
▪ American music critic born Dec. 10, 1903, San Francisco, Calif., U.S. died Aug. 15, 1986, Salisbury, Conn.       influential American music critic noted for his fine ...
/sahr"jeuhnt/, n. 1. Sir (Harold) Malcolm (Watts), 1895-1967, English conductor. 2. John Singer, 1856-1925, U.S. painter. * * *
Sargent, John Singer
born Jan. 12, 1856, Florence, Italy died April 15, 1925, London, Eng. U.S.-British painter. Son of wealthy American parents, he was born in Italy and grew up in Europe, not ...
Sargent, Sir John Philip
▪ British statesman born Dec. 27, 1888 died Feb. 13, 1972       British statesman and educator who served as the principal educational adviser to the government of ...
Sargent, Sir Malcolm
▪ British conductor in full  Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent   born April 29, 1895, Stamford, Lincolnshire, Eng. died Oct. 3, 1967, London       English conductor ...
Sargent,John Singer
Sar·gent (särʹjənt), John Singer. 1856-1925. American painter known especially for his elegant portraits and watercolor landscapes. * * *
Sargeson, Frank
▪ New Zealander writer pseudonym of  Norris Frank Davey   born March 23, 1903, Hamilton, Waikato, N.Z. died March 1, 1982, Auckland       novelist and writer of short ...
/sahr"goh/, n., pl. sargos. Ichthyol. a silvery grunt, Anisotremus davidsonii, inhabiting waters off the coasts of California and Mexico, having blackish markings and yellowish ...
/seuhr goh"deuh/, n. a city in NE Pakistan. 201,407. * * * ▪ Pakistan       city, Punjab province, Pakistan. The city is a grain and cash crop market connected by road ...
/sahr"gon/ fl. c2300 B.C., Mesopotamian ruler: founder of Akkadian kingdom. * * * flourished 23rd century BC Ancient Mesopotamian ruler (r. 2334–2279 BC). What is known of ...
Sargon I
▪ king of Assyria flourished c. 1850 BC       ruler of Assyria during the old Akkadian period. Little is known in detail of Assyria during the time of Sargon, but ...
Sargon II
died 705 B.C., king of Assyria 722-705. * * * died 705 BC Assyrian king (r. 721–705 BC). He continued the empire-building work of his presumed father, Tiglath-pileser III. ...
Sar·gon II (särʹgŏn'), Died 705B.C. Assyrian king (721-705) who completed the conquest of the northern Jewish kingdom of Israel, later known as Samaria. * * *
▪ Chad formerly  Fort-Archambault         city located in southern Chad, central Africa, on the Chari River. It is named for the dominant ethnic group, the Sara, and ...
/sahr"ee/, n., pl. saris. a garment worn by Hindu women, consisting of a long piece of cotton or silk wrapped around the body with one end draped over the head or over one ...
sarin [sä′rin] n. 〚Ger〛 a highly toxic nerve gas, C4H10FPO, which attacks the central nervous system, quickly bringing on convulsions and death * * * sar·in ...
▪ musical instrument  folk fiddle of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India. The deep wood shell has a skin belly up to its narrow waist but is open thereafter on both ...
Sariska National Park
▪ national park and wildlife preserve, India       national park and wildlife preserve in eastern Rajasthan (Rājasthān) state, northwestern India. It has an area of ...
Sarit Thanarat
/sah rddeet" tah nah rddaht"/ 1908-63, Thai statesman: premier 1952-63. * * * ▪ prime minister of Thailand born , June 16, 1908, Bangkok died Dec. 8, 1963, ...
▪ North Korea       city and provincial capital, Hwanghae-pukto (North Hwanghae Province), southwestern North Korea. Situated on the middle channel of the ...
—sarkless, adj. /sahrk/, n. Scot. and North Eng. any long, shirtlike garment worn next to the skin, as a chemise, nightshirt, or the like. [bef. 900; ME; OE serc; c. ON serkr ...
/sahrk/, n. one of the Channel Islands, E of Guernsey. 584; 2 sq. mi. (5 sq. km). * * * ▪ island, Channel Islands, English Channel French  Sercq        one of the ...
Sarkar, Sir Jadunath
▪ Indian historian born Dec. 10, 1870, Karachmāria, Bengal [now in Bangladesh] died May 15, 1958, Calcutta, India       foremost Indian historian of the Mughal ...
See Sark. * * *
Sarkisyan, Vazgen
▪ 2000       Armenian nationalist who, having devoted much of his life to the Armenian fight with Azerbaijan for control of the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave, helped found ...
Sarkozy, Nicolas
▪ 2007       In 2006 Nicolas Sarkozy, France's interior minister and head of the country's ruling centre-right Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party, established ...
/sahr"kee/, adj. Brit. Slang. sarcastic. [by shortening and alter.] * * *
Sarlos, Andrew
▪ 1998       Hungarian-born Canadian investor and philanthropist who both made and lost fortunes and came to be known as the "Buddha of Bay Street" because of his ...
—Sarmatian, adj., n. /sahr may"shee euh, -sheuh/, n. the ancient name of a region in E Europe, between the Vistula and the Volga. * * *
Sarmatian [sär mā′shən] adj. of ancient Sarmatia its people, language, or culture n. a member of an ancient Indo-Iranian people related to the Scythians that lived in ...
Sarmatian Stage
▪ geology       major division of Miocene rocks and time (23.7 to 5.3 million years ago). The Sarmatian Stage, which occurs between the Pontian and Tortonian stages, was ...
/sahr men"tohs/, adj. Bot. having runners. Also, sarmentous /sahr men"teuhs/, sarmentaceous /sahr'meuhn tay"sheuhs/. [1750-60; < L sarmentosus, equiv. to sarment(um) twig + -osus ...
/sahr men"teuhm/, n., pl. sarmenta /-teuh/. Bot. a slender running stem; runner. Also, sarment. [ < L: twig] * * *
/sahrdd myen"taw/, n. Domingo Faustino /daw meeng"gaw fows tee"naw/, 1811-88, Argentine writer, educator, and political leader: president 1868-74. * * *
Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino
born Feb. 14, 1811, San Juan, Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata died Sept. 11, 1888, Asunción, Para. Educator, statesman, writer, and president of Argentina (1868–74). A rural ...
/sahr"naht/, n. an ancient Buddhist pilgrimage center in N India, near Benares: Buddha's first sermon preached here; many ancient Buddhist monuments. * * * ▪ archaeological ...
Ger. /zahrdd"neuhn/, n. a town in and the capital of Obwalden, in central Switzerland, E of Bern. 7000. * * * ▪ Switzerland       capital of Obwalden Halbkanton ...

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