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/spek'troh hee"lee euh gram'/, n. a photograph of the sun made with a spectroheliograph. [1905-10; SPECTRO- + HELIOGRAM] * * *
—spectroheliographic /spek'troh hee'lee euh graf"ik/, adj. /spek'troh hee"lee euh graf', -grahf'/, n. an apparatus for making photographs of the sun with a monochromatic light ...
See spectroheliograph. * * *
See spectroheliographic. * * *
—spectrohelioscopic /spek'troh hee'lee euh skop"ik/, adj. /spek'troh hee"lee euh skohp'/, n. 1. a spectroheliograph. 2. a similar instrument, used for visual instead of ...
See spectrohelioscope. * * *
—spectrological /spek'treuh loj"i keuhl/, adj. —spectrologically, adv. /spek trol"euh jee/, n. the study of ghosts, phantoms, or apparitions. [1810-20; < L spectr(um) SPECTER ...
—spectrometric /spek'treuh me"trik/, adj. —spectrometry, n. /spek trom"i teuhr/, n. Optics. an optical device for measuring wavelengths, deviation of refracted rays, and ...
See spectrometer. * * *
See spectrometric. * * *
—spectromicroscopical /spek'troh muy'kreuh skop"i keuhl/, adj. /spek'troh muy"kreuh skohp'/, n. a microscope with an attached spectroscope. [SPECTRO- + MICROSCOPE] * * *
/spek'troh foh'toh i lek"trik/, adj. Physics. pertaining to the relationship between the wavelength of the incident radiation and the number of electrons released by a ...
—spectrophotometric /spek'troh foh'teuh me"trik/, adj. —spectrophotometrically, adv. —spectrophotometry, n. /spek'troh foh tom"i teuhr/, n. an instrument for making ...
See spectrophotometer. * * *
See spectrophotometric. * * * Branch of spectroscopy dealing with measurement of radiant energy transmitted or reflected by a body as a function of wavelength. The measurement ...
/spek'troh poh'leuh rim"i teuhr/, n. Optics. an instrument for determining the extent to which plane-polarized light of various wavelengths is rotated by certain solutions, ...
/spek'troh poh lar"euh skohp'/, n. Optics. an instrument combining the functions of a spectroscope with those of a polariscope. Cf. spectropolarimeter. [SPECTRO- + POLARISCOPE] * ...
—spectroradiometric /spek'troh ray'dee euh me"trik/, adj. —spectroradiometry, n. /spek'troh ray'dee om"i teuhr/, n. Optics. an instrument for determining the radiant-energy ...
—spectroscopic /spek'treuh skop"ik/, spectroscopical, adj. —spectroscopically, adv. /spek"treuh skohp'/, n. Optics. an optical device for producing and observing a spectrum ...
See spectroscope. * * *
spectroscopic binary
Astron. a binary star having components that are not sufficiently separated to be resolved by a telescope, known to be a binary only bythe variations in wavelength of emitted ...
See spectroscopic. * * *
See spectroscopic. * * *
spectroscopic analysis n. Analysis of a spectrum to determine characteristics of its source; for example, analysis of the optical spectrum of an incandescent body to determine ...
spectroscopic binary n. A binary star system that is identified by periodically shifting lines in its spectrum. * * *
See spectroscopy. * * *
—spectroscopist /spek tros"keuh pist/, n. /spek tros"keuh pee, spek"treuh skoh'pee/, n. the science that deals with the use of the spectroscope and with spectrum ...
/spek"treuhm/, n., pl. spectra /-treuh/, spectrums. 1. Physics. a. an array of entities, as light waves or particles, ordered in accordance with the magnitudes of a common ...
spectrum analysis
1. the determination of the constitution or condition of bodies and substances by means of the spectra they produce. 2. the ascertaining of the number and character of the ...
spec·u·la (spĕkʹyə-lə) n. A plural of speculum. * * *
—specularly, adv. /spek"yeuh leuhr/, adj. 1. pertaining to or having the properties of a mirror. 2. pertaining to a speculum. 3. Optics. (of reflected light) directed, as from ...
See specular. * * *
/spek"yeuh layt'/, v.i., speculated, speculating. 1. to engage in thought or reflection; meditate (often fol. by on, upon, or a clause). 2. to indulge in conjectural thought. 3. ...
/spek'yeuh lay"sheuhn/, n. 1. the contemplation or consideration of some subject: to engage in speculation on humanity's ultimate destiny. 2. a single instance or process of ...
—speculatively, adv. —speculativeness, n. /spek"yeuh lay'tiv, -leuh tiv/, adj. 1. pertaining to, of the nature of, or characterized by speculation, contemplation, conjecture, ...
speculative grammar
      a linguistic theory of the Middle Ages, especially the second half of the 13th century. It is “speculative” not in the modern sense but as the word is derived ...
speculative philosophy
philosophy embodying beliefs insusceptible of proof and attempting to gain insight into the nature of the ultimate by intuitive or a priori means. [1855-60] * * *
See speculative. * * *
See speculatively. * * *
/spek"yeuh lay'teuhr/, n. 1. a person who is engaged in commercial or financial speculation. 2. a person who makes advance purchases of tickets, as to games or theatrical ...
/spek"yeuh leuhm/, n., pl. specula /-leuh/, speculums. 1. a mirror or reflector, esp. one of polished metal, as on a reflecting telescope. 2. See speculum metal. 3. Surg. an ...
speculum metal
any of several bronze alloys with a high tin content, often containing other materials, as silver, brass, lead, zinc, or arsenic, used for making mirrors and reflectors. Also ...
/sped/, v. a pt. and pp. of speed. * * *
Spedding, Frank Harold
▪ American chemist born Oct. 22, 1902, Hamilton, Ont., Can. died Dec. 15, 1984, Ames, Iowa, U.S.       American chemist who, during the 1940s and '50s, developed ...
Spedding, Sir David Rolland
▪ 2002       British intelligence agent and administrator (b. March 7, 1943—d. June 13, 2001, London, Eng.), was from 1994 to 1999 chief of the Secret Intelligence ...
/shpay/, n. Maximilian von /mahk'si mee"lee ahn' feuhn/, 1861-1941, German admiral. * * *
Spee, Maximilian, Graf von
▪ German admiral born June 22, 1861, Copenhagen died Dec. 8, 1914, off Falkland Islands       admiral who commanded German forces in the battles of Coronel and the ...
/speech/, n. 1. the faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one's thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture: Losing her speech made her feel ...
speech act
Philos., Ling. any of the acts that may be performed by a speaker in making an utterance, as stating, asking, requesting, advising, warning, or persuading, considered in terms of ...
speech act theory
Theory of meaning that holds that the meaning of linguistic expressions can be explained in terms of the rules governing their use in performing various speech acts (e.g., ...
speech clinic
a place at which specialists in speech therapy reeducate those with a speech handicap. * * *
speech community
Ling. 1. the aggregate of all the people who use a given language or dialect. 2. a group of people geographically distributed so that there is no break in intelligibility from ...
speech correction
the reeducation of speech habits that deviate from accepted speech standards. * * *
speech disorder
speech disorder n. any conspicuous speech imperfection, or variation from accepted speech patterns, caused either by a physical defect in the speech organs or by a mental ...
speech form
speech form n. LINGUISTIC FORM * * *
speech form.
See linguistic form. [1860-65] * * *
speech island
Ling. a speech community that is completely surrounded by another, usually larger, speech community. * * *
speech organ
any part of the body, as the tongue, velum, diaphragm, or lungs, that participates, actively or passively, voluntarily or involuntarily, in the production of the sounds of ...
speech pathology
the scientific study and treatment of defects, disorders, and malfunctions of speech and voice, as stuttering, lisping, or lalling, and of language disturbances, as aphasia or ...
speech recognition
Computers. the computerized analysis of spoken words in order to identify the speaker, as in security systems, or to respond to voiced commands: the analysis is performed by ...
speech sound
Phonet. 1. any of the set of distinctive sounds of a given language. Cf. phoneme. 2. any audible, elemental, acoustic event occurring in speech: "Go" contains the speech sound ...
speech synthesis
Generation of speech by artificial means, usually by computer. Production of sound to simulate human speech is referred to as low-level synthesis. High-level synthesis deals ...
speech therapy
Therapeutic treatment to correct defects in speaking. Such defects may originate in the brain, the ear (see deafness), or anywhere along the vocal tract and may affect the ...
speech, figure of
▪ rhetoric       any intentional deviation from literal statement or common usage that emphasizes, clarifies, or embellishes both written and spoken language. Forming an ...
speech act n. See performative. * * *
speech community n. A group of speakers, whether located in one area or scattered, who recognize the same language or dialect of a language as a standard. * * *
See speechify. * * *
—speechification, n. —speechifier, n. /spee"cheuh fuy'/, v.i., speechified, speechifying. to make a speech or speeches; harangue. [1715-25; SPEECH + -IFY] * * *
—speechlessly, adv. —speechlessness, n. /speech"lis/, adj. 1. temporarily deprived of speech by strong emotion, physical weakness, exhaustion, etc.: speechless with alarm. 2. ...
See speechless. * * *
See speechlessly. * * *
—speechmaking, n. /speech"may'keuhr/, n. a person who delivers speeches. [1700-10; SPEECH + MAKER] * * *
See speechmaker. * * *
See speech pathology. * * *
speech pathology n. The study of speech defects and disorders such as stuttering and dysphasia.   speech pathologist n. * * *
—speechreader, n. /speech"reed'/, v.t., v.i., speechread /-red'/, speechreading. to comprehend by speechreading. Cf. lipread. [SPEECH + READ1] * * *
/speech"ree'ding/, n. the act or process of determining the intended meaning of a speaker by utilizing all visual clues accompanying speech attempts, as lip movements, facial ...
See speech therapy. * * *
speech therapy n. Treatment of speech defects and disorders, especially through use of exercises and audio-visual aids that develop new speech habits.   speech therapist n. * * *
/speech"way'/, n. a pattern, style, or feature of spoken language shared by the people of a particular group or area. [SPEECH + WAY1] * * *
/speech"ruy'teuhr/, n. a person who writes speeches for others, usually for pay. [1825-35; SPEECH + WRITER] * * *
See speechwriter. * * *
—speedful, adj. —speedfully, adv. —speedfulness, n. —speedingly, adv. —speedingness, n. —speedless, adj. /speed/, n., v., sped or speeded, speeding. n. 1. rapidity in ...
speed brake
speed brake n. an airplane flap designed to decrease flight speed, esp. when landing * * *
speed bump
a rounded ridge built crosswise into the pavement of a road or driveway to force vehicles to slow down. [1970-75] * * *
speed chess
a game of chess played in a very short amount of time, usu. five minutes per player for an entire game. Also called blitz chess, lightning chess. * * *
speed demon
Informal. a person who travels or works at high speed. * * *
speed freak
Slang. an addict or habitual user of amphetamines, methamphetamines, or similar stimulating drugs. Also, speedfreak. [1965-70] * * *
speed gear
an adjustable gear for driving a machine at various speeds. * * *
speed indicator
an instrument for counting the number of revolutions of a gasoline engine. Also called speed counter. [1855-60] * * *
speed light
Photog. an electronic flash lamp. Also called speed flash, speed lamp. [1895-1900 for earlier sense] * * *
speed limit
the maximum speed at which a vehicle is legally permitted to travel, as within a specific area, on a certain road, or under given conditions. [1890-95] * * *
speed metal
a style of heavy-metal music typically played at extremely fast tempos. [1985-90] * * *
speed of light
▪ physics       speed at which light waves propagate through different materials. In particular, the value for the speed of light in a vacuum is now defined as exactly ...
speed of sound
▪ physics       speed at which sound waves propagate through different materials. In particular, for dry air at a temperature of 0 °C (32 °F), the modern value for the ...
Speed of sound in selected gases
▪ Table Speed of sound in selected gases gas speed metres/second feet/second helium, at 0 °C (32 °F) 965 3,165 nitrogen, at 0 °C 334 1,096 oxygen, at 0 ...
Speed of sound in selected liquids
▪ Table Speed of sound in selected liquids (at one atmosphere pressure) liquid speed metres/second feet/second pure water, at 0 °C (32 °F) 1,402.3 4,600 pure water, at ...
Speed of sound in selected solids
▪ Table Speed of sound in selected solids solid speed metres/second feet/second aluminum, rolled 5,000 16,500 copper, rolled 3,750 12,375 iron, ...
speed shop
Auto. Informal. a garage that specializes in fitting cars, esp. hot rods, with custom-made mechanical equipment for racing. [1950-55] * * *
speed skate.
See racing skate. [1890-95] * * *
speed skating
—speed skater, speedskater, n. ice skating as a form of racing, usually on an oval course and against other competitors or the clock. Also, speedskating. [1880-85] * * * Sport ...
speed skiing
▪ sport       competitive skiing event in which racers equipped with special short skis, skintight suits, and aerodynamic helmets compete to achieve the fastest speed ...
speed trap
a section of a road where hidden police, radar, etc., carefully check the speed of motorists and strictly enforce traffic regulations: sometimes characterized by hard-to-see ...
—speed-reader n. /speed"reed'/, v.t., v.i., speed-read /-red'/, speed-reading. to read faster than normal, esp. by acquired techniques of skimming and controlled eye ...
See speed-read. * * *
speed-reading [spēd′rēd΄iŋ] n. a technique for reading texts at an extremely rapid rate with adequate comprehension speed-read vi., vt. speed-reader n. * * ...
/speed"up'/, n. 1. an increasing of speed. 2. an imposed increase in the rate of production of a worker without a corresponding increase in the rate of pay. [1920-25; n. use of ...
/speed"bawl'/, n. 1. a game similar to soccer with the chief difference that a player catching the ball on the fly can pass it with the hands. 2. Slang. any combination of a ...
/speed"boht'/, n. a motorboat designed for high speeds. [1910-15; SPEED BOAT + -ING1] * * *
See speedboating. * * *
/speed"boh'ting/, n. the act, practice, or sport of traveling in a speedboat. [1925-30; SPEEDBOAT + -ING1] * * *
speed brake n. A flap on an aircraft for decreasing speed while in flight in preparation for landing. * * *
speed bump n. An artificial ridge set crosswise into the surface of a street, parking lot, or driveway to make the operators of vehicles decrease speed. * * *
speed chess n. See blitz chess. * * *
/spee"deuhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that speeds. 2. a driver who exceeds the legal speed limit. 3. a small self-propelled railroad car powered by a gasoline engine and used by ...
See speedy. * * *
See speedily. * * *
/spee"ding/, n. the act or practice of exceeding the speed limit: a $50 fine for speeding. [1250-1300, for earlier sense "the condition of prospering"; 1905-10 for current sense; ...
speed limit n. The maximum speed legally permitted on a given stretch of road. * * *
speed metal n. Heavy metal music that is exceptionally harsh and fast. Also called thrash. * * *
/spee"doh/, n., pl. speedos. Informal. speedometer. [1950-55; by shortening; cf. -O] * * *
/spee dom"i teuhr, spi-/, n. an instrument on an automobile or other vehicle for indicating the rate of travel in miles or kilometers per hour. [1900-05; SPEED + -O- + -METER] * ...
speed shop n. Slang An automotive shop that caters to hot rodders. * * *
speed skate n. An ice skate for racing, fitted with a long blade that extends beyond the heel and toe of the boot. Also called racing skate. * * *
See speed skating. * * *
speed skating n. Competitive racing on speed skates, usually around an oval course.   speed skater n. * * *
/speed"steuhr/, n. a person who travels at high speed. [1915-20; SPEED + -STER] * * *
speed trap n. Police officers or electronic devices concealed and deployed on a stretch of road to catch speeding drivers. * * *
speedup [spēd′up΄] n. an increase in speed; esp., an increase in the rate of output, as required by an employer without any increase in pay * * * speed·up ...
/speed"wawk'/, n. an endless conveyor belt, moving walk, or the like used to transport standing persons from place to place. [SPEED + WALK] * * *
/speed"way'/, n. 1. a road or course for fast driving, motoring, or the like, or on which more than ordinary speed is allowed. 2. a track on which automobile or motorcycle races ...
/speed"way'/, n. a town in central Indiana. 12,641. * * *
speedway racing
▪ sports  automobile or motorcycle racing on a racecourse or track, usually oval and flat. Both speedway racing and Grand Prix racing, which is done on closed highways or ...
/speed"wel'/, n. any of several plants, shrubs, or small trees of the genus Veronica, of the figwort family, having opposite leaves and small flowers. [1570-80; SPEED + WELL1; so ...
See speedwriting. * * *
/speed"ruy'ting/, n. a system of shorthand that is based on the sound of words and utilizes letters of the alphabet rather than symbols. [1920-25; SPEED + WRITING; formerly a ...
—speedily, adv. —speediness, n. /spee"dee/, adj., speedier, speediest. 1. characterized by speed; rapid; swift; fast. 2. coming, given, or arrived at quickly or soon; prompt; ...
/speel/, v.t., v.i. Scot. and North Eng. to climb; ascend; mount. Also, speil. [1505-15; orig. uncert.] * * *
Speelman, Cornelis Janszoon
▪ governor general of Dutch East Indies born March 3, 1628, Rotterdam, Dutch Republic [now The Netherlands] died Jan. 11, 1684, Batavia, Dutch East Indies [now Jakarta, Java, ...
Speenhamland system
▪ British relief system       practice of economic relief for the poor that was adopted over much of England following a decision by local magistrates at the Pelican ...
/spear/, v.i., v.t. Chiefly Scot. to ask; inquire. Also, speir, spier. [bef. 900; ME speren, spiren, OE spyrian to make tracks, trace, ask about; c. G spüren, ON spyrja to ask; ...
/spear/; Ger. /shpayrdd/, n. Albert /al"beuhrt/; Ger. /ahl"berddt/, 1905-81, German Nazi leader: appointed by Hitler as official Nazi architect. * * *
Speer, Albert
born March 19, 1905, Mannheim, Baden, Ger. died Sept. 1, 1981, London, Eng. German Nazi official. He became an architect in 1927 and an active member of the Nazi Party in 1931. ...
Speer (spîr, shpâr), Albert. 1905-1981. German architect and Nazi politician. He was Hitler's personal architect (1934-1945) and minister of armaments (1942-1945). * * *
Speight, George
▪ 2001       Declaring that he was defending the rights of indigenous Fijians against the increasing power of the country's ethnic Indian minority, George Speight led a ...
/spuys/, n. Metall. a product obtained in smelting certain ores, consisting of one or more metallic arsenides, as of iron or nickel. [1790-1800; < G Speise lit., food] * * *
To observe. Oldest form *spek̑-, becoming *spek- in centum languages. Derivatives include espionage, spectrum, despise, suspect, despicable, bishop, and telescope. I. Basic form ...
Speke, John Hanning
born May 3, 1827, Bideford, Devon, Eng. died Sept. 15, 1864, Corsham, Wiltshire British explorer. He was a member of Richard Burton's expedition, and in 1858 Speke and Burton ...
Speke,John Hanning
Speke (spēk), John Hanning. 1827-1864. British explorer in Africa. He and Sir Richard Burton were the first Europeans to explore Lake Tanganyika (1858). * * *
/spi lee"euhn/, adj. of, pertaining to, or inhabiting a cave or caves. Also, spelean. [1830-40; < NL spelae(us) (adj. deriv. of L spelaeum cave < Gk spélaion) + -AN] * * *
See speleology. * * *
See speleological. * * *
—speleological /spee'lee euh loj"i keuhl/, adj. —speleologist n. /spee'lee ol"euh jee/, n. the exploration and study of caves. Also, spelaeology. [1890-95; < L spelae(um) ...
speleothem [spē′lē ə them΄] n. a mineral deposit formed in caves by the evaporation of mineral-rich water, as a stalactite, stalagmite, or helictite * * *
spell1 —spellable, adj. /spel/, v., spelled or spelt, spelling. v.t. 1. to name, write, or otherwise give the letters, in order, of (a word, syllable, etc.): Did I spell your ...
spell check
spell check n. the act or an instance of using a SPELL-CHECKER * * *
spell checker
a computer program for checking the spelling of words in an electronic document. Also called spelling checker. [1980-85] * * *
/spel"chek'/, v.t. to process (a document) with a spell checker; check the spelling of. * * *
spell-checker [spel′chek΄ər] n. a word-processing program that reviews words in a document for misspellings: also spelling checker * * *
—spellbindingly, adv. /spel"buynd'/, v.t., spellbound, spellbinding. to hold or bind by or as if by a spell; enchant; entrance; fascinate. [1800-10; SPELL2 + BIND, deduced from ...
/spel"buyn'deuhr/, n. a person or thing that spellbinds, esp. a powerful speaker who can captivate an audience. [1885-90, Amer.; SPELLBIND + -ER1] * * *
See spellbind. * * *
/spel"bownd'/, adj. bound by or as if by a spell; enchanted, entranced, or fascinated: a spellbound audience. [1790-1800; SPELL2 + -BOUND1] * * *
See spell checker. * * *
spell checker or spell·check·er (spĕlʹchĕk'ər) n. An application within most word processing programs that checks for spelling errors in documents.   spell check v. * * *
/spel"down'/, n. a spelling competition that begins with all the contestants standing and that ends when all but one, the winner, have been required to sit down due to a ...
/spel"euhr/, n. 1. a person who spells words. 2. Also called spelling book. an elementary textbook or manual to teach spelling. [1400-50; late ME; see SPELL1, -ER1] * * *
/spel"euhr di vuy"deuhr/, n. a reference book that lists words in alphabetical order to show spelling and syllabification. * * *
/spel"ing/, n. 1. the manner in which words are spelled; orthography. 2. a group of letters representing a word. 3. the act of a speller. [1400-50; late ME (ger.); see SPELL1, ...
spelling and grammar checkers
Components of word-processing programs for personal computers that identify apparent misspellings and grammatical errors by reference to an incorporated dictionary and a list of ...
spelling bee
a spelling competition won by the individual or team spelling the greatest number of words correctly; spelldown. [1870-75] * * * ▪ contest also called  spelling match , or ...
spelling pronunciation
a pronunciation based on spelling, usually a variant of the traditional pronunciation. The spelling pronunciation of waistcoat is /wayst"koht'/ rather than /wes"keuht/. * * *
spelling reform
an attempt to change the spelling of English words to make it conform more closely to pronunciation. [1870-75] * * *
Spelling, Aaron
▪ 2007  American television producer (b. April 22, 1923, Dallas, Texas—d. June 23, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.), reigned as the top producer in television with a slew of ...
spelling bee n. A contest in which competitors are eliminated as they fail to spell a given word correctly. Also called spelldown. * * *
spelling pronunciation n. A pronunciation of a word that differs from the historically established one, arising on the basis of the word's spelling, as the introduction of a (t) ...
/spel"meuhn/, n. Francis Joseph, Cardinal, 1889-1967, U.S. Roman Catholic clergyman: archbishop of New York 1939-67. * * *
Spelman College
Private, historically black, women's liberal arts college in Atlanta, Ga. Its history is traced to 1881, when two Boston women began teaching 11 black women, mostly ex-slaves, ...
Spelman, Sir Henry
▪ English historian born 1564? died Oct. 14, 1641, London       English antiquary, ecclesiastical and legal historian best known for his Concilia, Decreta, Leges, ...
spelt1 /spelt/, v. a pt. and pp. of spell1. spelt2 /spelt/, n. a wheat, Triticum aestivum spelta, native to southern Europe and western Asia, used chiefly for livestock ...
/spel"teuhr/, n. zinc, esp. in the form of ingots. [1655-65; orig. uncert.; akin to MD speauter, G spiauter spelter] * * *       zinc in the form of slabs cast from the ...
▪ district, England, United Kingdom       borough (district), administrative county of Surrey, historic county of Middlesex, England, bounded on the south and west by ...
/spi lungk"/, v.i. to explore caves, esp. as a hobby. [back formation from SPELUNKER, spelunking] * * *
—spelunking, n. /spi lung"keuhr/, n. a person who explores caves, esp. as a hobby. [1940-45; < L spelunc(a) cave (
See spelunker. * * *
Spelvin, George
▪ theatrical conventional name       U.S. theatrical convention used in the credits commonly to conceal dual roles or for a corpse or other anthropomorphic props. ...
/shpay"mahn/, n. Hans /hahns/, 1869-1941, German zoologist: Nobel prize for medicine 1935. * * *
Spemann, Hans
▪ German embryologist born June 27, 1869, Stuttgart, Württemberg [now in Germany] died Sept. 12, 1941, Freiburg im Breisgau, Ger.       German embryologist who was ...
Spe·mann (shpāʹmän'), Hans. 1869-1941. German zoologist and physiologist. He won a 1935 Nobel Prize for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development. * * *
/spens/, n. Brit. Dial. a pantry. [1350-1400; ME spense, spence < MF despense pantry < ML dispensa, n. use of fem. of dispensus, ptp. of dispendere to weigh out; see DISPENSE] * ...
/spens/, n. a male given name, form of Spencer. * * *
Spence, A. Michael
born 1943, Montclair, N.J., U.S. U.S. economist. He studied at Yale (B.A., 1966), Oxford (B.A./M.A., 1968), and Harvard (Ph.D., 1972) and taught at Harvard and Stanford, ...
Spence, Alexander Lee
▪ 2000 “Skip”        Canadian-born musician who, as a founding member of the Jefferson Airplane and Moby Grape rock bands, was an influential figure in the ...
Spence, Kenneth Wartinbee
▪ American psychologist born May 6, 1907, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. died January 12, 1967, Austin, Texas       American psychologist who attempted to construct a ...
Spence, Sir Basil
▪ British architect born August 13, 1907, Bombay died November 19, 1976, Eye, Suffolk, England       architect best known for the new Coventry cathedral, built to ...
Spence, Thomas
▪ British pamphleteer born June 21, 1750, Newcastle, Northumberland, now in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear died Sept. 8, 1814, London       British ...
spencer1 /spen"seuhr/, n. 1. a short, close-fitting jacket, frequently trimmed with fur, worn in the 19th century by women and children. 2. a man's close-fitting jacket, having a ...
/spen"seuhr/, n. 1. Charles, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, 1674-1722, British statesman: prime minister 1718-21. 2. Herbert, 1820-1903, English philosopher. 3. Platt Rogers /plat/, ...
Spencer carbine
▪ weapon       any of a family of rim-fire repeating (repeating rifle) arms—both carbines and rifles—that were widely used in the American Civil War. The carbine was ...
Spencer Gulf
▪ gulf, South Australia, Australia       triangular inlet of the Indian Ocean, indenting the southeastern coast of South Australia, between the Eyre and Yorke ...
Spencer Tracy
➡ Tracy (II) * * *
Spencer, Baldwin
▪ prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda in full  Winston Baldwin Spencer  born Oct. 8, 1948, Green Bay, St. John's, Antigua       Antiguan trade unionist and ...
Spencer, Herbert
born April 27, 1820, Derby, Derbyshire, Eng. died Dec. 8, 1903, Brighton, Sussex English sociologist and philosopher, advocate of the theory of social Darwinism. His System of ...
Spencer, John
▪ 2007       British snooker player (b. Sept. 18, 1935, Radcliffe, Lancashire, Eng.—d. July 11, 2006, Bury, Lancashire, Eng.), captured the snooker world championship ...
Spencer, John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl
▪ British statesman also called  (until 1834) Viscount Althorp   born May 30, 1782, London died Oct. 1, 1845, near Clayworth, Nottinghamshire, Eng.       statesman, ...
Spencer, Lilly Martin
▪ American painter original name  Angelique Marie Martin   born November 26, 1822, Exeter, England died May 22, 1902, New York, New York, U.S.       American painter ...
Spencer, Sir Baldwin
▪ British anthropologist in full  Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer  born June 23, 1860, Stretford, Lancashire, Eng. died July 14, 1929, Tierra del Fuego, ...
Spencer, Sir Stanley
▪ English painter born June 30, 1891, Cookham, Berkshire, England died December 14, 1959, Taplow, Buckinghamshire  one of the leading painters in England between the World ...
Spen·cer (spĕnʹsər), Herbert. 1820-1903. British philosopher who attempted to apply the theory of evolution to philosophy and ethics in his series Synthetic Philosophy ...
Spencer Gulf An inlet of the Indian Ocean off south-central Australia between the Eyre and Yorke peninsulas. It was discovered in 1802. * * *
/spen sear"ee euhn/, adj. 1. of Herbert Spencer or his philosophy. n. 2. a follower of Herbert Spencer. [1885-90; SPENCER + -IAN] /spen sear"ee euhn/, adj. pertaining to or ...
Spencerian penmanship
▪ calligraphy  style of handwriting (calligraphy) developed by Platt Rogers Spencer (died 1864) of Geneva, Ohio. Energetically promoted by Spencer's five sons and a nephew, ...
Spen·cer·ism (spĕnʹsə-rĭz'əm) also Spen·ce·ri·an·ism (spĕn-sîrʹē-ə-nĭz'əm) n. The system of thought developed by Herbert Spencer, setting forth the idea that ...
/spend/, v., spent, spending. v.t. 1. to pay out, disburse, or expend; dispose of (money, wealth, resources, etc.): resisting the temptation to spend one's money. 2. to employ ...
To make an offering, perform a rite, hence to engage oneself by a ritual act. O-grade from *spond-. 1. Suffixed form *spond-eyo-. sponsor, spouse; despond, espouse, respond, from ...
/spen"deuh beuhl/, adj. available for spending. [1490-1500; SPEND + -ABLE] * * *
/spen"deuhr/, n. a person who spends, esp. one who habitually spends excessively or lavishly; spendthrift. [1350-1400; ME; see SPEND, -ER1] * * *
/spen"deuhr/, n. Stephen, 1909-96, English poet and critic. * * *
Spender, Humphrey
▪ 2006       British photojournalist and artist (b. April 19, 1910, London, Eng.—d. March 11, 2005, Ulting, Essex, Eng.), chronicled the everyday lives of ...
Spender, Sir Stephen
▪ English poet in full  Sir Stephen Harold Spender  born February 28, 1909, London, England died July 16, 1995, London       English poet and critic, who made his ...
Spender, Sir Stephen (Harold)
born Feb. 28, 1909, London, Eng. died July 16, 1995, London English poet and critic. While an undergraduate at Oxford, Spender met the poets W.H. Auden and C. Day-Lewis. In the ...
Spender, Sir Stephen Harold
▪ 1996       British poet and critic (b. Feb. 28, 1909, London, England—d. July 16, 1995, London), was one of the preeminent English poets of the 1930s and a member of ...
Spender,Sir Stephen Harold
Spen·der (spĕnʹdər), Sir Stephen Harold. 1909-1995. British writer whose poetry reflects personal emotional responses to social and political injustices. His works include ...
➡ budget * * *
spending money
money for small personal expenses. [1590-1600] * * *
spend·ing money (spĕnʹdĭng) n. Cash for small personal needs. * * *
/spend"thrift'/, n. 1. a person who spends possessions or money extravagantly or wastefully; prodigal. adj. 2. wastefully extravagant; prodigal. [1595-1605; SPEND + THRIFT] Syn. ...
spendthrift trust
Law. a trust that provides a fund for a beneficiary, as a minor, with the title vested so that the fund or its income cannot be claimed by others, as creditors of the ...
—Spenerism /shpay"neuh riz'euhm, spay"-/, n. /shpay"neuhrdd/, n. Philipp Jakob /fee"leep yah"kawp/, 1635-1705, German theologian: founder of Pietism. * * *
Spener, Philipp Jakob
▪ German theologian and author born Jan. 23, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Upper Alsace [now Ribeauvillé, France] died Feb. 5, 1705, Berlin, Prussia ...
—Spenglerian /speng glear"ee euhn, shpeng-/, n., adj. /speng"gleuhr/; Ger. /shpeng"gleuhrdd/, n. Oswald /oz"wawld/; Ger. /aws"vahlt/, 1880-1936, German philosopher. * * *
Spengler, Oswald
born May 29, 1880, Blankenburg, Ger. died May 8, 1936, Munich German philosopher. A schoolmaster before he turned to writing, Spengler is remembered for his influential The ...
Speng·ler (spĕngʹlər, -glər, shpĕngʹ-), Oswald. 1880-1936. German philosopher who argued that civilizations and cultures are subject to the same cycle of growth and decay ...
/spen"seuhr/, n. Edmund, c1552-99, English poet. * * *
Spenser, Edmund
born 1552/53, London, Eng. died Jan. 13, 1599, London English poet. Little is known for certain about his life before he entered the University of Cambridge. His first ...
Spen·ser (spĕnʹsər), Edmund. 1552?-1599. English poet known chiefly for his allegorical epic romance The Faerie Queene (1590-1596). His other works include the pastoral ...
/spen sear"ee euhn/, adj. 1. of or characteristic of Spenser or his work. n. 2. an imitator of Spenser. 3. See Spenserian stanza. 4. verse in Spenserian stanzas. [1810-20; ...
Spenserian sonnet
a sonnet employing the rhyme scheme abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee. * * *
Spenserian stanza
the stanza used by Spenser in his Faerie Queene and employed since by other poets, consisting of eight iambic pentameter lines and a final Alexandrine, with a rhyme scheme of ...
Spenserian sonnet n. A sonnet form composed of three quatrains and a couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme abab bcbc cdcd ee. * * *
Spenserian stanza n. A stanza consisting of eight lines of iambic pentameter and a final alexandrine, rhymed ababbcbcc, first used by Edmund Spenser in The Faerie Queene. * * *
/spent/, v. 1. pt. and pp. of spend. 2. used up; consumed. 3. tired; worn-out; exhausted. Syn. 3. weary, drained, fagged. * * *
Spenta Amesha
/spen"teuh ah"me sheuh/, Zoroastrianism. See Amesha Spenta. * * *
Spenta Mainyu
/muyn"yooh/, Zoroastrianism. the good and creative spirit that is the offspring of Ahura Mazda. * * * ▪ Zoroastrianism       in Zoroastrianism, the Holy Spirit, created ...
/spee"os/, n. a cavelike temple, tomb, or the like, cut in rock. [1835-45; < Gk spéos cave] * * *
To strew. Derivatives include sprawl, sperm1, and sporadic. I. Zero-grade form *spr-. 1. sprawl, from Old English sprēawlian, to sprawl, from Germanic *spr-. 2. Extended form ...
Speransky, Mikhail (Mikhaylovich), Count
born Jan. 12, 1772, Cherkutino, Russia died Feb. 23, 1839, St. Petersburg Russian politician. After teaching at the seminary in St. Petersburg, he entered government service. ...
Speransky, Mikhail Mikhaylovich, Graf
▪ Russian statesman Introduction (Count) born Jan. 12 [Jan. 1, old style], 1772, Cherkutino, Russia died Feb. 23 [Feb. 11, O.S.], 1839, St. Petersburg       Russian ...
sperm1 /sperrm/, n., pl. sperm, sperms for 2. 1. semen. 2. a male reproductive cell; spermatozoon. [1350-1400; ME sperme < LL sperma < Gk spérma seed, equiv. to sper- (base of ...
sperm bank
a repository for storing sperm and keeping it viable under scientifically controlled conditions prior to its use in artificial insemination. [1970-75] * * *
sperm cell
Biol. 1. spermatozoon. 2. any male gamete. [1850-55] * * *
sperm oil
Chem. a yellow, thin, water-insoluble liquid obtained from the sperm whale, used chiefly as a lubricant in light machinery, as watches, clocks, and scientific ...
sperm whale
a large, square-snouted whale, Physeter catodon, valued for its oil and spermaceti: now reduced in number and rare in some areas. [1825-35] * * * or cachalot Thickset, ...
var. of spermo- before a vowel: spermine. * * *
sperma- pref. Variant of spermi-. * * *
—spermacetilike, adj. /sperr'meuh set"ee, -see"tee/, n. Chem., Pharm. a pearly white, waxy, translucent solid, obtained from the oil in the head of the sperm whale: used ...
/sperr'meuh goh"nee euhm/, n., pl. spermagonia /-nee euh/. Bot., Mycol. spermogonium. * * *
/sperr"meuh ree/, n., pl. spermaries. an organ in which spermatozoa are generated; testis. [1860-65; < NL spermarium, equiv. to LL sperm(a) SPERM1 + -arium -ARY] * * *
spermat- pref. Variant of spermato-. * * *
sper·ma·tan·gi·um (spûr'mə-tănʹjē-əm) n. pl. sper·ma·tan·gi·a (-jē-ə) A structure that produces spermatia in red algae.   [New Latin : spermatium + -angium, ...
/sperr'meuh thee"keuh/, n., pl. spermathecae /-see/. Zool. a small sac or cavity in female or hermaphroditic invertebrates used to store sperm for fertilizing eggs, as in the ...
See spermatheca. * * *
See spermatium. * * *
—spermatically, adv. /sperr mat"ik/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or resembling sperm; seminal; generative. 2. pertaining to a spermary. [1530-40; < LL spermaticus < Gk ...
spermatic cord
Anat. the cord by which a testis is suspended in the scrotum, containing the vas deferens and the blood vessels and nerves of the testis. [1790-1800] * * * ▪ ...

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