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Church Buttes
▪ cliffs, Wyoming, United States       eroded sandstone cliffs in Uinta county, extreme southwestern Wyoming, about 45 miles (72 km) west-southwest of Rock Springs. ...
church calendar.
See ecclesiastical calendar (def. 2). * * *
Church Commissioners
an organization set up by the British government in 1948 to deal with the money and lands of the Church of England. It is based in London. * * * ▪ organization, Church of ...
church council
(in certain Lutheran churches) a body of lay delegates chosen from the congregation and charged with supporting the pastor in religious instruction, contributions to the church, ...
church expectant
Theol. the church living in its earthly struggles and in anticipation of God's ultimate victory at the Final Judgment. Cf. church triumphant. * * *
church father
father (def. 13). [1855-60] * * * ▪ Christianity       any of the great bishops and other eminent Christian teachers of the early centuries whose writings remained as a ...
Church in Wales
the Welsh branch of the Church of England. It became the main Welsh Church in the 16th century, although in the 18th and 19th centuries the majority of people in Wales left it ...
church invisible
Theol. the entire body of Christian believers on earth and in heaven. Cf. church visible. [1840-50] * * *
church key
Slang. a small metal can opener having a sharp triangular pointed end for punching holes in the top of a beverage can, as of beer. [1950-55] * * *
church militant
Theol. those Christians on earth who are engaged in a continuous war against evil and the enemies of Christ. Cf. church triumphant. [1530-40] * * *
Church Missionary Society
a Church of England organization that sends missionaries all over the world to teach people about Christianity. It was started in 1799. * * * ▪ Anglican ...
church mode
Music. a mode belonging to a codified system of modes in use in Gregorian chant and in other music to c1600. Also called Gregorian mode. [1860-65] * * * In music, any one of ...
Church of Christ
Church of Christ or Scientist see CHRISTIAN SCIENCE n. * * * ▪ American Protestant denomination       any of several conservative Protestant churches, found chiefly in ...
Church of Christ, Scientist
the official name of the Christian Science Church. * * *
Church of Christ,Scientist
Church of Christ, Scientist n. See Christian Science. * * *
Church of England
the established church in England, Catholic in faith and order, but incorporating many principles of the Protestant Reformation and independent of the papacy. * * *
Church of God
any of numerous Protestant denominations that stress personal conversion, sanctification, the imminent return of Jesus Christ, baptism by immersion, and, among some, speaking in ...
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
a denomination founded in the U.S. in 1830 by Joseph Smith and based on the teachings of the Book of Mormon. * * *       the largest denomination of the Mormon religion. ...
Church of Rome
Church of Rome n. the Roman Catholic Church * * *
Church of Rome.
See Roman Catholic Church. * * *
Church of Satan
▪ religion       counterculture group founded in the United States in the 1960s by Anton Szandor LaVey (1930–1997), born Howard Levy. Contrary to its name, the church ...
Church of Scotland
the official Church in Scotland, started by John Knox and Andrew Melville in 1560, and officially accepted in 1690. It does not have bishops like the Church of England, and the ...
Church of the Brethren
the official name of the church of the Dunkers. * * *
Church of the New Jerusalem.
See New Jerusalem Church. * * *
church rate
Eccles. (formerly in England and Ireland) a compulsory assessment imposed on the parishioners' holdings of houses or land in order to repair the parish church and maintain its ...
church register.
See parish register. [1840-50] * * *
church school
a primary or secondary private school affiliated with a Christian denomination. [1860-65] * * *
Church Slavic
a liturgical language used in Eastern Orthodox churches in Slavic countries since the 11th or 12th century, representing a development of Old Church Slavonic through contact with ...
Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic or Church Slavic n. OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC * * *
church sonata
Italian  sonata da chiesa         a type of sonata (trio sonata) originally thought appropriate for church. See sonata da chiesa. * * *
church suffering
Rom. Cath. Ch. the souls in purgatory. * * *
church text
Print. See Old English (def. 2). [1675-85] * * *
church triumphant
Theol. those Christians in heaven who have triumphed over evil and the enemies of Christ. Cf. church militant. [1545-55] * * *
Church Universal and Triumphant
▪ religion       the largest of several groups that emerged from I AM (I AM movement) religious activity, a movement centred upon avowed contact with the Ascended ...
church visible
Theol. the entire body of Christian believers on earth. Cf. church invisible. [1555-65] * * *
Church World Service
      worldwide relief and rehabilitation agency, from 1951 to 1963 a department of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., (National Council of the ...
church year
▪ Christianity Introduction       annual cycle of seasons and days observed in the Christian churches in commemoration of the life, death, and Resurrection of Jesus ...
church year.
See Christian year. * * *
Church's thesis
▪ mathematics also called  Church's Theorem,         a principle formulated by the 20th-century American logician Alonzo Church, stating that the recursive functions ...
Church, Alonzo
born June 14, 1903, Washington, D.C., U.S. died Aug. 11, 1995, Hudson, Ohio U.S. mathematician. He earned a Ph.D. from Princeton University. His contributions to number theory ...
Church, Dorothea Towles
▪ 2007       American model (b. July 26, 1922, Texarkana, Texas—d. July 7, New York, N.Y.), found stardom in the 1950s as the first black model on the runways of ...
Church, Frederic Edwin
born May 4, 1826, Hartford, Conn., U.S. died April 7, 1900, near New York, N.Y. U.S. landscape painter. He studied with Thomas Cole in Catskill, N.Y., and soon became one of ...
Church, Sir Richard
▪ British soldier born 1784, Cork, County Cork, Ire. died March 30, 1873, Athens  British soldier and Philhellene, commander of the Greek forces during the War of Greek ...
Church,Frederick Edwin
Church (chûrch), Frederick Edwin. 1826-1900. American painter and leader of the Hudson River School. His works include Heart of the Andes (1859). * * *
churched
churched (chûrcht) adj. Belonging to or participating in a church. n. (used with a pl. verb) People who belong to or participate in a church considered as a group. * * *
Churches Together in Britain and Ireland
▪ religious organization formerly  British Council of Churches,        interdenominational Christian cooperative organization formed in 1942 by the Church of England ...
churchfather
church father or Church Father n. Any of the authoritative early writers in the Christian church who formulated doctrines and codified religious observances. * * *
churchgoer
—churchgoing, n. /cherrch"goh'euhr/, n. 1. a person who goes to church, esp. habitually. 2. Chiefly Brit. a member of the Established Church, in contrast to a ...
churchgoing
See churchgoer. * * *
Churchill
/cherr"chil, -cheuhl/, n. 1. John, 1st Duke of Marlborough, ("Corporal John"), 1650-1722, British military commander. 2. Lord Randolph (Henry Spencer), 1849-95, British statesman ...
Churchill Falls
waterfalls near the head of the Churchill River in SW Labrador, Newfoundland, in E Canada: site of hydroelectric power plant. ab. 200 ft. (60 m) wide; 316 ft. (96 m) high. ...
Churchill Reservoir
a series of irregularly shaped lakes in W Labrador, Newfoundland, in E Canada: the source of the Churchill River. * * *
Churchill River
River, central Canada. Rising in southwestern Saskatchewan, it flows east across Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba and turns northeast into Hudson Bay at Churchill. About 1,000 ...
Churchill tank
 the most successful British tank used in World War II. In 1940, after the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk on the French coast, the British ...
Churchill, Caryl
▪ British playwright born Sept. 3, 1938, London, Eng.       British playwright whose work frequently deals with feminist issues, the abuses of power, and sexual ...
Churchill, Charles
▪ British poet born February 1731, London, Eng. died Nov. 4, 1764, Boulogne, France  English poet noted for his lampoons and polemical satires written in heroic ...
Churchill, Jennie Jerome
▪ British socialite and writer née  Jeanette Jerome , formally  Lady Randolph Churchill  born Jan. 9, 1854, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S. died June 29, 1921, London, ...
Churchill, Lord Randolph
▪ British politician born Feb. 13, 1849, Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng. died Jan. 24, 1895, London  British politician, a precociously influential figure ...
Churchill, Randolph
▪ British author born May 28, 1911, London, Eng. died June 6, 1968, East Bergholt, Suffolk       English author, journalist, and politician, the only son of British ...
Churchill, Randolph (Henry Spencer), Lord
born Feb. 13, 1849, Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng. died Jan. 24, 1895, London British politician. Third son of the 7th duke of Marlborough, he entered the ...
Churchill, Sir Winston
▪ prime minister of United Kingdom Introduction in full  Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill   born Nov. 30, 1874, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, Eng. died Jan. 24, 1965, ...
Churchill, Sir Winston (Leonard Spencer)
born Nov. 30, 1874, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, Eng. died Jan. 24, 1965, London British statesman and author. Son of Lord Randolph Churchill and the American Jennie Jerome, ...
Churchill, Winston
▪ American writer born Nov. 10, 1871, St. Louis, Mo., U.S. died March 12, 1947, Winter Park, Fla.  American author of historical novels of wide ...
Churchill,Caryl
Chur·chill (chûrʹchĭl', chûrchʹhĭl'), Caryl. Born 1938. British playwright. Her best-known work, Cloud 9 (1979), is considered a landmark of feminist and postmodern ...
Churchill,John
Churchill, John. First Duke of Marlborough. 1650-1722. English general and statesman during the reigns of James II, Anne, and George I. He is considered among history's greatest ...
Churchill,Mount
Churchill, Mount A peak, 4,769.6 m (15,638 ft) high, in the Wrangell Mountains of southern Alaska. * * *
Churchill,Randolph Henry Spencer
Churchill, Randolph Henry Spencer. 1849-1895. British politician who led the so-called Fourth Party, a group of Conservative members of Parliament who advocated social and ...
Churchill,Sir Winston Leonard Spenser
Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spenser. 1874-1965. British politician and writer. As prime minister (1940-1945 and 1951-1955) he led Great Britain through World War II. Churchill ...
Churchill,Winston
Churchill, Winston. 1871-1947. American writer known for his popular historical romance novels, such as Richard Carvel (1899). * * *
ChurchillFalls
Churchill Falls Formerly Grand Falls (grănd). A waterfall, 74.7 m (245 ft) high, of the upper Churchill River in southwest Labrador, Canada. There is a hydroelectric power ...
Churchillian
/cherr chil"ee euhn/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Winston Churchill, his life, works, etc. n. 2. a specialist in the life and works of Winston ...
ChurchillRiver
Churchill River 1. A river of eastern Canada flowing about 965 km (600 mi) across Labrador to the Atlantic Ocean. 2. A river rising in northwest Saskatchewan, Canada, and flowing ...
churchkey
church key n. A can or bottle opener having a usually triangular head. * * *
churchless
/cherrch"lis/, adj. 1. without a church. 2. not belonging to or attending any church. 3. without church approval or ceremony. [1635-45; CHURCH + -LESS] * * *
churchlike
/cherrch"luyk'/, adj. resembling or appropriate to a church: churchlike silence. [1585-95; CHURCH + -LIKE] * * *
churchliness
See churchly. * * *
churchly
—churchliness, n. /cherrch"lee/, adj. of or appropriate for the church or a church; ecclesiastical: churchly vestments. [bef. 900; OE ciriclic, equiv. to cirice CHURCH + -lic ...
churchman
—churchmanly, adj. —churchmanship, n. /cherrch"meuhn/, n., pl. churchmen. 1. an ecclesiastic; clergyman. 2. an adherent or active supporter of a church. 3. Brit. a member of ...
churchmanly
See churchman. * * *
churchmanship
See churchmanly. * * *
churchmode
church mode n. Any of eight scales of medieval music, each distinguished by its ending note, its arrangement of pitches in intervals, and its range. * * *
Churchof England
Church of England n. Abbr. C. of E. The episcopal and liturgical national church of England, which has its see in Canterbury. * * *
Churchof Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints n. See Mormon Church. * * *
Churchof Rome
Church of Rome n. The Roman Catholic Church. * * *
ChurchSlavonic
Church Slavonic n. See Old Church Slavonic. * * *
churchward
/cherrch"weuhrd/, adv. 1. Also, churchwards. toward the church. adj. 2. directed toward the church: a churchward summons. [1325-75; ME chircheward. See CHURCH, -WARD] * * *
churchwarden
/cherrch"wawr'dn/, n. 1. Anglican Ch. a lay officer who looks after the secular affairs of the church, and who, in England, is the legal representative of the parish. 2. Episc. ...
churchwoman
/cherrch"woom'euhn/, n., pl. churchwomen. a female member, adherent, or active supporter of a church. [1715-25; CHURCH + WOMAN] * * *
churchy
—churchiness, n. /cherr"chee/, adj., churchier, churchiest. 1. adhering strictly to the prescribed form in ecclesiastical matters. 2. intolerant of dissent in one's ...
churchyard
/cherrch"yahrd'/, n. the yard or ground adjoining a church, often used as a graveyard. [1125-75; ME chirche yeard; see CHURCH, YARD2] * * *
Churchyard, Thomas
▪ English writer born c. 1520, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng. died 1604, London       English writer who won brief fame through his occasional verse, pamphlets on wartime ...
churinga
/choo ring"geuh/, n., pl. churinga, churingas. an object carved from wood or stone by Aboriginal tribes in central Australia and held by them to be sacred. [1895-1900; < Aranda ...
Chūritsurōren
▪ Japanese labour organization English  Liaison Council of Neutral Labour Unions        Japanese trade-union federation (1961–87) whose members were primarily ...
churl
/cherrl/, n. 1. a rude, boorish, or surly person. 2. a peasant; rustic. 3. a niggard; miser: He was a churl in his affections. 4. Eng. Hist. a freeman of the lowest rank. [bef. ...
churlish
—churlishly, adv. —churlishness, n. /cherr"lish/, adj. 1. like a churl; boorish; rude: churlish behavior. 2. of a churl; peasantlike. 3. niggardly; mean. 4. difficult to work ...
churlishly
See churlish. * * *
churlishness
See churlishly. * * *
churn
—churnable, adj. —churnability, n. —churner, n. /cherrn/, n. 1. a container or machine in which cream or milk is agitated to make butter. 2. any of various containers or ...
churn drill
a portable drill rig using a bit fashioned on a massive steel cylinder that is alternately lifted and dropped to drill a hole in earth and rock. * * *
churn molding
a molding decorated with chevrons. * * *
churner
See churn. * * *
churning
/cherr"ning/, n. 1. the act of a person or thing that churns. 2. the butter made at any one time. [1400-50; late ME chyrnynge. See CHURN, -ING1] * * *
churning of the milky ocean
▪ Hindu mythology       in Hindu mythology, one of the central events in the ever-continuing struggle between the devas (gods) and the asuras (demons, or titans). The ...
churr
/cherr/, v.i., n. chirr. * * *
churrasco
/cheuh ras"koh/; Sp. /choohrdd rddahs"kaw/, n., pl. churrascos /-kohz/; Sp. /-kaws/ for 2. Latin American Cookery. 1. meat cooked over an open fire. 2. a large piece of meat ...
Churriguera family
▪ Spanish family  a Spanish architectural family prominent during the last years of the 17th century and the first quarter of the 18th. The chief members of the family were ...
churrigueresque
/choor'ee geuh resk"/, adj. noting or pertaining to the baroque architecture of Spain and its colonies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, characterized by fantastic and ...
churro
/choor"oh/; Sp. /choohrdd"rddaw/, n., pl. churros /choor"ohz/; Sp. /choohrdd"rddaws/. Mexican Cookery. a long, slender, deep-fried pastry resembling a cruller. [1885-90, Amer.; < ...
Churu
▪ India       town, northeastern Rajasthan (Rājasthān) state, northwestern India. Founded about 1620 by Churru, a chieftain of the Jats (an agricultural people of ...
Churubusco
▪ historical district, Mexico City, Mexico       neighbourhood of the Federal District of Mexico, lying on the Río Churubusco; it was formerly a southeastern suburb of ...
chuse
/choohz/, v.t., v.i., chused, chusing. Archaic. choose. * * *
Chūshingura
▪ drama by Takeda Izumo and others in full  Kanadehon Chūshingura (Japanese: “Copybook of the Treasury of Loyal Retainers”),  also called  The Loyal Forty-seven ...
chusimp'o style
▪ architecture Korean“column-head bracket system”       Korean adaptation of the Chinese architecture of the T'ang period (AD 618–907). T'ang architecture was ...
Chusovoy
▪ Russia also spelled  Chusovoi,         city, Perm oblast (province), west-central Russia. It is situated in the mid- Ural Mountains along the Chusovaya River at ...
chute
chute1 /shooht/, n., v., chuted, chuting. n. 1. an inclined channel, as a trough, tube, or shaft, for conveying water, grain, coal, etc., to a lower level. 2. a waterfall or ...
chute the chute
to ride or slide on, or as if on, a chute-the-chute. Also, chute the chutes, shoot the chutes. [1905-10, Amer.] * * *
chute-the-chute
/shooht"dheuh shooht', shooht"euh shooht'/, n. 1. a ride or coaster, as at an amusement park or carnival, that provides thrills or excitement by moving passengers down steep dips ...
ChuTeh
Chu Teh (jo͞oʹ dŭʹ) See Zhu De. * * *
chutist
/shooh"tist/, n. a parachutist. [1915-20; CHUTE2 + -IST] * * *
chutney
/chut"nee/, n. a sauce or relish of East Indian origin, often compounded of both sweet and sour ingredients, as fruits and herbs, with spices and other seasoning. Also, ...
chutzpa
/khoot"speuh, hoot"-/, n. Slang. 1. unmitigated effrontery or impudence; gall. 2. audacity; nerve. Also, chutzpah, hutzpa, hutzpah. [1890-95; < Yiddish khutspa < Aram huspa] * * *
chutzpah
chutzpah or chutzpa [hoots′pə, khoots′pə; hoots′pä, khoots′pä] n. 〚Yiddish < Heb〛 Informal shameless audacity; impudence; brass * * * chutz·pah also hutz·pah ...
Chuuk
Chuuk (cho͝ok) or Truk (trŭk, tro͝ok) An island group and state of the Federated States of Micronesia in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Site of a major ...
Chuuk Islands
▪ islands, Micronesia formerly  Truk Islands  or  Hogoleu Islands        cluster of 16 much-eroded high volcanic islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in the ...
Chuvalo, George
▪ Canadian boxer born September 12, 1937, Toronto, Ontario, Canada       Canadian professional boxer and heavyweight champion of Canada.       Chuvalo's forte ...
Chuvash
/chooh vahsh"/; Russ. /chyooh vahsh"/, n., pl. Chuvashes, Chuvashi /chooh vah"shee/; Russ. /chyooh vah"shi, -vu shi"/, (esp. collectively) Chuvash for 1. 1. a member of a people ...
Chuvash Autonomous Republic
an autonomous republic in the Russian Federation in Europe. 1,336,000; 7064 sq. mi. (18,300 sq. km). Cap.: Cheboksary. * * *
Chuvash language
      member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family, spoken in Chuvashia and nearby regions along the middle course of the Volga River, in the central part of ...
Chuvashia
Chu·va·shi·a (cho͞o-väʹshē-ə) An autonomous republic of western Russia in the Volga River valley. Conquered by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came ...
Chūzenji, Lake
Lake, Honshu, Japan. Situated at an elevation of 4,375 ft (1,334 m), it is a resort site noted for its shrines, yachting, trout fishing, and skiing. Volcanic Mount Nantai towers ...
Chwang-tse
Chin. /jwahng"dzu"/, n. Chuang-tzu (def. 1). * * *
chyack
/chuy"euhk/, v.t. Australian. chiack. * * *
chylaceous
/kuy lay"sheuhs/, adj. of or resembling chyle. [1690-1700; CHYLE + -ACEOUS] * * *
chyle
—chylous, adj. /kuyl/, n. a milky fluid containing emulsified fat and other products of digestion, formed from the chyme in the small intestine and conveyed by the lacteals and ...
chylo-
a combining form meaning "juice," used in the formation of compound words: chylophyllous. [comb. for repr. Gk chylós; see CHYLE] * * *
chylocaulous
—chylocaulously, adv. /kuy'leuh kaw"leuhs/, adj. Bot. having fleshy stems. [ < G Chylocaul (see CHYLO-, CAULO-, -OUS)] * * *
chylomicron
/kuy'leuh muy"kron/, n. Biochem. a large plasma lipoprotein particle, occurring as a droplet consisting primarily of triglycerides and functioning in the transport of neutral ...
chylophyllous
—chylophyllously, adv. /kuy'leuh fil"euhs/, adj. Bot. having fleshy leaves, as certain desert plants. [CHYLO- + -PHYLLOUS] * * *
chylous
See chylaceous. * * *
chyme
—chymous, adj. /kuym/, n. the semifluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine. [1600-10; < L chymus ...
chymistry
—chymic, adj. —chymist, n. /kim"euh stree/, n. Archaic. chemistry. * * *
chymopapain
/kuy'moh peuh pay"in, -puy"in/, n. Pharm. an enzyme derived from the tropical papaya fruit that is used in some circumstances to treat herniated disks. [1970-75; CHYME + -O- + ...
chymosin
chy·mo·sin (kīʹmə-sĭn) n. See rennin.   [chyme + -ose2 + -in.] * * *
chymotrypsin
—chymotryptic /kuy'moh trip'tik/, adj. /kuy'moh trip"sin/, n. Biochem. a proteolytic enzyme, found in pancreatic juice, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into ...
chymotrypsinogen
/kuy'moh trip sin"euh jeuhn, -jen'/, n. Biochem. a zymogen that is converted by trypsin to chymotrypsin. [1930-35; CHYMOTRYPSIN + -O- + -GEN] * * *
chymotryptic
See chymotrypsin. * * *
chymous
See chyme. * * *
chytrid
/kuy"trid, ki"-/, n. any of the simple, algaelike fungi constituting the class Chytridiomycetes, order Chytridiales, of aquatic and soil environments, having flagellated ...
Chytridiomycota
▪ phylum of fungi       a phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi) distinguished by having zoospores (motile cells) with a single, posterior, whiplash structure (flagellum). ...
Chłopicki, Józef
▪ Polish general in full  Grzegorz Józef ChŁopicki  born March 14, 1771, Kapustynie, Volhynia, Pol. [now in Ukraine] died Sept. 30, 1854, Kraków, Pol., Austrian Empire ...
CI
counterintelligence. * * * ▪ Chinese poetic form Wade-Giles romanization  tz'u        in Chinese poetry, song form characterized by lines of unequal length with ...
Ci
curie; curies. * * * ▪ Chinese poetic form Wade-Giles romanization  tz'u        in Chinese poetry, song form characterized by lines of unequal length with prescribed ...
ci-devant
/seedeu vahonn"/, adj. French. former: used esp. in reference to a retired officeholder. [lit., heretofore] * * *
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency: the U.S. federal agency that coordinates governmental intelligence activities outside the United States. Also, C.I.A. * * *
Cia.
Company. [ < Sp Compañía] * * *
CIAA
CIAA abbr. Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. * * *
Ciano
/chah"noh/; It. /chah"naw/, n. Count Galeazzo /gah'le aht"tsaw/, (Ciano di Cortellazzo), 1903-44, Italian Fascist statesman: minister of foreign affairs 1936-43. * * *
Ciano, Galeazzo, conte di Cortellazzo
▪ Italian diplomat born March 18, 1903, Livorno, Italy died Jan. 11, 1944, Verona       Italian statesman and diplomat who became one of the key figures in the Fascist ...
Ciano, Galeazzo, count di Cortellazzo
born March 18, 1903, Livorno, Italy died Jan. 11, 1944, Verona Italian politician. He took part in the fascists' March on Rome and later entered the diplomatic corps. After ...
Ciano,Conte Galeazzo
Cia·no (chäʹnō), Conte Galeazzo. 1903-1944. Italian fascist politician. Married (1930) to the daughter of Benito Mussolini, he urged Italy to join the Axis powers in World ...
ciao
/chah"aw/; Eng. /chow/, interj. Italian. (used as a word of greeting or parting): hello; goodbye; so long; see you later. * * *
Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, Saint
or Kieran the Younger born с 516, Ireland died с 549, Clonmacnoise; feast day September 9 Irish abbot, one of the founders of monasticism in Ireland. Ciaran was educated ...
Ciardi
/chahr"dee/, n. John, 1916-86, U.S. poet. * * *
Ciardi, John
▪ American poet and critic in full  John Anthony Ciardi   born June 24, 1916, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. died March 30, 1986, Edison, New Jersey       American poet, ...
Ciardi,John Anthony
Ciar·di (chärʹdē), John Anthony. 1916-1986. American poet and critic noted for his clear, ironic poetry, works of literary criticism, such as How Does a Poem Mean? (1960), ...
cib.
(in prescriptions) food. [ < L cibus] * * *
Ciba-Geigy AG
Former Swiss pharmaceutical company formed in 1970 from the merger of Ciba AG and J.R. Geigy SA. Ciba started out in the 1850s as a silk-dyeing business and branched out into ...
Cibao Valley
▪ region, Dominican Republic Spanish  Valle Del Cibao,         valley in the northern Dominican Republic. It extends about 145 miles (235 km), from Manzanillo Bay in ...
cibarium
—cibarial, adj. /si bair"ee euhm/, n., pl. cibaria /-bair"ee euh/. Entomol. a food pouch in front of the mouth in certain insects. [ < NL, equiv. to L cib(us) food + -arium ...
Cibber
/sib"euhr/, n. Colley /kol"ee/, 1671-1757, English actor and dramatist: poet laureate 1730-57. * * *
Cibber, Caius Gabriel
▪ English sculptor Cibber also spelled  Cibert   born 1630, Flensburg, Den. died 1700, London       Danish-born English sculptor known for his Baroque architectural ...
Cibber, Colley
born Nov. 6, 1671, London, Eng. died Dec. 11, 1757, London British actor-manager, playwright, and poet. He began his career as an actor in 1690. His Love's Last Shift (1696) is ...
Cibber, Theophilus
▪ English actor and author born Nov. 26, 1703 died 1758, at sea  actor and playwright, a figure of general disrepute in the English theatre.       The son of Colley ...
Cibber,Colley
Cib·ber (sĭbʹər), Colley. 1671-1757. English playwright and theatrical manager who wrote comedies such as The Careless Husband (1704) and was appointed poet laureate in ...
Cíbola
/see"beuh leuh/, n. the Seven Cities of, legendary cities of great wealth believed by earlier Spanish explorers to exist in the SW United States. * * *
Cíbola, Seven Cities of
Legendary cities of splendour and riches sought by Spanish conquistadores in North America during the 16th century. The cities were first reported by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de ...
Ciboney
Ci·bo·ney (sē'bə-nāʹ, -bō-) n. pl. Ciboney or Ci·bo·neys also Ci·bo·ney·es (-nāʹĕs) A member of an American Indian people formerly inhabiting the Greater ...
ciborium
/si bawr"ee euhm, -bohr"-/, n., pl. ciboria /-bawr"ee euh, -bohr"-/. 1. a permanent canopy placed over an altar; baldachin. 2. any container designed to hold the consecrated ...
cicada
/si kay"deuh, -kah"-/, n., pl. cicadas, cicadae /-dee/. any large homopterous insect of the family Cicadidae, the male of which produces a shrill sound by means of vibrating ...
cicada killer
a black or rust-colored digger wasp, Sphecius speciosis, with a yellow-banded abdomen, that preys on cicadas. [1890-95] * * *
cicada-killer wasp
▪ insect       a species of large wasp in the family Sphecidae (order Hymenoptera) that is black or rusty in colour with yellow abdominal bands, similar in appearance to ...
cicadakiller
cicada killer n. A large wasp (Sphecius speciosus) that preys on cicadas. * * *
cicala
/si kah"leuh/; It. /chee kah"lah/, n., pl. cicalas, It. cicale /-le/. cicada. [ < It < L cicada CICADA] * * *
cicatricial
See cicatrix. * * *
cicatricial tissue.
See scar tissue. [1880-85] * * *
cicatricle
cicatricle [sik′ə trik΄əl] n. 〚< L cicatricula, dim. of cicatrix: see CICATRIX〛 the protoplasmic disc in the yolk of an egg from which the embryo develops; germinal ...
cicatricose
See cicatricial. * * *
cicatrix
—cicatricial /sik'euh trish"euhl/, adj. —cicatricose /si ka"tri kohs', sik"euh-/, adj. /sik"euh triks, si kay"triks/, n., pl. cicatrices /sik'euh truy"seez/. 1. Physiol. new ...
cicatrization
See cicatrize. * * * also called  Scarification,         type of body decoration involving the production of raised scars (keloids), usually in decorative patterns. See ...
cicatrize
—cicatrizant, adj. —cicatrization, n. —cicatrizer, n. /sik"euh truyz'/, v., cicatrized, cicatrizing. v.t. 1. Physiol. to heal by inducing the formation of a ...
cicely
/sis"euh lee/, n., pl. cicelies. a plant, Myrrhis odorata, of the parsley family, having a fragrant aroma and sometimes used as a potherb. [1590-1600; < L seseli < Gk séselis, ...
Cicely
/sis"euh lee/, n. a female given name, form of Cecilia. * * * ▪ plant  (Myrrhis odorata), perennial herb of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae). It has a leafy hollow stem 60 ...
cicero
/sis"euh roh'/, n., pl. ciceros. Print. a Continental unit of measurement for type, equal to 12 Didot points, or 0.178 in. (4.5 mm), roughly comparable to a pica. [named after ...
Cicero
/sis"euh roh'/, n. 1. Marcus Tullius /tul"ee euhs/, ("Tully"), 106-43 B.C., Roman statesman, orator, and writer. 2. a city in NE Illinois, near Chicago. 61,232. * * * ▪ ...
Cicero, Marcus Tullius
born 106 BC, Arpinum, Latium died Dec. 7, 43 BC, Formiae Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer. Born to a wealthy family, he quickly established a brilliant career in ...
Cicero,Marcus Tullius
Cicero, Marcus Tullius. 106-43B.C. Roman statesman, orator, and philosopher. A major figure in the last years of the Republic, he is best known for his orations against Catiline ...
cicerone
/sis'euh roh"nee, chich'euh-/; It. /chee'che rddaw"ne/, n., pl. cicerones, It. ciceroni /-nee/. a person who conducts sightseers; guide. [1720-30; It < L Ciceronem, acc. of ...
Ciceronian
/sis'euh roh"nee euhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Cicero or his writings: the Ciceronian orations. 2. in the style of Cicero: characterized by melodious language, clarity, and ...
Ciceronian period
▪ ancient Roman literature       first great age of Latin literature, from approximately 70 to 43 BC; together with the following Augustan Age (q.v.), it forms the ...
Ciceronianism
/sis'euh roh"nee euh niz'euhm/, n. imitation of the style of Cicero, esp. as practiced by some writers and orators during the Renaissance. [1580-90; CICERONIAN + -ISM] * * *
cichlid
/sik"lid/, n. 1. any of the spiny-rayed, freshwater fishes constituting the family Cichlidae, of South America, Africa, and southern Asia, superficially resembling the American ...
cicim
▪ rug also spelled  jijim    a ruglike spread or hanging handmade in Anatolia, composed of variously coloured strips woven in ordinary cloth weave on a narrow loom and sewn ...
cicisbeism
/chee'chiz bay"iz euhm/ or, older, /si sis"bee-/, n. the social custom of having a cicisbeo, as practiced esp. in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. [1735-45; < It ...
cicisbeo
/chee'chiz bay"oh/ or, older, /si sis"bee oh'/; It. /chee'cheez be"oh/, n., pl. cicisbei /-bay"ee/ or, older, /-bee ee'/; It. /-be"ee/. (esp. in Italy during the 17th and 18th ...
ciconiiform
▪ bird Introduction    any member of the five or six families of storklike (stork) birds (bird): herons (heron) and bitterns (bittern) (Ardeidae), the shoebill (sole ...
Cid
/sid/; Sp. /theed/, n. 1. The, ("El Cid Campeador") (Rodrigo Díaz de Bivar), c1040-99, Spanish soldier: hero of the wars against the Moors. 2. (italics) Le. See Le Cid. * * *
Cid, the
Spanish El Cid orig. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar born с 1043, Vivar, near Burgos, Castile died July 10, 1099, Valencia Castilian military leader and national hero. His popular ...
Cid,the
Cid (sĭd), the. Originally Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar. 1043?-1099. Spanish soldier and national hero whose military exploits, including the capture of Valencia (1094), are ...
cider
—ciderish, ciderlike, adj. /suy"deuhr/, n. the juice pressed from apples (or formerly from some other fruit) used for drinking, either before fermentation (sweet cider) or ...
cider press
a press for crushing apples for cider. [1665-75] * * *
cider vinegar
vinegar produced by fermentation of cider. [1850-55] * * *
cidervinegar
cider vinegar n. Vinegar made from fermented apple cider. * * *
Cie
Cie abbrev. 〚Fr compagnie〛 Company * * *
Cie.
company. Also, cie. [ < F Compagnie] * * *
Ciechanover, Aaron J.
▪ Israeli chemist born October 1, 1947, Haifa, British Protectorate of Palestine [now Haifa, Israel]       Israeli biochemist who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for ...
Ciechanów
▪ Poland       city, Mazowieckie województwo (province), east-central Poland. It is located in the Ciechanów Highlands on the Łydynia waterway, the Wkra River inlet, ...
Ciego de Ávila
▪ Cuba       city, east-central Cuba. It is a major commercial, manufacturing, and transportation centre for the surrounding agricultural and pastoral lands, which are ...
cielito
▪ poetic form Spanish“darling” or, literally, “little heaven”       a poetic form associated with gaucho literature, consisting of an octosyllabic quatrain ...
ciénaga
/syay"neuh geuh, syen"euh-, sin"-/, n. Southwestern U.S. a swamp or marsh, esp. one formed and fed by springs. Also, cienega. [1840-50, Amer.; < Sp, deriv. of cieno mud, slime < ...
Ciénaga
/sye"nah gah'/, n. a city in N Colombia, on the SE coast of the Caribbean Sea. 69,100. * * * ▪ Colombia in full  San Juan de Ciénaga         city, Caribbean port, ...
Cienfuegos
/syen fwe"gaws/, n. a seaport in S Cuba. 225,615. * * * ▪ Cuba       city and port, central Cuba. One of the country's chief ports, it stands on a broad, level ...
científico
(Spanish; "scientist") Member of a group of officials who served in the government of Porfirio Díaz (1877–80, 1884–1911) in Mexico. Influenced by positivism and rejecting ...
Cierpinski, Waldemar
▪ East German athlete born Aug. 3, 1950, Neugattersleben, East Germany    East German runner, the second marathon runner (after Abebe Bikila) to win two Olympic gold ...
Cierva, Juan de la
▪ Spanish engineer born Sept. 21, 1895, Murcia, Spain died Dec. 19, 1936, London       aeronautical engineer who invented the autogiro, an aircraft in which lift is ...
Cieszyn
▪ Poland German  Teschen , Czech  Těšín        city, Śląskie województwo (province), southern Poland, on the Olza River in the foothills of the Carpathian ...
CIF
CIF abbrev. cost, insurance, and freight * * * CIF abbr. cost, insurance, and freight. * * *
cig
/sig/, n. Slang. a cigarette. [1885-90; by shortening] * * *
cigar
—cigarless, adj. —cigarlike, adj. /si gahr"/, n. 1. a more or less cylindrical roll of tobacco cured for smoking, of any of various lengths, thicknesses, degrees of ...
cigar store
a retail store specializing in tobacco products, as cigars and cigarettes. [1840-50, Amer.] * * *
cigar-box cedar
▪ tree also called  Spanish Cedar or West Indian Cedar   (Cedrela odorata), tropical American timber tree, of the mahogany family (Meliaceae), prized for its aromatic wood, ...
cigar-boxcedar
ci·gar-box cedar (sĭ-gärʹbŏks) n. See Spanish cedar. * * *
cigar-store Indian
/si gahr"stawr', -stohr'/ a wooden statue of an American Indian, traditionally displayed at the entrance of cigar stores. [1925-30] * * *
cigar-storeIndian
ci·gar-store Indian (sĭ-gärʹstôr', -stōr') n. A wooden effigy of a Native American holding a cluster of cigars, formerly used as the emblem of a tobacconist. * * *
cigarette
/sig'euh ret", sig"euh ret'/, n. a cylindrical roll of finely cut tobacco cured for smoking, considerably smaller than most cigars and usually wrapped in thin white paper. Also, ...
cigarette beetle
a small cylindrical beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, that is a pest, esp. of dried tobacco. Also called tobacco beetle, tow bug. [1890-95] * * *
cigarette girl
a woman who sells cigars and cigarettes, usually from a tray displaying various brands, to customers in a restaurant or nightclub. [1865-70] * * *
cigarette holder
a mouthpiece of plastic, ivory, etc., for holding a cigarette while it is being smoked. [1920-25] * * *
cigarflower
cigar flower n. A small bushy plant (Cuphea ignea), native to Mexico and Jamaica and widely cultivated as an ornamental and a houseplant for its red tubular flowers with white ...
cigarillo
/sig'euh ril"oh/, n., pl. cigarillos. 1. a small, thin cigar. 2. a cigarette with a wrapping of tobacco instead of paper. [1825-35; < Sp, dim. of cigarro CIGAR] * * *
Cigfa
/kig"vah/, n. Welsh Legend. wife of Pryderi. * * *
ciggy
/sig"ee/, n., pl. ciggies. Slang. a cigarette. Also, ciggie. [1960-65; CIG(ARETTE) + -Y2] * * *
Cignani, Carlo
▪ Italian painter born May 15, 1628, Bologna, Papal States [Italy] died Sept. 6, 1719, Forlì       last important painter to carry on the Bolognese Baroque tradition ...
Cigoli, Ludovico
▪ Italian artist and poet in full  Ludovico Cardi da Cigoli   born Sept. 21, 1559, Cigoli [Italy] died June 8, 1613, Rome       Italian painter, architect, and poet ...
ciguatera
/see'gweuh ter"euh, sig'weuh-/, n. a tropical disease caused by ingesting a poison found in certain marine fishes. [1860-65; AmerSp < cigua sea snail] * * *
ciguatoxin
ci·gua·tox·in (sē'gwə-tŏkʹsĭn) n. A potent neurotoxin that is secreted by a dinoflagellate and can accumulate in the flesh of certain marine fish, such as grouper or ...
Cilacap
▪ Indonesia also spelled  Chilachap  or  Tjilatjap        port city, Central Java (Jawa Tengah) (Jawa Tengah) propinsi (province), Indonesia, on the southern coast ...
cilantro
/si lahn"troh, -lan"-/, n. coriander. [1900-05; < Sp, var. of culantro < VL, dissimilated form of L coriandrum CORIANDER] * * *
Cilea, Francesco
▪ Italian composer born July 26, 1866, Palmi, Italy died Nov. 20, 1950, Varazze, near Genoa       Italian composer whose operas are distinguished by their melodic ...
cilia
/sil"ee euh/, n.pl., sing. cilium /sil"ee euhm/. 1. Biol. minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in ...
ciliaris muscle
▪ anatomy       muscle of the ciliary body of the eye, between the sclera (white of the eye) and the fine ligaments that suspend the lens. It is composed of both ...
ciliary
/sil"ee er'ee/, adj. 1. Anat. noting or pertaining to various anatomical structures in or about the eye. 2. pertaining to cilia. [1685-95; CILI(A) + -ARY] * * *
ciliary body
Anat. the part of the tunic of the eye, between the choroid coat and the iris, consisting chiefly of the ciliary muscle and the ciliary processes. * * *
ciliary muscle
Anat. the smooth muscle in the ciliary body, the action of which affects the accommodation of the eye. See diag. under eye. [1875-80] * * *
ciliary process
Anat. one of the folds on the ciliary body, connected with the suspensory ligament of the crystalline lens. See diag. under eye. [1825-35] * * *
ciliarybody
ciliary body n. A thickened portion of the vascular tunic of the eye located between the choroid and the iris. * * *
Ciliata
/sil'ee ay"teuh/, n. the class comprising the ciliate protozoans, considered as belonging in the kingdom Animalia. [ < NL; see CILIATE] * * *
ciliate
—ciliately, adv. —ciliation, n. /sil"ee it, -ayt'/, Biol. n. 1. Also called ciliophoran /sil'ee of"euhr euhn/. any protozoan of the phylum Ciliophora (or in some ...
ciliated
cil·i·at·ed (sĭlʹē-ā'tĭd) adj. Having cilia. * * *
ciliately
See ciliate. * * *
ciliation
See ciliately. * * *
cilice
/sil"is/, n. 1. a garment of haircloth formerly worn by monks; a hair shirt. 2. haircloth. [bef. 950; < MF; r. OE cilic < L cilicium < Gk kilíkion, neut. of kilíkios Cilician, ...
Cilicia
—Cilician, adj., n. /si lish"euh/, n. an ancient country in SE Asia Minor: later a Roman province. * * * Ancient district, southern Anatolia. The district was located along ...
Cilician
See Cilicia. * * *
Cilician Gates
a mountain pass in SE Asia Minor, connecting Cappadocia and Cilicia. Turkish, Gülek Bogaz. * * *
CilicianGates
Cilician Gates A mountain pass in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. The pass has served for centuries as a natural highway linking Anatolia with the Mediterranean ...

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