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electric generator
▪ instrument Introduction also called  dynamo,         any machine that converts mechanical energy to electricity for transmission and distribution over power lines ...
electric glow
Elect. See corona discharge. * * *
electric guitar
a guitar equipped with electric or magnetic pickups that permit its sound to be amplified and fed to a loudspeaker. [1935-40] * * *
electric heater
      device for heating rooms that converts electric current to heat by means of resistors (resistor) that emit radiant energy. Resistors may be composed of metal-alloy ...
electric intensity
Physics. the magnitude of an electric field at a point in the field, equal to the force that would be exerted on a small unit charge placed at the point. Also called electric ...
electric light
1. an incandescent lamp. 2. the light produced by such a lamp. * * *
electric motor
motor (def. 4). [1885-90] * * * Introduction       any of a class of devices that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, usually by employing electromagnetic ...
electric needle
Surg. acusector. * * *
electric organ
(in certain fishes) an organ composed of electroplaques. [1865-70] * * *
electric polarization
▪ physics       slight relative shift of positive and negative electric charge in opposite directions within an insulator, or dielectric, induced by an external ...
electric potential
1. Also called potential. Elect. (at any point in an electric field) the work done per unit charge in moving an infinitesimal point charge from a common reference point to the ...
electric power
▪ physics       energy generated through the conversion of other forms of energy, such as mechanical, thermal, or chemical energy. Electric energy is unrivaled for many ...
electric ray
any ray of the family Torpedinidae, capable of emitting strong electric discharges. [1765-75] * * * Any of the aquatic rays (families Torpedinidae, Narkidae, and Temeridae) that ...
Electric resistivities
▪ Table Electric resistivities (at room temperature) material resistivity (ohm-metre) silver 1.6 × 10−8 copper 1.7 × 10−8 aluminum 2.7 × 10−8 carbon ...
electric shock
shock1 (def. 6). [1940-45] * * * Physical effect of an electric current that enters the body, ranging from a minor static-electricity discharge to a power-line accident or ...
electric storm
thunderstorm. [1870-75, Amer.] * * *
electric susceptibility
Elect. (when the components of electrical polarization are linear combinations of the components of the electric field) the coefficient or set of coefficients that multiply the ...
electric switch
▪ instrument       device for opening and closing electrical circuits under normal load conditions, usually operated manually. There are many designs of switches; a ...
electric torch
Brit. torch1 (def. 4). [1870-75] * * *
electric wave.
See electromagnetic wave. [1870-75] * * *
—electrically, adv. /i lek"tri keuhl/, adj. 1. electric. 2. concerned with electricity: an electrical consultant. [ELECTRIC + -AL1] * * *
electrical and electronics engineering
Introduction       the branch of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of the field of electronics. ...
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Institute of
▪ international organization       international organization of engineers and scientists in electrical engineering, electronics, and allied fields, formed in 1963 by ...
electrical degree
Elect. the 360th part of a cycle of alternating current. * * *
electrical double layer
▪ physics       region of molecular dimension at the boundary of two substances across which an electrical field exists. The substances must each contain electrically ...
electrical engineering
—electrical engineer. the branch of engineering that deals with the practical application of the theory of electricity to the construction of machinery, power supplies, ...
electrical impedance
Opposition that a circuit presents to electric current. It includes both resistance and reactance. Resistance arises from collisions of the current-carrying charged particles ...
electrical scanning
1. Electronics. a technique for varying the sector covered by a transmitting or receiving antenna by electrical means without moving the antenna. 2. Also called electronic ...
electrical shock
      the perceptible and physical effect of an electrical current (electric current) that enters the body. The shock may range from an unpleasant but harmless jolt of ...
electrical storm
thunderstorm. Also, electric storm. [1940-45, Amer.] * * *
electrical transcription
1. a radio broadcast from a phonograph record. 2. the phonograph record itself. * * *
See electrical engineering. * * *
electrical engineering n. The branch of engineering that deals with the technology of electricity, especially the design and application of circuitry and equipment for power ...
electrically [ē lek′tri kəl ē, i lek′tri kəl ē] adv. by or with electricity * * * See electric. * * *
electrical storm n. A thunderstorm. * * *
electric arc n. A luminous discharge of current that is formed when a strong current jumps a gap in a circuit or between two electrodes. * * *
electric blanket n. A blanket fitted with an electric heating element and a control for regulating its temperature. * * *
electric chair n. 1. A chair used in the electrocution of a prisoner sentenced to death by law. 2. Execution by means of electrocution. 3. The sentence of death by ...
electric eel n. A long, eellike freshwater fish (Electrophorus electricus) of northern South America, having organs capable of producing a powerful electric discharge. * * *
electric eye n. See photoelectric cell. * * *
electric field n. A region of space characterized by the existence of a force generated by electric charge. * * *
/i lek trish"euhn, ee'lek-/, n. a person who installs, operates, maintains, or repairs electric devices or electrical wiring. [1745-55, Amer.; ELECTRIC + -IAN] * * *
electric intensity n. The ratio of the electrostatic force exerted on a body to the charge on the body. * * *
/i lek tris"i tee, ee'lek-/, n. 1. See electric charge. 2. See electric current. 3. the science dealing with electric charges and currents. 4. a state or feeling of excitement, ...
electric light n. 1. A light that uses electricity to produce illumination. Also called electric lamp. 2. Illumination produced electrically. * * *
electric moment n. The dipole moment of an electric dipole. * * *
E·lec·tric Peak (ĭ-lĕkʹtrĭk) A mountain, 3,402.3 m (11,155 ft) high, in the Gallatin Range of southern Montana near the Wyoming border. It is the highest elevation in the ...
electricpotential gradient
electric potential gradient n. The net difference in electric charge across a cell membrane. * * *
electric ray n. Any of various tropical or subtropical marine fishes of the family Torpedinidae, having a rounded body and a pair of organs capable of producing an electric ...
/i lek"tri deez'/, n.pl. Class. Myth. the Amber Islands. * * *
See electrify. * * *
See electrifiable. * * *
See electrifiable. * * *
—electrification, n. —electrifier, n. /i lek"treuh fuy'/, v.t., electrified, electrifying. 1. to charge with or subject to electricity; apply electricity to. 2. to supply (a ...
See electrifiable. * * *
/i lek"troh/, n., pl. electros. electrotype. [by shortening] * * *
a combining form representing electric or electricity in compound words: electromagnetic. Also, esp. before a vowel, electr-. [ELECTR(IC) + -O-] * * *
electro-discharge machining
/i lek"troh dis"chahrj/, Metall. a technique for shaping the surfaces of a metal object by immersing in a dielectric liquid the object and a tool that emits an electric discharge ...
—electro-optical, adj. —electro-optically, adv. /i lek'troh op"tiks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of physics dealing with the effects of electrical fields on optical ...
electro-organic chemistry
/i lek'troh awr gan"ik/ the branch of chemistry dealing with the electrochemistry of organic compounds. Also, electroorganic chemistry. * * *
—electro-osmotic /i lek'troh oz mot"ik, -os-/, adj. —electro-osmotically, adv. /i lek'troh oz moh"sis, -os-/, n. Physical Chem. the motion of a liquid through a membrane ...
—electroacoustically, adv. /i lek'troh euh kooh"stik/, adj. of or pertaining to electroacoustics. Also, electroacoustical. [1930-35; ELECTRO- + ACOUSTIC] * * *
/i lek'troh euh kooh"stiks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of electronics that deals with the conversion of electricity into acoustical energy and vice versa. [1925-30; ...
—electroanalytic /i lek'troh an'l it"ik/, electroanalytical, adj. /i lek'troh euh nal"euh sis/, n. chemical analysis by electrochemical methods. [1900-05; ELECTRO- + ...
See electroanalysis. * * *
See electroanalytic. * * *
—electrobiological /i lek'troh buy'euh loj"i keuhl/, adj. —electrobiologically, adv. —electrobiologist, n. /i lek'troh buy ol"euh jee/, n. the branch of biology dealing ...
electrocaloric effect
/i lek'troh keuh lawr"ik, -lor"-/, Thermodynamics. the temperature change accompanying a change in the electric intensity of a thermally isolated system. [ELECTRO- + CALORIC] * * ...
/i lek'troh kahr"dee euh gram'/, n. Med. the graphic record produced by an electrocardiograph. Abbr.: EKG, ECG Also called cardiogram. [1900-05; ELECTRO- + CARDIOGRAM] * * *
—electrocardiographic /i lek'troh kahr'dee euh graf"ik/, adj. —electrocardiographically, adv. —electrocardiography /i lek'troh kahr'dee og"reuh fee/, n. /i lek'troh ...
See electrocardiograph. * * *
See electrocardiographic. * * *
See electrocardiographic. * * * Method of tracing the electric current of a heartbeat to provide information on the heart. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are made by applying ...
/i lek'troh kaw"teuh ree/, n., pl. electrocauteries. Med. 1. a hand-held, needlelike cautery heated by an electric current. 2. Also, electrocauterization. the process of cutting ...
      category of advanced ceramic materials that are employed in a wide variety of electric, optical, and magnetic applications. In contrast to traditional ceramic ...
electrochemical equivalent
/i lek'treuh kem"i keuhl/, Physical Chem. the mass, in grams, of a substance deposited on the electrode of a voltameter by 1 coulomb of electricity. [1880-85] * * *
electrochemical reaction
▪ chemistry Introduction       any process either caused or accompanied by the passage of an electric current and involving in most cases the transfer of electrons ...
electrochemical series
Chem. See electromotive series. [1940-45] * * *
e·lec·tro·chem·i·cal cell (ĭ-lĕk'trō-kĕmʹĭ-kəl) n. See cell. * * *
See electrochemistry. * * *
See electrochemically. * * *
—electrochemical /i lek'troh kem"i keuhl/, adj. —electrochemically, adv. —electrochemist, n. /i lek'troh kem"euh stree/, n. the branch of chemistry that deals with the ...
e·lec·tro·chro·mic (ĭ-lĕk'trō-krōʹmĭk) adj. Of or relating to a substance that changes color or transparency when subjected to charged electrodes, as in the liquid ...
/i lek'troh koh ag'yeuh lay"sheuhn/, n. Med., Surg. the coagulation of a tumor or other diseased tissue by means of diathermy. [1910-15; ELECTRO- + COAGULATION] * * *
/i lek'troh keuhn duk"tiv/, adj. Elect. having the property or capability of conducting electricity. [ELECTRO- + CONDUCTIVE] * * *
electroconvulsive therapy
/i lek"troh keuhn vul"siv, i lek'-/, Psychiatry. a treatment for serious mental illnesses, as severe depressive disorders, involving the application to the head of electric ...
e·lec·tro·con·vul·sive therapy (ĭ-lĕk'trō-kən-vŭlʹsĭv) n. Abbr. ECT Administration of electric current to the brain through electrodes placed on the head in order to ...
/i lek'troh kawr"ti keuh gram'/, n. Med. a record of the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. Cf. electrocorticography. [1935-40; ELECTRO- + CORTICO- + -GRAM1] * * *
/i lek'troh kawr'ti kog"reuh fee/, n. Med. a technique for surveying the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex by means of an electroencephalograph and electrodes attached ...
/i lek'treuh krat"ik/, adj. Physical Chem. noting a colloid that owes its stability to the electric charge of the particles on its surface. Cf. lyocratic. [ELECTRO- + -CRAT + ...
—electrocution, n. /i lek"treuh kyooht'/, v.t., electrocuted, electrocuting. 1. to kill by electricity. 2. to execute (a criminal) by electricity, as in an electric ...
See electrocute. * * * Method of execution in which the condemned person is subjected to a heavy charge of electric current. The prisoner is shackled into a wired chair, and ...
/i lek"trohd/, n. Elect. a conductor, not necessarily metallic, through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic medium, as an electrolytic cell, arc generator, vacuum ...
—electrodeposition /i lek'troh dep'euh zish"euhn, -dee'peuh-/, n. /i lek'troh di poz"it/, Physical Chem. n. 1. a deposit, usually of metal, produced by electrolysis. v.t. 2. to ...
See electrodeposit. * * *
/i lek'troh derr"meuhl/, adj. of or pertaining to electrical properties or electrical activity of the skin, esp. with reference to changes in resistance. [1945-50; ELECTRO- + ...
—electrodiagnostic /i lek'troh duy'euhg nos"tik/, adj. —electrodiagnostically, adv. /i lek'troh duy'euhg noh"sis/, n., pl. electrodiagnoses /-seez/. Med. diagnosis by the ...
—electrodialitic /i lek'troh duy'euh lit"ik/, adj. —electrodialitically, adv. /i lek'troh duy al"euh sis/, n., pl. electrodialyses /seez'/. Physical Chem. dialysis in which ...
/i lek'troh dis'euh looh"sheuhn/, n. Physical Chem. the dissolving of a substance from an electrode by electrolysis. [ELECTRO- + DISSOLUTION] * * *
/i lek'troh duy nam"ik/, adj. 1. pertaining to the force of electricity in motion. 2. pertaining to electrodynamics. Also, electrodynamical. [1820-30; ELECTRO- + DYNAMIC] * * *
/i lek'troh duy nam"iks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of physics that deals with the interactions of electric, magnetic, and mechanical phenomena. [1820-30; ELECTRO- + ...
/i lek'troh duy'neuh mom"i teuhr/, n. Elect. an instrument that uses the interaction between the magnetic fields produced by the currents in two coils or sets of coils to measure ...
/i lek'troh en sef"euh leuh gram'/, n. Med. a graphic record produced by an electroencephalograph. Abbr.: EEG [1930-35; ELECTRO- + ENCEPHALOGRAM] * * *
—electroencephalographic /i lek'troh en sef'euh leuh graf"ik/, electroencephalographical, adj. —electroencephalographically, adv. —electroencephalography /i lek'troh en ...
See electroencephalograph. * * *
See electroencephalographic. * * * Technique for recording electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses. Pairs of ...
/i lek'troh en'doz moh"sis, -dos-/, n. Physical Chem. electro-osmosis. [ELECTRO- + ENDOSMOSIS] * * *
/i lek'troh ik strak"sheuhn/, n. Physical Chem. the recovery of metal from metallic salts by means of electrolysis. Also called electrowinning. [ELECTRO- + EXTRACTION] * * *
/i lek"treuh fawrm'/, v.t. Metall. to form (an object) by the electrodeposition of a metal upon a mold, often a wax mold. [1950-55; ELECTRO- + FORM] * * *
/i lek"treuh fawr'ming/, n. Metall. the act or process of forming a metallic object by electroplating a removable mandrel or matrix. [1950-55; ELECTRO- + FORMING] * * * also ...
See electrogasdynamics. * * *
e·lec·tro·gas·dy·nam·ics (ĭ-lĕk'trə-găs'dī-nămʹĭks) n. (used with a sing. verb) Generation of electrical energy based on the conversion of the kinetic energy ...
—electrogenic, adj. /i lek'treuh jen"euh sis/, n. Physiol. the generation of electricity in living organisms or tissue. [1885-90; ELECTRO- + -GENESIS] * * *
See electrogenesis. * * *
—electrographic /i lek'treuh graf"ik/, adj. —electrography /i lek trog"reuh fee, ee'lek-/, n. /i lek"treuh graf', -grahf'/, n. 1. a curve or plot automatically traced by the ...
/i lek'troh hi mos"teuh sis, -hee'meuh stay"sis, -hem'euh-/, n. Med. hemostasis by means of an electric device, as an electrocautery. [ELECTRO- + HEMOSTASIS] * * *
/i lek'troh huy draw"lik, -drol"ik/, adj. Mach. (of a mechanism) combining electrical and hydraulic components. [1920-25; ELECTRO- + HYDRAULIC] * * *
See electrohydraulic. * * *
/i lek"treuh jet'/, n. Geophysics. a current of ions existing in the upper atmosphere, moving with respect to the surface of the earth, and causing various auroral ...
—electrokinetic, adj. /i lek'troh ki net"iks, -kuy-/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of physics that deals with electricity in motion. [1880-85; ELECTRO- + KINETICS] * * *
electroless plating
/i lek"troh lis/ a technique of plating metal by chemical rather than electrical means, in which the piece to be plated is immersed in a reducing agent that, when catalyzed by ...
/i lek trol"euh jist/, n. a person skilled in the use of electrolysis for removing moles, warts, or unwanted hair. [1900-05; ELECTRO(LYSIS) + -LOG(Y) + -IST] * * *
—electroluminescent, adj. /i lek'troh looh'meuh nes"euhns/, n. luminescence produced by the activation of a dielectric phosphor by an alternating current. [1900-05; ELECTRO- + ...
See electroluminescence. * * *
/i lek trol"euh sis, ee'lek-/, n. 1. Physical Chem. the passage of an electric current through an electrolyte with subsequent migration of positively and negatively charged ions ...
/i lek"treuh luyt'/, n. 1. Physical Chem. a. Also called electrolytic conductor. a conducting medium in which the flow of current is accompanied by the movement of matter in the ...
—electrolytically, adv. /i lek'treuh lit"ik/, adj. 1. pertaining to or derived by electrolysis. 2. pertaining to an electrolyte. Also, electrolytical. [1835-45; ELECTRO- + ...
electrolytic cell
cell1 (def. 8). [1935-40] * * * ▪ device       any device in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy, or vice versa. Such a cell typically consists of ...
electrolytic dissociation
Physical Chem. the separation of the molecule of an electrolyte into its constituent atoms. [1905-10] * * *
electrolytic interrupter
Elect. a current interrupter consisting of a cell with two electrodes that is immersed in an electrolyte such that the passage of current through the cell causes bubbles to form ...
electrolytic machining
Metall. removal of metal from a piece by electrolysis. * * *
electrolytic protection.
See cathodic protection. * * *
See electrolytic. * * *
electrolytic cell n. 1. A cell containing an electrolyte through which an externally generated electric current is passed by a system of electrodes in order to produce an ...
—electrolyzation, n. —electrolyzer, n. /i lek"treuh luyz'/, v.t., electrolyzed, electrolyzing. Physical Chem. to decompose by electrolysis. Also, esp. Brit., ...
/i lek'troh mag"nit/, n. a device consisting of an iron or steel core that is magnetized by electric current in a coil that surrounds it. [1815-25; ELECTRO- + MAGNET] * * ...
—electromagnetically, adv. /i lek'troh mag net"ik/, adj. of or pertaining to electromagnetism or electromagnetic fields. [1815-25; ELECTRO- + MAGNETIC] * * * (as used in ...
electromagnetic field
Elect. the coupled electric and magnetic fields that are generated by time-varying currents and accelerated charges. Cf. Maxwell's field equations. * * * Property of space ...
electromagnetic force
One of the four known basic forces in the universe. Electromagnetism is responsible for interactions between charged particles that occur because of their charge, and for the ...
electromagnetic induction
Elect. the induction of an electromotive force by the motion of a conductor across a magnetic field or by a change in magnetic flux in a magnetic field. * * * Induction of an ...
electromagnetic interaction
electromagnetic interaction or electromagnetic force n. Particle Physics the relatively long-range interaction between elementary particles resulting from their electric and ...
electromagnetic pump
a device that causes an electrically conducting fluid to flow by means of electromagnetic induction. * * *
electromagnetic radiation
Physics. radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves, including radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays. [1950-55] * * * Energy propagated ...
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire spectrum, considered as a continuum, of all kinds of electric, magnetic, and visible radiation, from gamma rays having a wavelength of 0.001 angstrom to long waves ...
electromagnetic tape.
See magnetic tape. * * *
electromagnetic unit
a unit, as an abampere, in the system of units derived from the magnetic effects of an electric current. Abbr.: emu, EMU [1910-15] * * *
electromagnetic wave
Physics. a wave produced by the acceleration of an electric charge and propagated by the periodic variation of intensities of, usually, perpendicular electric and magnetic ...
See electromagnetic. * * *
electromagnetic field n. The field of force associated with electric charge in motion, having both electric and magnetic components and containing a definite amount of ...
electromagnetic pulse n. Abbr. EMP The pulse of intense electromagnetic radiation generated by certain physical events, especially by a nuclear explosion high above the earth. * ...
/i lek'troh mag net"iks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) electromagnetism (def. 2). [ELECTROMAGNET + -ICS] * * *
electromagnetic spectrum electromagnetic spectrum frequencies in hertz A. gamma rays B. x-rays C. ultraviolet rays D. visible light E. infrared rays F. microwaves G. radio ...
electromagnetic unit n. Abbr. EMU Any of various systems of units for electricity and magnetism based on a system of equations in which the permeability of free space is taken as ...
electromagnetic wave n. A wave of energy having a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum and propagated as a periodic disturbance of the electromagnetic field when an ...
/i lek'troh mag"ni tiz'euhm/, n. 1. the phenomena associated with electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with each other and with electric charges and currents. 2. ...
/i lek'troh meuh kan"i keuhl/, adj. of or pertaining to mechanical devices or systems electrically actuated, as by a solenoid. [1885-90; ELECTRO- + MECHANICAL] * * *
electromechanical transducer
▪ instrument Introduction       any type of device that either converts an electrical signal into sound waves (as in a loudspeaker) or converts a sound wave into an ...
See electrometallurgy. * * *
—electrometallurgical, adj. —electrometallurgist, n. /i lek'troh met"l err'jee, -meuh tal"euhr jee/, n. the branch of metallurgy dealing with the processing of metals by ...
/i lek'troh mee"tee euhr/, n. any visible or audible manifestation of atmospheric electricity, as lightning or thunder. [ELECTRO- + METEOR] * * *
—electrometric /i lek'troh me"trik/, electrometrical, adj. —electrometrically, adv. —electrometry, n. /i lek trom"i teuhr, ee'lek-/, n. a calibrated device used for ...
/i lek'treuh moh"tiv/, adj. pertaining to, producing, or tending to produce a flow of electricity. [1800-10; ELECTRO- + MOTIVE] * * *
electromotive force
Elect. the energy available for conversion from nonelectric to electric form, or vice versa, per unit of charge passing through the source of the energy; the potential difference ...
electromotive series
Chem. the classification of metals in the order of their electrode potentials. Also called electrochemical series. * * * ▪ chemistry   listing of chemical species (atoms, ...
electromotive force n. Abbr. EMF The energy per unit charge that is converted reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy in a battery ...
/i lek'treuh muy"euh gram'/, n. Med. a graphic record of the electric currents associated with muscular action. Abbr.: EMG [1915-20; ELECTRO- + MYOGRAM] * * *
—electromyographic /i lek'troh muy'euh graf"ik/, adj. —electromyographically, adv. —electromyography /i lek'troh muy og"reuh fee/, n. /i lek'troh muy"euh graf', -grahf'/, ...
See electromyograph. * * *
See electromyographic. * * *
See electromyographic. * * * Process of graphically recording the electrical activity of muscle, which normally generates an electric current only when contracting or when its ...
/i lek"tron/, n. 1. Also called negatron. Physics, Chem. an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter, having a negative charge of 1.602 × 10-19 coulombs, ...
electron affinity
Physics, Chem. the quantitative measure, usually given in electron-volts, of the tendency of an atom or molecule to capture an electron and to form a negative ion. * * * ▪ ...
electron beam
▪ physics       stream of electrons (as from a betatron) generated by heat ( thermionic emission), bombardment of charged atoms or particles (secondary electron ...
electron camera
Electronics. an apparatus that converts an optical image into a corresponding electric current by electronic means without the intervention of mechanical scanning. [1935-40] * * *
electron capture
      one of three processes of radioactive disintegration known as beta decay (q.v.). * * *
electron charge
▪ physics       (symbol e), fundamental physical constant expressing the naturally occurring unit of electric charge, equal to 1.6021892 × 10−19 coulomb, or 4.80325 ...
electron diffraction
Physics. the phenomenon whereby electron waves scattered by the regularly spaced atoms of a crystal produce diffraction patterns characteristic of the crystal structure and the ...
electron gun
Electronics, Television. a device consisting of the cathode ray tube, which emits electrons, and a surrounding electrostatic or electromagnetic apparatus, which controls, ...
electron lens
a combination of static or varying electric and magnetic fields, used to focus streams of electrons in a manner similar to that of an optical lens. [1930-35] * * *
electron microscope
a microscope of extremely high power that uses beams of electrons focused by magnetic lenses instead of rays of light, the magnified image being formed on a fluorescent screen or ...
electron microscopy
Technique that allows examination of samples too small to be seen with a light microscope. Electron beams have much smaller wavelengths than visible light and hence higher ...
electron multiplier
Electronics. a vacuum tube containing a number of dynodes that serve to amplify the flow of electrons from the cathode by means of secondary emission. [1935-40] * * *
electron optics
the study and use of the physical and optical properties of beams of electrons under the influence of electric or magnetic fields. [1915-20] * * *       branch of physics ...
electron paramagnetic resonance
▪ physics also called  electron-spin resonance (ESR)        selective absorption of weak radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (in the microwave region) by ...
electron scattering
▪ physics       deflection of the path of electrons (electron) as they pass through a solid (typically a metal, semiconductor, or insulator). Deflections, or ...
electron spectroscopy
      method of determining the energy with which electrons are bound in chemical species by measuring the kinetic energies of the electrons emitted upon bombardment of ...
electron spin resonance
Physics. the flipping back and forth between two spin directions of electrons in a magnetic field when electromagnetic radiation of the proper frequency is applied. Abbr.: ESR ...
electron spin resonance (ESR)
or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) Technique of spectroscopic analysis (see spectroscopy) used to identify paramagnetic substances (see paramagnetism) and investigate the ...
electron synchrotron
      type of synchrotron designed to accelerate electrons to high energies (see synchrotron). * * *
electron telescope
a telescope in which an infrared image of a distant object is focused on the photosensitive cathode of an image tube. [1945-50] * * *
electron transport
Biochem. the stepwise transfer of electrons from one carrier molecule, as a flavoprotein or a cytochrome, to another along the respiratory chain and ultimately to oxygen during ...
electron tube
an electronic device that consists, typically, of a sealed glass bulb containing two or more electrodes: used to generate, amplify, and rectify electric oscillations and ...
electron volt
electron volt n. a unit of energy equal to that attained by an electron falling unimpeded through a potential difference of one volt; 1.602 × 10-19 joule: abbrev. eV: often ...
/i lek"tron nooh tree'noh, -nyooh-/, n., pl. electron-neutrinos. Physics. a type of neutrino that obeys a conservation law together with the electron, with the total number of ...
electron-ray tube
/i lek"tron ray'/, Electronics. a small cathode-ray tube having a fluorescent screen on which the pattern varies with the voltage applied to the grid: used chiefly in radio ...
/i lek"tron vohlt'/, n. Physics. a unit of energy, equal to the energy acquired by an electron accelerating through a potential difference of one volt and equivalent to 1.602 × ...
—electronegativity, n. /i lek'troh neg"euh tiv/, adj. Physical Chem. 1. containing negative electricity; tending to migrate to the positive pole in electrolysis. 2. assuming ...
▪ physics       in chemistry, the ability of an atom to attract to itself an electron pair shared with another atom in a chemical bond.       The commonly used ...
—electroneutrality, n. /i lek'troh nooh"tral, -nyooh"-/, adj. Elect. neutral (def. 9b). [ELECTRO- + NEUTRAL] * * *
electron gun n. The electrode, especially in a cathode-ray tube, that produces a beam of accelerated electrons. * * *
electron hole n. See hole. * * *
—electronically, adv. /i lek tron"ik, ee'lek-/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to electronics or to devices, circuits, or systems developed through electronics. 2. of or pertaining ...
Electronic Arts, Inc.
▪ American company       American developer and manufacturer of electronic games (electronic game) for personal computers (personal computer) (PCs) and video game ...
electronic banking
banking transactions conducted through computerized systems, as electronic funds transfer by automated-teller machines, intended to speed operations, reduce costs, ...
electronic Bohr magneton
Physics. See Bohr magneton. * * *
electronic brain
an electronic computer. [1940-45] * * *
electronic carillon
▪ musical instrument also called  Electronic Chime, Electrophonic Carillon, or Electroacoustical Carillon,         20th-century musical instrument in which the ...
electronic cinematography
Motion Pictures, Television. cinematography using an electronic video camera to create a videotape that can be viewed on a monitor, edited electronically, and transferred to film ...
electronic configuration
▪ physics also called  Electronic Structure,         the arrangement of electrons in energy levels around an atomic nucleus. According to the older shell atomic ...
electronic countermeasures
the use of electronic technology to jam and deceive enemy radars, esp. those used for air defense and interception. Abbr.: ECM [1965-70] * * *
electronic crime
any criminal activity involving the use of computers, as the illegal transfer of funds from one account to another or the stealing, changing, or erasing of data in an electronic ...
electronic data processing.
See EDP. [1960-65] * * *
electronic eavesdropping
▪ police science       the act of electronically intercepting conversations without the knowledge or consent of at least one of the participants. Historically, the most ...
electronic editing
1. Television. the editing of videotape by electronic operations without cutting and splicing the tape. 2. Motion Pictures. the editing of film assisted by a duplicate of the ...
electronic engineering
—electronic engineer. a branch of engineering that deals with the design, fabrication, and operation of circuits, electronic devices, and systems. * * *
electronic fetal monitor
a device used to monitor the fetal heartbeat and the strength of the mother's uterine contractions during labor. Abbr: EFM * * *
electronic flash
Photog. a flash lamp, usually attached to a camera or housed within the camera body, that produces brilliant flashes of light by the discharge of current through a gas-filled ...
electronic funds transfer
the use of telecommunications networks to transfer funds from one financial institution, as a bank, to another, or to withdraw funds from one's own account to deposit in a ...
electronic game
Introduction also called  computer game  or  video game        any interactive game operated by computer circuitry. The machines, or “platforms,” on which ...
electronic game.
See video game. [1975-80] * * *
electronic ignition
an automotive ignition in which electrical pulses are generated electronically, usually by transistors controlled by sensing devices, without the use of mechanically actuated ...
electronic imaging
a system of photography using a sensor placed behind a camera lens to translate an image into an electronic signal, which can be stored on a disk or magnetic tape for playback on ...
electronic instrument
▪ music Introduction       any musical instrument that produces or modifies sounds by electric, and usually electronic, means. The electronic element in such music is ...
electronic intelligence.
See elint. * * *
electronic journalism
—electronic journalist. television news reportage. Abbr.: EJ [1970-75] * * *
Electronic Magazines
▪ 1998       With the increasing popularity of computers and the Internet, more and more magazines put versions of their material on-line. According to the Net.Journal ...
electronic mail
e-mail. [1975-80] * * *
electronic music
electronically produced sounds recorded on tape and arranged by the composer to form a musical composition. [1930-35] * * * Any music involving electronic processing (e.g., ...
electronic neutrino
Physics. electron-neutrino. * * *
electronic news gathering
Television. See ENG. * * *
electronic organ
☆ electronic organ n. a musical instrument with a console like that of a pipe organ, but producing tones by means of electronic devices instead of pipes * * * ▪ musical ...
electronic publishing
electronic publishing n. the publishing of information, books, etc. in a format accessible by computer * * *
electronic scanning.
See electrical scanning (def. 2). * * *
electronic spreadsheet
a type of software for microcomputers that offers the user a visual display of a simulated worksheet and the means of using it for financial plans, budgets, etc. * * *
electronic substrate and package ceramics
Introduction       advanced industrial materials that, owing to their insulating qualities, are useful in the production of electronic components.       Modern ...
electronic surveillance
surveillance or the gathering of information by surreptitious use of electronic devices, as in crime detection or espionage. [1970-75] * * *
electronic tagging
➡ punishment * * *
Electronic Trading
▪ 2000 by Irving Pfeffer       The past few years have seen a spectacular and revolutionary development in the mechanics of stock trading—perhaps the largest change ...
electronic tube.
See electron tube. * * *
electronic voting
Introduction       a form of computer-mediated voting in which voters make their selections with the aid of a computer. The voter usually chooses with the aid of a ...
electronic work function
▪ physics       energy (or work) required to withdraw an electron completely from a metal surface. This energy is a measure of how tightly a particular metal holds its ...
See electronic. * * *
electronicfetal monitor
electronic fetal monitor n. Abbr. EFM An electronic device used during labor to monitor fetal heartbeat and maternal uterine contractions. * * *
electronic mail n. E-mail. * * *
/i lek tron"iks, ee'lek-/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the science dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, ...
electron lens n. Any of various devices that use an electric or magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons. * * *
electron micrograph n. A micrograph made by an electron microscope. * * *
electron microscope n. Any of a class of microscopes that use electrons rather than visible light to produce magnified images, especially of objects having dimensions smaller ...
See electron microscopy. * * *
electron microscopy n. Microscopy involving use of an electron microscope.   electron microscopist n. * * *
electron multiplier n. A vacuum tube in which a single electron produces a large number of secondary electrons by collision with an anode, the process generally being repeated ...
electron neutrino n. A stable elementary particle in the lepton family having a mass of zero, or very close to zero, and no charge. * * *
electron optics n. (used with a sing. verb) The science of the control of electron motion by electron lenses in systems or under conditions analogous to those involving or ...
electron pair n. 1. Two electrons functioning or regarded as functioning in concert, especially two electrons that form a nonpolar covalent bond between atoms. 2. The combination ...
electron transport n. The successive passage of electrons from one cytochrome or flavoprotein to another by a series of oxidation-reduction reactions during the aerobic ...
electron tube n. A sealed enclosure, either highly evacuated or containing a controlled quantity of gas, in which electrons can be made sufficiently mobile to act as the ...
electron volt n. Abbr. eV A unit of energy equal to the energy acquired by an electron falling through a potential difference of one volt, approximately 1.602 × 10-19 joules. ...
/i lek'troh ok"yeuh leuh gram'/, n. Ophthalm. a record of the changes in electrical potential that occur between the front and back of the eyeball as the eyes move between two ...
electrooptics [ē lek΄trō äp′tiks, ilek΄trō äp′tiks] n. the technology that deals with the production, control, and detection of light by electrical ...
electroosmosis [ē lek΄trōäs mō′sis, ē lek΄trōäzmō′sis] n. osmosis through a membrane that is caused by the action of an electric field, usually such a field ...
e·lec·tro·phile (ĭ-lĕkʹtrə-fīl') n. A chemical compound or group that is attracted to electrons and tends to accept electrons. * * * Atom or molecule that in a chemical ...
—electrophilically, adv. /i lek'treuh fil"ik/, adj. Chem. of or pertaining to electron acceptance in covalent bonding (opposed to nucleophilic). [1940-45; ELECTR(ON) + -O- + ...
▪ musical instrument       any of a class of musical instruments in which the initial sound either is produced by electronic means or is conventionally produced (as by a ...

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