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Eskimo-Aleut languages, Table
▪ Table language fluent population* speakers* Eskimo Inuit Greenlandic ...
Eskimoan
See Eskimo. * * *
Eskimodog
Eskimo dog n. A large dog of a breed used in Arctic regions for pulling sleds and having a thick coat and a plumed tail. * * *
Eskimology
—Eskimologist, n. /es'keuh mol"euh jee/, n. the study of Eskimo civilization, language, culture, etc. [ESKIMO + -LOGY] * * *
Eskimos
➡ Inuits * * *
Eskisehir
/es kee"she heerdd'/, n. a city in W Turkey in Asia. 258,266. Also, Eskishehir. * * * ▪ Turkey       city, west-central Turkey. It lies along the Porsuk River, a ...
ESL
English as a second language: the study of English by nonnative speakers in an English-speaking environment. Cf. EFL. * * *
eslisor
/ay lee"zawr, -zeuhr/, n. Law. elisor. * * *
Esmarch, Friedrich von
▪ German surgeon in full  Johannes Friedrich August Von Esmarch   born Jan. 9, 1823, Tönning, Schleswig-Holstein [Germany] died Feb. 23, 1908, Kiel, ...
Esmeralda
/ez'meuh ral"deuh/; Sp. /es'me rddahl"dah/, n. a female given name: from a Greek word meaning "emerald." * * *
Esmeraldas
/es'me rddahl"dahs/, n. a seaport in NW Ecuador. 60,364. * * * ▪ Ecuador       city, major seaport of northwestern Ecuador. It lies on the Pacific coast at the mouth ...
Esmond
/ez"meuhnd/, n. a male given name. * * *
Esnault-Pelterie, Robert
▪ French aviation pioneer in full  Robert-Albert-Charles Esnault-Pelterie  born Nov. 8, 1881, Paris, France died Dec. 6, 1957, Nice  French aviation pioneer who made ...
esne
/ez"nee, -ne/, n. (in Anglo-Saxon England) a member of the lowest class; laborer. [bef. 950; < OE; c. OHG asni, Goth asneis day laborer, harvester, akin to asans harvest] * * *
esnecy
/es"neuh see/, n. Obs. (in English law) the right of the oldest member of a coparcenary to have first choice of share upon division of the inheritance. [1600-10; < ML aesnecia, ...
eso-
a combining form meaning "inner," used in the formation of compound words: esonarthex. [ < Gk, comb. form repr. éso within] * * *
ESOL
/ee"sawl, es"euhl/, n. English for speakers of other languages: a field of language training including EFL and ESL. Cf. TESOL * * *
esonarthex
/es'oh nahr"theks/, n. an inner narthex. [1840-50; ESO- + NARTHEX] * * *
ESOP
/ee"sop/, n. a plan under which a company's capital stock is acquired by its employees or workers. [1970-75; e(mployee) s(tock) o(wnership) p(lan)] * * *
esophageal
/i sof'euh jee"euhl, ee'seuh faj"ee euhl/, adj. pertaining to the esophagus. [1800-10; ESOPHAG(US) + -eal, var. of -IAL] * * *
esophageal cancer
▪ pathology Introduction       disease characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in the esophagus, the muscular tube connecting the oral cavity with the stomach. ...
esophageal speech
Speech Pathol. a technique for producing speech sounds without using the larynx, for people whose larynges are lacking or disabled, by expelling swallowed air that is modified by ...
esophagus
/i sof"euh geuhs, ee sof"-/, n., pl. esophagi /-juy', guy'/. Anat., Zool. a muscular passage connecting the mouth or pharynx with the stomach in invertebrate and vertebrate ...
esoteric
—esoterically, adv. /es'euh ter"ik/, adj. 1. understood by or meant for only the select few who have special knowledge or interest; recondite: poetry full of esoteric ...
esoterica
/es'euh ter"i keuh/, n.pl. 1. things understood by or meant for a select few; recondite matters or items. 2. curiosa (def. 1). [1925-30; < NL, n. use of neut. pl. of Gk ...
esoterically
See esoteric. * * *
esotericism
—esotericist, n. /es'euh ter"euh siz'euhm/, n. 1. the state or quality of being esoteric. 2. esoteric principles or writings. [1840-50; ESOTERIC + -ISM] * * *
esoterism
—esoterist, n. /es"euh teuh riz'euhm, es'euh ter"iz-/, n. esotericism. [1825-35; < Gk esóter(os) inner + -ISM] * * *
esotery
/es"euh ter'ee/, n. esotericism. [1755-65; < Gk esóter(os) inner + -Y3] * * *
esotropia
—esotropic /es'euh trop"ik/, adj. /es'euh troh"pee euh/, n. Ophthalm. strabismus in which one eye deviates inward. [ < NL; see ESO-, -TROPE, -IA] * * *
esotropic
See esotropia. * * *
Esox
      fish genus that includes the popular game fishes known as pike, pickerel, and muskellunge (qq.v.). * * *
ESP
extrasensory perception: perception or communication outside of normal sensory capability, as in telepathy and clairvoyance. * * *
esp.
especially. * * *
espadrille
/es"peuh dril'/, n. 1. a flat shoe with a cloth upper, a rope sole, and sometimes lacing that ties around the ankle. 2. a casual shoe resembling this, often with a wedge heel ...
espagnole
/es'peuhn yohl", -pan-/; Fr. /e spann nyawl"/, n. See brown sauce. Also called espagnole sauce. [1835-45; < F: lit., Spanish] * * *
espagnolette
/i span"yeuh let', i span'yeuh let"/, n. 1. (on a French window or the like) one of a pair of rods, controlled by a knob mechanism, having hooked ends that engage catches in the ...
espalier
/i spal"yeuhr, -yay/, n. 1. a trellis or framework on which the trunk and branches of fruit trees or shrubs are trained to grow in one plane. 2. a plant so trained. v.t. 3. to ...
España
/es pah"nyah/, n. Spanish name of Spain. * * *
español
/es pah nyawl"/, n., pl. españoles /-nyaw"les/ for 2, adj. Spanish. n. 1. the Spanish language. 2. a native or inhabitant of Spain. adj. 3. of or pertaining to Spain, the ...
Española Island
▪ island, Pacific Ocean also called  Hood Island,         southernmost of the major Galápagos Islands, in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 600 miles (965 km) west of ...
Espartero
/es'pahrdd te"rddaw/, n. Baldomero /bahl'daw me"rddaw/, Count of Luchana /looh chah"nah/, 1792-1879, Spanish general and statesman. * * *
Espartero, Baldomero, prince de Vergara
born Oct. 27, 1793, Granátula, Spain died Jan. 8, 1879, Logroño Spanish general and politician. After the accession of Isabella II, he joined the government forces opposed to ...
Espartero, Baldomero, príncipe de Vergara
▪ regent of Spain also called  (from 1839) duque de la Victoria  or (from 1837)  conde de Luchana , byname  The Peacemaker of Spain , Spanish  El Pacificador de ...
esparto
/i spahr"toh/, n., pl. espartos. any of several grasses, esp. Stipa tenacissima, of southern Europe and northern Africa, used for making paper, cordage, etc. Also, esparto ...
espec.
especially. * * *
especial
—especialness, n. /i spesh"euhl/, adj. 1. special; exceptional; outstanding: of no especial importance; an especial friend. 2. of a particular kind, or peculiar to a particular ...
especially
/i spesh"euh lee/, adv. particularly; exceptionally; markedly: Be especially watchful. [1350-1400; ME; see ESPECIAL, -LY] Syn. signally, notably; mainly. ESPECIALLY, CHIEFLY, ...
esperance
/es"peuhr euhns/, n. Obs. hope. [1400-50; late ME esperaunce < MF esperance < VL *sperantia, equiv. to L sperant- (s. of sperans) hoping (prp. of sperare, deriv. of spes hope) + ...
Esperantist
See Esperanto. * * *
Esperanto
—Esperantism, n. —Esperantist, n. /es'peuh rahn"toh, -ran"-/, n. an artificial language invented in 1887 by L. L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), a Polish physician and philologist, ...
espial
/i spuy"euhl/, n. 1. the act of spying. 2. the act of keeping watch; observation. [1350-1400; ME espiaille < MF. See ESPY, -AL2] * * *
Espin Guillois, Vilma
▪ 2008  Cuban revolutionary and women's rights activist born April 7, 1930 , Santiago, Cuba died June 18, 2007, Havana, Cuba as the wife of Raúl Castro, the younger brother ...
Espinel, Vicente
▪ Spanish writer in full  Vicente Martínez Espinel  baptized December 28, 1550, Ronda, Málaga, Spain died February 4, 1624, Madrid       Spanish writer and musician ...
Espinhaço Mountains
▪ mountains, Brazil Portuguese  Serra Do Espinhaço,         mountain range of Minas Gerais and Bahia states, eastern Brazil. Their peaks reach between 3,600 and ...
Espino, Héctor
▪ Mexican baseball player byname  El Bambino Mexicano (“the Mexican Babe Ruth”)  born June 8, 1939, Chihuahua, Mexico died September 7, 1997, ...
Espinosa, Pedro de
▪ Spanish poet born 1578, Antequera, Spain died Oct. 21, 1650, Sanlúcar de Barrameda       Spanish poet and editor of the anthology Flores de poetas ilustres de ...
espionage
/es"pee euh nahzh', -nij, es'pee euh nahzh"/, n. 1. the act or practice of spying. 2. the use of spies by a government to discover the military and political secrets of other ...
Espírito Santo
/es pee"rddee too sahonn"too/ a state in E Brazil. 2,063,610; 15,196 sq. mi. (39,360 sq. km). Cap.: Vitória. * * * ▪ state, Brazil       estado (state) on the east ...
Espíritu Santo
formerly Marina Island, northwestern Vanuatu, South Pacific Ocean. Vanuatu's largest island, Espíritu Santo is 76 mi (122 km) long and 45 mi (72 km) wide and covers 1,420 sq ...
EspírituSanto
Es·pí·ri·tu San·to (ĕ-spîrʹĭ-to͞o sänʹtō) An island of Vanuatu in the southwest Pacific Ocean. In World War II it was the site of U.S. military bases after March ...
esplanade
/es"pleuh nahd', -nayd', es'pleuh nahd", -nayd"/, n. any open, level space, esp. one serving for public walks or drives. [1675-85; < F < It spianata, n. use of fem. ptp. of ...
esplees
/i spleez"/, n. (used with a pl. v.) Law. the yield from land, as produce or rents. [1590-1600; < AF esple(t)z < ML expleta, pl. of EXPLETUM revenue, r. L explicitum something ...
ESPN
Trademark. the Entertainment Sports Network (a cable television channel). * * * ▪ television network in full  Entertainment And Sports Programming Network,          ...
ESPN, Inc.
▪ television network in full  Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, Inc.    cable television sports-broadcasting network based in Bristol, Conn. It was launched in ...
Espoo
/es"paw/, n. a city in S Finland, W of Helsinki. 133,556. Swedish, Esbo. * * * ▪ Finland Swedish  Esbo         city, southern Finland, just west of Helsinki, in a ...
Esposito
/es'peuh zee"toh/, n. Phil(ip Anthony), born 1942, Canadian ice-hockey player, in the U.S. since 1962. * * *
Esposito, Phil
▪ Canadian athlete byname of  Philip Anthony Esposito   born February 20, 1942, Sault Sainte Marie, Ontario, Canada       Canadian-born U.S. professional ice hockey ...
espousal
/i spow"zeuhl, -seuhl/, n. 1. adoption or advocacy, as of a cause or principle. 2. Sometimes, espousals. a. a marriage ceremony. b. an engagement or betrothal ...
espouse
—espouser, n. /i spowz", i spows"/, v.t., espoused, espousing. 1. to make one's own; adopt or embrace, as a cause. 2. to marry. 3. to give (a woman) in marriage. [1425-75; late ...
espouser
See espouse. * * *
Espoz y Mina, Francisco
▪ Spanish military leader born June 17, 1781, Idocin, Spain died Dec. 13, 1836, Barcelona       outstanding guerrilla leader during the Peninsular War, or Spanish War ...
espressivo
/es'pre see"voh/; It. /es'prddes see"vaw/, Music. adj. 1. expressive. adv. 2. expressively. * * *
espresso
/e spres"oh/, n., pl. espressos. 1. a strong coffee prepared by forcing live steam under pressure, or boiling water, through ground dark-roast coffee beans. 2. a cup of this ...
esprit
/e spree"/, n. sprightliness of spirit or wit; lively intelligence. [1585-95; < F < L spiritus SPIRIT] * * *
esprit d'escalier
esprit d'escalier [es prē des kȧ lyā′] n. 〚Fr, wit of the staircase〛 clever repartee one thinks of too late * * *
esprit de corps
/e spree" deuh kawr"/ a sense of unity and of common interests and responsibilities, as developed among a group of persons closely associated in a task, cause, enterprise, ...
espritde corps
esprit de corps (də kôrʹ) n. A common spirit of comradeship, enthusiasm, and devotion to a cause among the members of a group. See Synonyms at morale.   [French : esprit, ...
Espronceda
/es'prddawn the"dhah, -se"-/, n. José de /haw se" dhe/, 1808-42, Spanish poet. * * *
Espronceda y Delgado, José de
▪ Spanish poet born March 25, 1808, Almendralejo, Spain died May 23, 1842, Madrid       Romantic poet and revolutionary, often called the Spanish Lord Byron (Byron, ...
espy
/i spuy"/, v.t., espied, espying. to see at a distance; catch sight of. [1175-1225; ME espyen < OF espier
Espy
/es"pee/, n. James Pollard /pol"euhrd/, 1785-1860, U.S. meteorologist. * * *
Espy, James Pollard
▪ American meteorologist born May 9, 1785, Pennsylvania, U.S. died Jan. 24, 1860, Cincinnati, Ohio       American meteorologist who apparently gave the first ...
Esq
Esq or Esqr abbrev. Esquire * * * (especially in Britain) the short form of the word ‘Esquire’, sometimes still written after a man’s name on an envelope instead of ...
Esq.
Esquire. Also, Esqr. * * *
esquamate
/ee skway"mayt/, adj. having no squamae, or scales; not scaly. [E- + SQUAMATE] * * *
Esquiline
/es"kweuh luyn'/, n. one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. * * *
Esquimalt
/i skwuy"mawlt/, n. a naval base and seaport on the SE end of Vancouver Island, in SW British Columbia, in SW Canada: suburb of Victoria. * * * ▪ British Columbia, ...
Esquimau
—Esquimauan, adj. /es"keuh moh'/, n., pl. Esquimaux /-moh', -mohz'/, (esp. collectively) Esquimau, adj. a former spelling of Eskimo. * * *
Esquipulas
▪ Guatemala       town, southeastern Guatemala, in the central highlands near the borders of Honduras and El Salvador at an elevation of 3,018 feet (920 metres). The ...
esquire
/es"kwuyeur, e skwuyeur"/, n., v., esquired, esquiring. n. 1. (cap.) an unofficial title of respect, having no precise significance, sometimes placed, esp. in its abbreviated ...
Esquirol, Jean-Étienne-Dominique
▪ French psychiatrist born Feb. 3, 1772, Toulouse, France died Dec. 12, 1840, Paris       early French psychiatrist who was the first to combine precise clinical ...
Esquivel, Juan Garcia
▪ 2003       Mexican composer and bandleader (b. Jan. 20, 1918, Tampico, Mex.—d. Jan. 3, 2002, Jiutepec, Mex.), won international fame with eccentric instrumental pop ...
ESR
1. erythrocyte sedimentation rate: the rate at which red blood cells settle in a column of blood, serving as a diagnostic test. 2. electron spin resonance. * * *
Eşref Dynasty
▪ Turkmen dynasty also spelled  Ashraf,         Turkmen dynasty (c. 1290–c. 1326) that ruled in Beyşehir, west of Konya in central Anatolia.       The ...
esrog
/es"rohg, -reuhg/, n., pl. esrogim /es roh"gim/, esrogs. Judaism. etrog. * * *
ess
/es/, n. 1. the letter S, s. 2. something shaped like an S: The road wound among the mountains in great esses. [1530-40] * * *
Essad Paşa (Toptani)
▪ Albanian political leader born c. 1864, , Tiranë, Albania died June 13, 1920, Paris, France       political leader who played a prominent but often disruptive role ...
Essaouira
/es'euh wear"euh/, n. a seaport in W Morocco. 30,061. Formerly, Mogador. * * * ▪ Morocco formerly  Mogador   Atlantic port city, western Morocco, midway between Safi and ...
essay
—essayer, n. n. /es"ay/ for 1, 2; /es"ay, e say"/ for 3-5; v. /e say"/, n. 1. a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally ...
essay question
a question on a test or examination on a given topic requiring a written analysis or explanation, usually of a specified length. [1945-50] * * *
essayer
See essay. * * *
essayist
/es"ay ist/, n. a writer of essays. [1600-10; ESSAY + -IST] * * *
essayistic
/es'ay is"tik/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or like an essay, esp. in style, format, or organization and often in reflecting a more personal approach than a treatise, thesis, or ...
essayquestion
essay question n. A test question that calls for a written answer of a specified length, especially a short essay. * * *
esse
/es"se/; Eng. /es"ee/, n. Latin. being; existence. * * *
esse quam videri
/es"se kwahm wi"de rddee/; Eng. /es"ee kwam vi dair"uy/, Latin. to be rather than to seem: motto of North Carolina. * * *
Essen
/es"euhn/, n. a city in W Germany: the chief city of the Ruhr River valley. 623,000. * * * City (pop., 2002 est.: city, 591,889; metro. area, 5,823,685), North ...
Essen, Louis
▪ 1998       British physicist (b. Sept. 6, 1908, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, Eng.—d. Aug. 24, 1997, Great Bookham, Surrey, Eng.), built the cesium-beam atomic clock, ...
essence
/es"euhns/, n. 1. the basic, real, and invariable nature of a thing or its significant individual feature or features: Freedom is the very essence of our democracy. 2. a ...
essence d'orient
/es"euhns dawr"ee euhnt, -ent', dohr"-/; Fr. /e sahonns daw rddyahonn"/, Jewelry. a preparation for coating glass beads to make imitation pearls, derived from the scales of fish, ...
essence of bergamot
bergamot (def. 2). * * *
Essene
—Essenian /e see"nee euhn/, Essenic /e sen"ik/, adj. /es"een, e seen"/, n. Judaism. a member of a Palestinian sect, characterized by asceticism, celibacy, and joint holding of ...
Essenian
See Essene. * * *
Essenic
See Essenian. * * *
Essenism
See Essenian. * * *
essential
—essentially, adv. —essentialness, n. /euh sen"sheuhl/, adj. 1. absolutely necessary; indispensable: Discipline is essential in an army. 2. pertaining to or constituting the ...
essential amino acid
Biochem. any amino acid that is required by an animal for growth but that cannot be synthesized by the animal's cells and must be supplied in the diet. [1935-40] * * *
Essential amino acids in some common foods
▪ Table Essential amino acids in some common foods* chicken egg, boiled, 1 large (50 g) ground beef, lean, broiled, 100 g (3.5 oz) cow's milk, lowfat, 2%, 246 g (8 fl ...
essential hypertension
Pathol. persistent high blood pressure of no known cause. * * *
essential oil
any of a class of volatile oils obtained from plants, possessing the odor and other characteristic properties of the plant, used chiefly in the manufacture of perfumes, flavors, ...
essentialism
—essentialist, n., adj. /euh sen"sheuh liz'euhm/, n. Educ. a doctrine that certain traditional concepts, ideals, and skills are essential to society and should be taught ...
essentiality
/euh sen'shee al"i tee/, n., pl. essentialities for 2. 1. the quality of being essential; essential character. 2. an essential feature, element, or point. [1610-20; ESSENTIAL + ...
essentialize
/euh sen"sheuh luyz'/, v.t., essentialized, essentializing. to extract the essence from; express the essence of. Also, esp. Brit., essentialise. [1660-70; ESSENTIAL + -IZE] * * *
essentially
See essentiality. * * *
essentialness
See essentiality. * * *
essentialoil
essential oil n. A volatile oil, usually having the characteristic odor or flavor of the plant from which it is obtained, used to make perfumes and flavorings. * * *
Essequibo
/es'i kwee"boh/, n. a river flowing from S Guyana N to the Atlantic. ab. 550 mi. (885 km) long. * * *
Essequibo River
River, east-central Guyana. The largest river between the Amazon and the Orinoco rivers and the longest in Guyana, it rises in the Acarai Mountains on the Brazilian border. It ...
Essex
/es"iks/, n. 1. 2nd Earl of. See Devereux, Robert. 2. a county in SE England. 1,410,900; 1418 sq. mi. (3670 sq. km). 3. a town in N Maryland, near Baltimore. 39,614. 4. a town in ...
Essex Decision
▪ British-United States history       decision rendered by the British High Court of Admiralty in 1804 and confirmed the following year, which contributed to the bad ...
Essex girl
n (BrE humor disapprov) the name used especially in jokes, etc. to refer to a type of young English woman who is rather stupid, dresses badly, talks in a loud and unpleasant way, ...
Essex Junto
/jun"toh/, U.S. Hist. 1. a group of extreme Federalist party members from Essex county, Massachusetts. 2. any Federalist. [1795-1805, Amer.] * * * Informal group of Federalist ...
Essex table
Carpentry. a chart tabulating the number of board feet, to the nearest twelfth, contained in pieces of wood one inch thick and of varying standard sizes. * * *
Essex, Arthur Capel, 1st earl of, Viscount Malden, Baron Capel Of Hadham
▪ English statesman born 1631/32 died July 13, 1683, London  English statesman, a member of the “Triumvirate” that dominated policy at the time of the Popish Plot ...
Essex, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st earl of
▪ English baron died Sept. 16, 1144, Mildenhall, Suffolk, Eng.       the worst of a number of cruel and lawless barons during the reign of King Stephen of ...
Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of
born Nov. 10, 1567, Netherwood, Herefordshire, Eng. died Feb. 25, 1601, London English soldier and courtier. He was the son of the 1st earl of Essex. As a young man, he became ...
Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of, Viscount Hereford, Lord Ferrers, Lord Bourchier
▪ English soldier and courtier born Nov. 10, 1567, Netherwood, Herefordshire, Eng. died Feb. 25, 1601, London  English soldier and courtier famous for his relationship with ...
Essex, Robert Devereux, 3rd earl of
born 1591, London, Eng. died Sept. 14, 1646, London English military commander. Son of the 2nd earl of Essex, he began his military career in 1620 and commanded forces for ...
Essex, Robert Devereux, 3rd earl of, Viscount Hereford Lord Ferrers, Lord Bourchier
▪ English noble born January 1591, London died Sept. 14, 1646, London       English nobleman who commanded, with notable lack of success, the Parliamentary army against ...
Essex, Walter Devereux, 1st earl of
born Sept. 16, 1541, Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales died Sept. 22, 1576, Dublin, Ire. English soldier. Born to a titled family, he helped suppress a rebellion in northern ...
Essex, Walter Devereux, 1st earl of, Viscount Hereford, Lord Ferrers, Lord Bourchier
▪ English soldier born Sept. 16, 1541, Carmarthen, Carmarthenshire, Wales died Sept. 22, 1576, Dublin       English soldier who led an unsuccessful colonizing ...
Essex,Second Earl of
Essex,Second Earl of. See Devereux, Robert. * * *
essexite
▪ rock       dark gray to black, fine-grained, intrusive igneous rock that occurs in Essex County, Mass.; at Mount Royal, near Montreal; near Oslo, Nor.; at Roztoky, ...
essive
/es"iv/, Gram. adj. 1. noting a case, as in Finnish, whose distinctive function is to indicate a state of being. n. 2. the essive case. [1900-05; < Finnish essivi < L ess(e) to ...
Esslin, Martin Julius
▪ 2003 Julius Pereszlenyi        Hungarian-born British broadcaster, critic, and scholar (b. June 8, 1918, Budapest, Austria-Hungary—d. Feb. 24, 2002, London, Eng.), ...
Esslingen
Ess·ling·en (ĕsʹlĭng-ən) A city of southwest Germany on the Neckar River southeast of Stuttgart. Founded in the 8th century, it was a free imperial city from the 13th ...
Esso
the original name of the US oil company ExxonMobil, and the name still used by the branches of the company outside the US, e.g. in Britain. * * *       any of several ...
essoin
/i soyn"/, n. (in England) an excuse for nonappearance in a court of law at the prescribed time. [1300-50; ME essoine < AF, OF essoigne, essoine, n. deriv. of essoinier to put ...
essonite
/es"euh nuyt'/, n. Mineral. a variety of grossularite garnet. Also called cinnamon stone, hessonite. [1810-20; < F < Gk hésson less, inferior + -ites -ITE1] * * *
Essonne
/e sawn"/, n. a department in N France. 923,061; 699 sq. mi. (1810 sq. km). Cap.: Évry. * * *
Essy, Amara
▪ 2003       On July 9, 2002, Amara Essy of Côte d' Ivoire became secretary-general of the newly established 53-country African Union (AU), which replaced the ...
EST
Eastern Standard Time. Also, E.S.T., e.s.t. * * *
est.
1. established. 2. estate. 3. estimate. 4. estimated. 5. estuary. * * *
estab.
established. * * *
establish
—establishable, adj. —establisher, n. /i stab"lish/, v.t. 1. to found, institute, build, or bring into being on a firm or stable basis: to establish a university; to ...
established church
a church that is recognized by law, and sometimes financially supported, as the official church of a nation. Also called state church. Cf. national church. [1650-60] * * ...
establishedchurch
es·tab·lished church (ĭ-stăbʹlĭsht) n. A church that a government officially recognizes as a national institution and to which it accords support. * * *
establisher
See establish. * * *
establishment
/i stab"lish meuhnt/, n. 1. the act or an instance of establishing. 2. the state or fact of being established. 3. something established; a constituted order or system. 4. (often ...
Establishment Clause
the article in the First Amendment to the American Constitution which created the separation of church and state in the US by forbidding the government to establish a state ...
establishmentarian
—establishmentarianism, n. /i stab'lish meuhn tair"ee euhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to an established church, esp. the Church of England, or the principle of state ...
establishmentarianism
See establishmentarian. * * *
Estado de S. Paulo, O
▪ Brazilian newspaper Portuguese“The State of São Paulo”       influential newspaper published daily in São Paulo, Brazil's (Brazil) largest city. O Estado is ...
Estado Novo
▪ Brazilian history       (Portuguese: “New State”), dictatorial period (1937–45) in Brazil during the rule of President Getúlio Vargas (Vargas, Getúlio), ...
estafette
/es'teuh fet"/, n. a mounted courier. [1785-95; < F < It staffetta, dim. of staffa stirrup < Gmc (cf. STAPES); see -ETTE] * * *
Estaing, Charles-Hector, comte d'
▪ French naval officer in full  Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Henri-Hector, comte d'Estaing, marquis de Saillans  born November 24, 1729, Ruvel, Auvergne, France died April 28, ...
Estaing, d'
/des taonn"/, Charles Hector /shannrddl ek tawrdd"/ 1729-94, French admiral. * * *
estamin
/es"teuh min/, n. a worsted fabric constructed in twill weave with a rough surface. Also, estamene /es"teuh meen'/. [1695-1705; < F estamine
estaminet
/es tann mee ne"/, n., pl. estaminets /-ne"/. French. a bistro or small café. [1805-15] * * *
estampie
/e stahm pee"/, n. a medieval dance and instrumental form, in several repeated sections, associated chiefly with the trouvères. [ < F, OF, deriv. of estampir to roar, resound < ...
estancia
/e stahn"see euh/; Sp. /es tahn"syah/, n., pl. estancias /-see euhz/; Sp. /-syahs/. (in Spanish America) a landed estate or a cattle ranch. [1695-1705; < AmerSp, Sp: dwelling] * ...
estate
/i stayt"/, n., v., estated, estating. n. 1. a piece of landed property, esp. one of large extent with an elaborate house on it: to have an estate in the country. 2. Law. a. ...
estate agent
Brit. 1. the steward or manager of a landed estate. 2. a real-estate agent; realtor. [1875-80] * * *
estate car
Brit. See station wagon. [1945-50] * * *
estate law
Laws governing the nature and extent of an owner's rights with respect to real and personal property. When used in connection with probate proceedings, it refers to the laws ...
estate tax
a tax imposed on a decedent's property, assessed on the gross estate prior to distribution to the heirs. Also called death tax. [1905-10] * * * Levy on the value of property ...
estate-bottling
—estate-bottled, adj. /i stayt"bot'l ing, -bot'ling/, n. a practice whereby a vineyard bottles its own wine. * * *
Estates General
French Hist. the States-General. * * * or States General French États-Généraux. In pre-Revolutionary France, the representative assembly of the three "estates" or orders of ...
Estates-General
Estates-General [ə stāts′ jen′ər əl, istāts′jen′ər əl] n. STATES-GENERAL (sense 1) * * * Es·tates-Gen·er·al (ĭ-stātsʹjĕnʹər-əl) pl.n. See ...
estatetax
estate tax n. A tax imposed on the right to transfer property by inheritance and assessed on the net value of a decedent's estate before distribution to the heirs. Also called ...
Estaunié, Edouard
▪ French writer born February 4, 1862, Dijon, France died April 1, 1942, Paris       French writer, known for his novels of character. He was by profession an engineer ...
Este
/es"tay/, n. a city in NE Italy: medieval fortress; ancient Roman ruins. 17,060. Ancient, Ateste. * * * ▪ Italy       town and episcopal see, Veneto region, northern ...
Este family
Princely family of Lombard origin prominent in the history of medieval and Renaissance Italy. The Estensi, a branch of the 10th-century dynasty of the Obertenghi, took their name ...
Este, House of
▪ Italian family Introduction       princely family of Lombard origin that played a great part in the history of medieval and Renaissance Italy. It first came to the ...
Esteban Echeverría
Es·te·ban E·che·ver·rí·a (ĕ-stĕʹbän ĕ'chĕ-və-rēʹə, -vĕ-rēʹä, -vän) A city of eastern Argentina, a suburb of Buenos Aires. Population: 276,017. * * * ▪ ...
Estébanez Calderón, Serafín
▪ Spanish writer Estébanez also spelled  Estévanes,  byname  El Solitario  born Dec. 27, 1799, Málaga, Spain died Feb. 5, 1867, Madrid       one of the ...
Estée Lauder
➡ Lauder. * * *
esteem
/i steem"/, v.t. 1. to regard highly or favorably; regard with respect or admiration: I esteem him for his honesty. 2. to consider as of a certain value or of a certain type; ...
Estelí
▪ Nicaragua       city, northwestern Nicaragua. It lies along the Estelí River in the central highlands, at an elevation of 2,674 feet (815 m). A Spanish settlement ...
Estelle
/i stel"/, n. a female given name: from a Latin word meaning "star." Also, Estella /i stel"euh/. * * *
Estepona
/es'te paw"nah/; Eng. /es'teuh poh"neuh/, n. a seaport in S Spain, on the Mediterranean: resort center. 21,163. * * *
ester
/es"teuhr/, n. Chem. a compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol with the elimination of a molecule of water, as ethyl acetate, C4H8O2, or dimethyl ...
ester gum
Chem. any of several hard resins produced by the esterification of a natural resin, esp. rosin, with a polyhydric alcohol, chiefly glycerol: used in the manufacture of paints, ...
esterase
/es"teuh rays', -rayz'/, n. Biochem. any enzyme that hydrolyzes an ester into an alcohol and an acid. [1915-20; ESTER + -ASE] * * *
Esterhazy
/es"teuhr hah'zee/; Fr. /e sterdd ann zee"/, n. Marie Charles Ferdinand Walsin /mann rddee" shannrddl ferdd dee nahonn" vannl saonn"/, 1847-1923, French army officer who ...
Esterházy
/es"teuhr hah'zee/; Hung. /es"terdd hah'zi/, n. Prince Miklós József /mi"klohsh yoh"zhef/, 1714-90, Hungarian patron of the arts. Also, Esterhazy. * * *
Esterházy family
Aristocratic Magyar family, dating from at least the 15th century, that produced numerous Hungarian diplomats, army officers, and patrons of the arts. By the 18th century the ...
Esterhazy, Ferdinand Walsin
▪ French military officer in full  Marie-charles-ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy   born 1847, Austria died May 21, 1923, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, Eng.       French army ...
esterification
es·ter·i·fi·ca·tion (ĕ-stĕr'ə-fĭ-kāʹshən) n. A chemical reaction resulting in the formation of at least one ester product. * * *
esterify
—esterifiable, adj. —esterification, n. /e ster"euh fuy'/, v.t., v.i., esterified, esterifying. Chem. to convert into an ester. [1900-05; ESTER + -IFY] * * *
Estes
/es"teez, -tis/, n. a male given name. * * *
Estes Park
a summer resort in N Colorado. 2703. * * * ▪ Colorado, United States       town, Larimer county, north-central Colorado, U.S. The original town site lies in a large ...
Estes, Richard
▪ American painter born May 14, 1932, Kewanee, Ill., U.S.       American painter associated with Photo-realism, a movement in painting characterized by extremely ...
Estes, William K(aye)
born June 17, 1919, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S. U.S. psychologist. He worked with B.F. Skinner on instrumental learning in the 1940s, and in 1950 he introduced stimulus sampling ...
Estevan
▪ Saskatchewan, Canada       city, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. It lies along the Souris River at the latter's junction with Long Creek, just north of the North ...
Estey, Willard Zebedee
▪ 2003       Canadian attorney and judge (b. Oct. 10, 1919, Saskatoon, Sask.—d. Jan. 25, 2002, Toronto, Ont.), served as a justice on the Supreme Court of Canada from ...
Esth
Esth abbrev. Bible Esther * * *
Esth.
1. Bible. Esther. 2. Esthonia. * * *
Esther
/es"teuhr/, n. 1. the wife of Ahasuerus. 2. a book of the Bible bearing her name. Abbr.: Esth. 3. a number of prayers, visions, interpretations of dreams, etc., that are included ...
Esther Rantzen
➡ Rantzen * * *
Esther, Book of
▪ Old Testament  Old Testament book that belongs to the third section of the Judaic biblical canon, known as the Ketuvim, or “Writings.” In the Jewish Bible, Esther ...
Estherville
▪ Iowa, United States       city, seat (1859) of Emmet county, northern Iowa, U.S. The city lies along the West Fork Des Moines River, 90 miles (145 km) northwest of ...
esthesia
/es thee"zheuh, -zhee euh, -zee euh/, n. capacity for sensation or feeling; sensitivity. Also, aesthesia. [1875-80; < Gk aísthes(is) (see ESTHESIS) + -IA] * * *
esthesiometer
—esthesiometry, n. /es thee'zee om"i teuhr/, n. Med. an instrument for measuring the degree of tactile sensibility. [ESTHES(IS) + -O- + -METER] * * *
esthesis
/es thee"sis/, n. sensation; feeling. Also, aesthesis. [1850-55; < Gk aísthesis sensation, perception] * * *
esthete
/es"theet/, n. aesthete. * * *
esthetic
/es thet"ik/, adj., n. aesthetic. * * *
esthetical
—esthetically, adv. /es thet"i keuhl/, adj. aesthetical. * * *
esthetician
/es'thi tish"euhn/, n. 1. aesthetician. 2. a person trained to administer facials, advise customers on makeup and the care of skin and hair, etc. Cf. beautician (def. 1). * * *
estheticism
/es thet"euh siz'euhm/, n. aestheticism. * * *
estheticize
es·thet·i·cize (ĕs-thĕtʹə-sīz') v. Variant of aestheticize. * * *
esthetics
/es thet"iks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) aesthetics. * * *
Esthonia
/e stoh"nee euh, e stohn"yeuh, es thoh"nee euh, -thohn"yeuh/, n. Estonia. * * *
Esthonian
/e stoh"nee euhn, es thoh"-/, adj., n. Estonian. * * *
Estienne
/es tyen"/, n. 1. Also, Étienne. a family of French printers, book dealers, and scholars, including esp. Henri /ahonn rddee"/, died 1520; his son, Robert /rddaw berdd"/, ...
Estienne, Henri II
or Henri II Étienne born 1528, Paris, France died 1598, Lyon French scholar-printer. As a young man he traveled Europe studying ancient manuscripts and visiting scholars ...
Estienne, Robert I
▪ French scholar and printer Estienne also spelled  Étienne,  Latin  Stephanus  born 1503, Paris, France died Sept. 7, 1559, Geneva, Switz.  scholar-printer, second son ...
estimable
—estimableness, n. —estimably, adv. /es"teuh meuh beuhl/, adj. 1. worthy of esteem; deserving respect or admiration. 2. capable of being estimated. [1425-75; late ME < MF < L ...
estimableness
See estimable. * * *
estimably
See estimableness. * * *
estimate
—estimatingly, adv. —estimator, n. v. /es"teuh mayt'/; n. /es"teuh mit, -mayt'/, v., estimated, estimating, n. v.t. 1. to form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding ...
Estimate of excess volatiles
▪ Table Estimate of "excess volatiles" (units of 1020 grams) water 16,600 total carbon as carbon dioxide 910 sulfur 22 nitrogen 42 chlorine 300 hydrogen 10 boron, ...
Estimate of excess volatiles 1
▪ Table Estimate of excess volatiles (units of 1020 grams) water 16,660 total carbon as carbon dioxide 2,500 chlorine 300 nitrogen 49 sulfur 44 boron, bromine, argon, ...
Estimated Consumption of Beer in Selected Countries, Table
▪ Table In litres* per capita Country 1989 1990 1991 Germany 142.9 ...
Estimated Consumption of Distilled Spirits in Selected Countries, Table
▪ Table In litres* of pure alcohol per capita Country 1989 1990 1991 Poland 4.5 3.8 ...
Estimated Consumption of Wine in Selected Countries, Table
▪ Table In litres* per capita Country 1989 1990 1991 France 74.1 72.7 66.8 Portugal 53.0 50.0 ...
Estimated lifetime cancer risks attributed to low-level irradiation
▪ Table Estimated lifetime cancer risks attributed to low-level irradiation site irradiated cancers per 10,000 person-Sv* bone marrow ...
Estimated Roma Population of Europe: 1939, 1945, and 1998
▪ Table Estimated Roma Population of Europe: 1939, 1945, and 1998 Country 1939 1945 1998 Romania 300,000 (. . .)1 2,341,000 Yugoslavia 100,000 (. . .)2 Serbia and ...
Estimates of average annual dose equivalent to the whole body from various sources of irradiation received by members of the U.S. population
▪ Table Estimates of average annual dose equivalent to the whole body from various sources of irradiation received by members of the U.S. population source of ...
Estimates of Gross Domestic Product on an Exchange Rate Basis
These estimates of gross domestic product on an exchange rate basis are based on official data from national statistical offices. Country ...
Estimates of recent and future extinction rates
▪ Table Estimates of recent and future extinction rates group number of living species number of extinctions per indicated time period (in years) extinctions per million ...
estimation
/es'teuh may"sheuhn/, n. 1. judgment or opinion: In my estimation the boy is guilty. 2. esteem; respect. 3. approximate calculation; estimate: to make an estimation of one's ...
estimative
/es"teuh may'tiv/, adj. 1. capable of estimating. 2. pertaining to or based upon estimation; estimated. [1350-1400; ME < ML aestimativus. See ESTIMATE, -IVE] * * *
estimator
See estimative. * * *
estipulate
/ee stip"yeuh lit, -layt'/, adj. Bot. exstipulate. * * *
estival
/es"teuh veuhl, e stuy"veuhl/, adj. pertaining or appropriate to summer. [1350-1400; ME < LL aestivalis, equiv. to L aestiv(us) of or relating to summer + -alis -AL1] * * *
estivate
—estivator, n. /es"teuh vayt'/, v.i., estivated, estivating. 1. to spend the summer, as at a specific place or in a certain activity. 2. Zool. to spend a hot, dry season in an ...
estivation
/es'teuh vay"sheuhn/, n. 1. Zool. the act of estivating. 2. Bot. the arrangement of the parts of a flower in the bud. [1615-25; ESTIVATE + -ION] * * *
esto perpetua
/es"toh perdd pet"ooh ah'/; Eng. /es"toh peuhr pech"ooh euh/, Latin. may she live forever: motto of Idaho. * * *
estoc
/e stok"/; Fr. /e stawk"/, n., pl. estocs /e stoks"/; Fr. /e stawk"/. a thrusting sword of the 13th-17th centuries having a long, narrow blade of rectangular section. [1820-30; < ...
estocada
/es'teuh kah"deuh/; Sp. /es'taw kah"dhah/, n. the thrust of the sword by the matador into the bull in the final stage of a bullfight, designed to kill the bull. [1570-80; < Sp < ...
Estonia
/e stoh"nee euh, e stohn"yeuh/, n. a republic in N Europe, on the Baltic, S of the Gulf of Finland: an independent republic 1918-40; annexed by the Soviet Union 1940; regained ...
Estonia, flag of
▪ Flag History       horizontally striped blue-black-white national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 7 to 11.       The Estonian students' association Vironia ...
Estonian
/e stoh"nee euhn/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Estonia or its people. n. 2. a member of a Finnish people inhabiting Estonia, Livonia, and other districts of Russia. 3. the Uralic ...
Estonian language
Estonian  Eesti        member of the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family, spoken in Estonia and in scattered pockets in surrounding regions. The language ...
Estonian literature
      body of writings in the Estonian language. The consecutive domination of Estonia from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early ...
estop
/e stop"/, v.t., estopped, estopping. 1. Law. to hinder or prevent by estoppel. 2. Archaic. to stop. [1250-1300; ME < AF estopper, OF estoper to stop up, deriv. of estoupe < L ...
estoppage
/e stop"ij/, n. the condition of being estopped. [1695-1705; < F; see ESTOP, -AGE] * * *
estoppel
/e stop"euhl/, n. Law. a bar or impediment preventing a party from asserting a fact or a claim inconsistent with a position that party previously took, either by conduct or ...
Estoril
/esh'too rddeel"/, n. a town in W Portugal, W of Lisbon: seaside resort. 15,740. * * * ▪ Portugal       fashionable resort, western Portugal. It is located on Cascais ...
Estournelles de Constant, d'
/de stoohrdd nel deuh kawonn stahonn"/, Paul Henri Benjamin Balluat /pawl ahonn rddee" baonn zhann maonn" bann lwann"/, Baron Constant de Rebecque /deuh rddeuh bek"/ 1852-1924, ...
Estournelles de Constant, Paul-H.-B. d'
▪ French diplomat in full  Paul-Henri-Benjamin Balluat, baron de Constant de Rébecque d'Estournelles  born Nov. 22, 1852, La Flèche, France died May 15, 1924, ...
estovers
/e stoh"veuhrz/, n.pl. Law. necessaries allowed by law, as wood and timber to a tenant or alimony to a spouse. [1250-1300; ME < AF, n. use of OF estovoir, estover to be necessary
Estrada Cabrera
/es trddah"dhah kah vrdde"rddah/ Manuel /mah nwel"/, 1857-1924, Guatemalan politician: president 1898-1920. * * *

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