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grade crossing n. An intersection of railroad tracks, roads, walkways, or a combination of these at the same level. * * *
graded area.
See transition area. * * *
graded school
▪ education also called  grade school        an elementary or secondary school in which the instructional program is divided into school years, known as grades or ...
/grayd'flay"sheuhn/, n. See grade inflation. * * *
/grayd"mahrk'/, n. 1. a symbol noting the relative quality of a product, as lumber. v.t. 2. to mark with a grademark. [GRADE + MARK1] * * *
grade point n. A point assigned to a course credit, as in a university, that corresponds to the letter grade made in a course. * * *
gradepoint average
grade point average n. Abbr. GPA The average grade earned by a student, figured by dividing the grade points earned by the number of credits attempted. * * *
/gray"deuhr/, n. 1. a person or thing that grades. 2. a pupil of a specified grade at school: a fourth grader. 3. a machine for grading. [1840-50, Amer.; GRADE + -ER1] * * ...
grade school n. See elementary school.   gradeʹschool'er (grādʹsko͞o'lər) n. * * *
See grade school. * * *
/gray"dee euhnt/, n. 1. the degree of inclination, or the rate of ascent or descent, in a highway, railroad, etc. 2. an inclined surface; grade; ramp. 3. Physics. a. the rate of ...
gradient wind
/wind/ a wind with a velocity and direction that are mathematically defined by the balanced relationship of the pressure gradient force to the centrifugal force and the Coriolis ...
/gray"dee en'teuhr/, n. Survey. an instrument on a transit for measuring angles of inclination in terms of their tangents. [1880-85; GRADIENT + -ER1] * * *
/gray"din/; Fr. /grddann daonn"/, n., pl. gradins /-dinz/; Fr. /-daonn"/. 1. one of a series of steps or seats raised one above another. 2. Eccles. a shelf or one of a series of ...
gradine [grā′dingrā dēn′, grā′dēn΄] n. 〚Fr < It gradino, dim. of grado < L gradus: see GRADE〛 1. one of a series of steps or seats arranged in tiers 2. a shelf at ...
/gray'dee om"i teuhr/, n. Physics. any instrument used to measure a gradient, as the rate of change of the geomagnetic field. Cf. gradient (def. 3a). [1800-10; GRADI(ENT) + -O- + ...
grad school n. Informal Graduate school. * * *
—gradually, adv. —gradualness, n. /graj"ooh euhl/, adj. 1. taking place, changing, moving, etc., by small degrees or little by little: gradual improvement in health. 2. ...
—gradualist, n., adj. —gradualistic, adj. /graj"ooh euh liz'euhm/ n. 1. the principle or policy of achieving some goal by gradual steps rather than by drastic change. 2. ...
See gradualism. * * *
See gradualist. * * *
See gradual. * * *
See gradually. * * *
/graj"ooh and'/, n. Brit. a student who is about to graduate or receive a degree. [1880-85; < ML graduandus, ger. of graduare to GRADUATE] * * *
—graduator, n. n., adj. /graj"ooh it, -ayt'/; v. /graj"ooh ayt'/, n., adj., v., graduated, graduating. n. 1. a person who has received a degree or diploma on completing a ...
graduate nurse
a person who has graduated from an accredited school of nursing. Also called trained nurse. * * *
graduate school
a school, usually a division of a university, offering courses leading to degrees more advanced than the bachelor's degree. [1890-95, Amer.] * * *
graduate students
➡ higher education * * *
/graj"ooh ay'tid/, adj. 1. characterized by or arranged in degrees, esp. successively, as according to height, depth, or difficulty: a graduated series of lessons. 2. marked with ...
graduated cylinder
graduated cylinder n. a thin, cylindrical container that is scaled, usually in milliliters: used as in a laboratory to measure and pour exact amounts of a liquid * * *
graduated licenses
➡ driving * * *
➡ higher education * * *
➡ higher education * * *
grad·u·ate school (grăjʹo͞o-ĭt) n. An institution of higher learning, usually a division of a university, that grants master's degrees or doctorates or both. * * *
/graj'ooh ay"sheuhn/, n. 1. an act of graduating; the state of being graduated. 2. the ceremony of conferring degrees or diplomas, as at a college or school. 3. arrangement in ...
See graduate. * * *
gradus1 /gray"deuhs/, n., pl. graduses. Music. a work consisting wholly or in part of exercises of increasing difficulty. [ < L: GRADE, step] gradus2 /gray"deuhs/, n., pl. ...
Grady, Henry Woodfin
▪ American journalist born May 24, 1850, Athens, Ga., U.S. died Dec. 23, 1889, Atlanta, Ga.  American journalist and orator who helped bring about industrial development in ...
/gree"ee/, n.pl. Class. Myth. three old sea goddesses who had but one eye and one tooth among them and were the protectors of their sisters the Gorgons. Also, Graiae. * * *
Graebe, Carl
▪ German chemist born Feb. 24, 1841, Frankfurt am Main [Germany] died Jan. 19, 1927, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.       German organic chemist who, assisted by Carl ...
Graebner, Fritz
▪ German ethnologist in full  Robert Fritz Graebner   born March 4, 1877, Berlin, Ger. died July 13, 1934, Berlin       German ethnologist who advanced the theory of ...
Graecia Magna
/gree"shee euh mag"neuh/. See Magna Graecia. * * *
Graecism [grē′siz΄əm] n. alt. sp. of GRECISM * * *
—Graecism, n. /gree"suyz/, v.t., v.i., Graecized, Graecizing. Chiefly Brit. Grecize. Also, Graecise. * * *
Chiefly Brit. var. of Greco-. * * *
/gree'koh roh"meuhn, grek'oh-/, adj., n. Chiefly Brit. Greco-Roman. * * *
Graeffe method
/gref"euh, graf"euh/, Math. a method, involving the squaring of roots, for approximating the solutions to algebraic equations. * * *
Graetz, Heinrich
▪ German historian born Oct. 31, 1817, Xions, Prussia died Sept. 7, 1891, Munich, Ger.       German author of a major history of the Jews that became the first standard ...
/grddahf/, n., pl. Grafen /grddah"feuhn/. German. a count: a title of nobility in Germany, Austria, and Sweden, equivalent in rank to an English earl. * * *
Graf Spee
▪ battleship in full  Admiral Graf von Spee   German pocket battleship of 10,000 tons launched in 1936. The Graf Spee was more heavily gunned than any cruiser and had a top ...
Graf, Oskar Maria
▪ German writer born July 22, 1894, Berg am Starnberger See, Ger. died June 28, 1967, New York, N.Y., U.S.       German regional novelist and poet known for novels and ...
Graf, Steffi
in full Stephanie Maria Graf born June 14, 1969, Brühl, W.Ger. German tennis player. At age 13 she became the second youngest player ever to earn an international ranking. In ...
Graf, Urs
▪ Swiss artist born c. 1485, , Solothurn, Switz. died 1527, Basel       Swiss draftsman, engraver, and goldsmith, known for his drawings, woodcuts, and ...
Graf,Stephanie Maria
Graf (grăf, gräf), Stephanie Maria. Known as “Steffi.” Born 1969. German tennis player who in 1988 won the Grand Slam (Wimbledon, French, U.S., and Australian titles) and ...
Gräfe, Albrecht Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst von
born May 22, 1828, Berlin, Prussia died July 20, 1870, Berlin German ophthalmologist. Using Hermann von Helmholtz's ophthalmoscope, he developed several operations for eye ...
Gräfe, Albrecht von
▪ German eye surgeon in full  Albrecht Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Von Gräfe   born May 22, 1828, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] died July 20, 1870, Berlin       German eye ...
Gräfe, Karl Ferdinand von
▪ German surgeon born March 8, 1787, Warsaw died July 4, 1840, Hannover, Hanover, Ger.  German surgeon who helped to create modern plastic surgery. A superintendent of German ...
Gräfenberg spot
/graf"euhn berrg', gref"-/ a patch of tissue in the front wall of the vagina, claimed to be erectile and highly erogenous. Also called G spot, G-spot. [1980-85; after German-born ...
—graffitist, n. /greuh fee"tee/, n. 1. pl. of graffito. 2. (used with a pl. v.) markings, as initials, slogans, or drawings, written, spray-painted, or sketched on a sidewalk, ...
graffitied [grə fēt′ēd] adj. having or covered with graffiti * * *
graffitist [grə fēt′ist] n. a person who writes or draws graffiti, esp. one whose stylized works are thought of as art * * * graf·fi·tist (grə-fēʹtĭst) n. One who ...
/greuh fee"toh/, n., pl. graffiti /-tee/. 1. Archaeol. an ancient drawing or writing scratched on a wall or other surface. 2. a single example of graffiti. [see GRAFFITI] Usage. ...
Grafström, Gillis
▪ Swedish figure skater born June 7, 1893, Stockholm, Sweden died April 14, 1938, Potsdam, Germany       Swedish figure skater (figure skating) who won three Olympic ...
graft1 —grafter, n. /graft, grahft/, n. 1. Hort. a. a bud, shoot, or scion of a plant inserted in a groove, slit, or the like in a stem or stock of another plant in which it ...
graft hybrid
a hybrid plant that is produced by grafting and that exhibits characters of both the stock and the scion. [1865-70] * * *
graft-versus-host disease
/graft"verr'seuhs hohst", grahft"-/ a reaction in which the cells of transplanted tissue immunologically attack the cells of the host organism, occurring esp. in bone-marrow ...
graft-ver·sus-host disease (grăftʹvûr'səs-hōstʹ, -səz-) n. A pathological condition in which cells from the transplanted tissue of a donor initiate an immunologic attack ...
/graf"tij, grahf"-/, n. the art or practice of inserting a part of one plant into another plant in such a way that the two will unite and continue their growth. [1890-95; GRAFT1 ...
See graft1,2. * * *
/graf"ting, grahf"-/, n. Surg. graft1 (def. 2). [1475-85; GRAFT1 + -ING1] * * *
/graf"teuhn, grahf"-/, n. 1. Sue, born 1940, U.S. detective novelist. 2. a city in central Massachusetts. 11,238. * * * ▪ New South Wales, Australia       city and ...
Grafton, Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd duke of
▪ prime minister of United Kingdom born Oct. 1, 1735 died March 14, 1811, Euston Hall, Suffolk, Eng.  British prime minister (1768–70) and a prominent figure in the period ...
Grafton, Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of, Earl Of Euston, Viscount Ipswich, Baron Sudbury
▪ British noble born September 1663 died Oct. 9, 1690, Cork, County Cork, Ire.       the second illegitimate son of Charles II of England by Barbara Villiers, Duchess ...
/grah"geuhr/, n. Judaism. a noise-making device, typically a small container filled with pellets and fitted with a handle, used by children each time Haman's name is said during ...
/gray"euhm, gram/, adj. made of graham flour. [1825-35] * * * (as used in expressions) Florence Nightingale Graham Ballard James Graham Bell Alexander Graham Graham Billy Graham ...
/gray"euhm, gram/, n. 1. Martha, 1894-1991, U.S. dancer and choreographer. 2. Thomas, 1805-69, Scottish chemist. 3. William Franklin ("Billy"), born 1918, U.S. evangelist. 4. a ...
graham cracker
a semisweet cracker, usually rectangular in shape, made chiefly of whole-wheat flour. [1815-25, Amer.] * * *
graham flour
unbolted wheat flour, containing all of the wheat grain; whole-wheat flour. [1825-35, Amer.; named after Sylvester Graham (1794-1851), U.S. dietary reformer] * * *
Graham Greene
➡ Greene * * *
Graham Land
a part of the British Antarctic Territory, in the N section of the Antarctic Peninsula: formerly the British name for the entire peninsula. * * *
Graham Sutherland
➡ Sutherland * * *
Graham Swift
➡ Swift (I) * * *
graham wafer
Canadian. See digestive biscuit. * * *
Graham's law of diffusion
Physical Chem. the principle that at a given temperature and pressure the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density. [1945-50; named ...
Graham, Billy
in full William Franklin Graham, Jr. born Nov. 7, 1918, Charlotte, N.C., U.S. U.S. Christian evangelist. The son of a dairy farmer, he underwent a conversion experience at age ...
Graham, Colin
▪ 2008       British opera director, designer, and librettist born Sept. 22, 1931 , Hove, Sussex, Eng. died April 6, 2007 , St. Louis, Mo. staged some 250 opera ...
Graham, George
▪ British watchmaker born c. 1674, Horsgill, Cumberland, Eng. died Nov. 20, 1751, London       eminent English watchmaker and scientific instrument ...
Graham, Isabella Marshall
▪ American educator and philanthropist née  Isabella Marshall  born July 29, 1742, Lanarkshire, Scot. died July 27, 1814, New York, N.Y., U.S.  Scottish-American educator ...
Graham, Jorie
born May 9, 1951, New York, N.Y., U.S. U.S. poet. She studied at New York University and the University of Iowa, where she later taught. Her abstract, intellectual verse is ...
Graham, Katharine
orig. Katharine Meyer born July 16, 1917, New York, N.Y., U.S. died July 17, 2001, Boise, Idaho U.S. owner and publisher of news publications. The daughter of Eugene Meyer ...
Graham, Katharine Meyer
▪ 2002       American newspaper executive (b. June 16, 1917, New York, N.Y.—d. July 17, 2001, Boise, Idaho), took over the leadership position at the Washington Post ...
Graham, Martha
born May 11, 1894, Allegheny county, Penn., U.S. died April 1, 1991, New York, N.Y. U.S. dancer, teacher, choreographer, and foremost exponent of modern dance. She studied from ...
Graham, Otto
▪ American athlete in full  Otto Everett Graham, Jr. , byname  Automatic Otto  born December 6, 1921, Waukegan, Illinois, U.S. died December 17, 2003, Sarasota, ...
Graham, Otto (Everett, Jr.)
born Dec. 6, 1921, Waukegan, Ill., U.S. U.S. gridiron football player and coach. He was a star tailback at Northwestern University, but he is best remembered as quarterback of ...
Graham, Otto Everett, Jr.
▪ 2004       American football player (b. Dec. 6, 1921, Waukegan, Ill.—d. Dec. 17, 2003, Sarasota, Fla.), was nicknamed “Automatic Otto” for his consistently ...
Graham, Robert
▪ 2009       Mexican-born American sculptor born Aug. 19, 1938, Mexico City, Mex. died Dec. 27, 2008, Santa Monica, Calif. was celebrated for his civic monuments, many ...
Graham, Robert Andrew
▪ 1998       American Roman Catholic priest and historian who researched the career of Pope Pius XII in the Vatican archives to disprove allegations, made by Rolf ...
Graham, Sir James, 2nd Baronet
▪ British politician born June 1, 1792, Netherby, Cumberland, Eng. died Oct. 25, 1861, Netherby       British politician, confidant and adviser of prime minister Sir ...
Graham, Sylvester
▪ American clergyman born , July 5, 1794, West Suffield, Conn., U.S. died Sept. 11, 1851, Northampton, Mass.       American clergyman whose advocacy of a health regimen ...
Graham, Thomas
▪ Scottish chemist born Dec. 20, 1805, Glasgow, Scot. died Sept. 11, 1869, London, Eng.  British chemist often referred to as “the father of colloid ...
Graham, Winston
▪ British author in full  Winston Mawdsley Graham  born June 30, 1910, Victoria Park, Manchester, England died July 10, 2003, Buxted, East Sussex       English author ...
Graham, Winston Mawdsley
▪ 2004       British novelist (b. June 30, 1910, Victoria Park, Manchester, Eng.—d. July 10, 2003, Buxted, East Sussex, Eng.), wrote a series of 12 historical novels ...
Graham,Katharine Meyer
Gra·ham (grāʹəm, grăm), Katharine Meyer. Born 1917. American newspaper executive who as publisher of the Washington Post (1969-1979) oversaw the controversial publication ...
Graham, Martha. 1894-1991. American dancer and choreographer. A central figure in modern dance, she founded the Dance Repertory Theatre in New York City in 1930. Her works ...
Graham,William Franklin
Graham, William Franklin. Known as “Billy.” Born 1918. American religious leader who has conducted evangelical tours worldwide. * * *
graham cracker (grăm, grāʹəm) n. A slightly sweet, usually rectangular cracker made with whole-wheat flour.   [From graham flour.] * * *
/gray"euhm/, n. Kenneth, 1859-1932, Scottish writer, esp. of children's stories. * * *
Grahame, Kenneth
born March 8, 1859, Edinburgh, Scot. died July 6, 1932, Pangbourne, Berkshire, Eng. British writer of children's books. He worked as a banker in London while contributing ...
Gra·hame (grāʹəm), Kenneth. 1859-1932. British writer known for his essays and children's books, notably The Wind in the Willows (1908). * * *
Grahame-White, Claude
▪ British aviator born Aug. 21, 1879, Bursledon, Hampshire, Eng. died Aug. 19, 1959, Nice, France  English aviator who played a seminal role in early British ...
graham flour n. A slightly sweet, usually rectangular cracker made with whole-wheat flour.   [After SylvesterGraham (1794-1851), American cleric and social reformer.] * * *
Graham Island An island off western British Columbia, Canada, in the Pacific Ocean. It is the largest and northernmost of the Queen Charlotte Islands. * * *
/gray"euh muyt'/, n. Mineral. an asphaltite with a pitch-black luster. [1865-70, Amer.; named after J. A. and J. L. Graham, 19th-century American mineowners; see -ITE1] * * *
Graham Land A region of Antarctica near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Part of the British Antarctic Territory, it is also claimed by Argentina and Chile. * * *
▪ South Africa Afrikaans  Grahamstad   city, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The city lies on the wooded slopes of the Suur Mountains near the source of the Kowie ...
Grahn, Lucile
orig. Lucina Alexia Grahn born June 30, 1819, Copenhagen, Den. died April 4, 1907, Munich, Ger. Danish ballerina, ballet mistress, and choreographer. She was trained in ...
/gray"ee, gruy"ee/, n.pl. Graeae. * * *
Graian Alps
Graian Alps [grā′ən] division of the W Alps, along the French-Italian border: highest peak, c. 13,320 ft (4,060 m) * * * ▪ mountains, Europe French  Alpes Grées, or ...
Gra·ian Alps (grāʹən, grīʹən) A section of the western Alps on the border between France and Italy. The highest elevation is Gran Paradiso, 4,063.5 m (13,323 ft), in the ...
/grayl/, n. 1. (usually cap.) Also called Holy Grail. a cup or chalice that in medieval legend was associated with unusual powers, esp. the regeneration of life and, later, ...
Grailly, Jean III de, Lord De Buch
▪ French soldier died 1376/77, Paris, France       vassal in Gascony under King Edward III of England and his son Edward, the Black Prince. Viewed as the ideal of ...
—grainer, n. —grainless, adj. /grayn/, n. 1. a small, hard seed, esp. the seed of a food plant such as wheat, corn, rye, oats, rice, or millet. 2. the gathered seed of food ...
grain alcohol
alcohol (def. 1). [1920-25] * * *
Grain Coast
▪ region, West Africa       section of the western coast of the Gulf of Guinea, in Africa, extending approximately from Cape Mesurado to Cape Palmas—in present-day ...
grain drill
      machine for planting seed at a controlled depth and in specified amounts. The earliest known version, invented in Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia, history of) by 2000 BC, ...
grain elevator
elevator (def. 4). [1850-55] * * * Storage building for grain, usually a tall frame, metal, or concrete structure with a compartmented interior; also, the device for loading ...
grain growth
Metall. a tendency of certain grains to grow and absorb others when heated under certain conditions. [1925-30] * * *
grain itch mite.
See straw mite. * * *
grain mill
Structure for grinding cereal. Waterwheels were first exploited for such tasks. Geared mills turning grindstones (see gear) were used in the Roman Empire, but their fullest ...
grain refiner
Metall. any chemical added to a molten metal or alloy to check grain growth. * * *
grain size scale
▪ sedimentology  in sedimentology, division of a continuous range of particle sizes into a series of discrete groups. Several such scales have been devised for the purpose of ...
grain sorghum
any of several varieties of sorghum, as durra or milo, having starchy seeds, grown for grain and forage. [1915-20] * * *
grain weevil
▪ insect also called  Granary Weevil        (species Sitophilus granarius), insect of the family Curculionidae (order Coleoptera), a common pest of stored grain ...
grain alcohol n. See alcohol. * * *
Grain Coast (grān) A historical region of western Africa along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, roughly corresponding to present-day Liberia. It was named for its ...
—grainedness /graynd"nis, gray"nid-/, n. /graynd/, adj. 1. having, reduced to, consisting of, or bearing grain or grains (usually used in combination): fine-grained sand; ...
grain elevator n. A building equipped with mechanical lifting devices and used for storing grain. * * *
See grain. * * *
/grayn"feeld'/, n. a field in which grain is grown. [1810-20; GRAIN + FIELD] * * *
/grayn"jeuhr/, n. Percy Aldridge /awl"drij/, 1882-1961, Australian pianist and composer, in the U.S. after 1915. * * *
Grainger, Percy
▪ American composer original name  George Percy Grainger   born July 8, 1882, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia died Feb. 20, 1961, White Plains, N.Y., U.S.  Australian-born ...
Grainger, Percy Aldridge
orig. George Percy Grainger born July 8, 1882, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia died Feb. 20, 1961, White Plains, N.Y., U.S. Australian-born U.S. composer and pianist. After ...
See grainy. * * *
/graynz/, n. (often used with a sing. v.) an iron instrument with barbed prongs, for spearing or harpooning fish. [1895-1900; earlier grainse < ON grein branch, division; cf. Sw ...
grains of paradise
the pungent, peppery seeds of an African plant, Aframomum melegueta, of the ginger family, used to strengthen cordials and in veterinary medicine. Also called guinea grains, ...
grainsof paradise
grains of paradise (grānz) pl.n. 1. The pungent aromatic seeds of a tropical African plant (Aframomum melegueta) used medicinally and for flavoring beverages. 2. The seeds of ...
—graininess, n. /gray"nee/, adj., grainier, grainiest. 1. resembling grain; granular. 2. full of grains or grain. 3. having a natural or simulated grain, as wood, wallpaper, ...
/gral'euh tawr"ee euhl, -tohr"-/, adj. belonging or pertaining to the wading birds, as the snipes, cranes, storks, and herons, many species of which have very long ...
▪ bird family  bird family (order Passeriformes) that includes the mudlark, apostle bird, and white-winged chough. The four species, generally restricted to Australia and ...
gram1 /gram/, n. a metric unit of mass or weight equal to 15.432 grains; one thousandth of a kilogram. Abbr.: g Also, esp. Brit., gramme. [1790-1800; < F gramme < LL gramma a ...
/grahm/, n. (in the Volsunga Saga) the sword of Sigmund, broken by Odin, repaired by Regin, and used again by Sigurd in killing Fafnir. Cf. Balmung. [ < ON Gramr lit., angry, ...
gram atom
Chem. the quantity of an element whose weight in grams is numerically equal to the atomic weight of the element. Also called gram-atomic weight /gram"euh tom"ik, -tom'-/. Cf. ...
gram calorie
calorie (def. 1a). Abbr.: g-cal [1900-05] * * *
gram equivalent
Chem. See under equivalent weight. [1895-1900] * * *
gram molecule
—gram-molecular /gram'meuh lek"yeuh leuhr/, gram-molar /gram'moh"leuhr/, adj. Chem. that quantity of a substance whose weight in grams is numerically equal to the molecular ...
gram stain
Staining technique for the initial identification of bacteria, devised in 1884 by the Danish physician Hans Christian Gram (1853–1938). The stain reveals basic differences in ...
Gram's method
/gramz/, (sometimes l.c.) a method of staining and distinguishing bacteria, in which a fixed bacterial smear is stained with crystal violet, treated with Gram's solution, ...
Gram's solution
(sometimes l.c.) a solution of iodine, potassium iodide, and water, used in staining bacteria. Cf. Gram's method. * * *
Gram's method (grămz) n. A staining technique used to classify bacteria in which a bacterial specimen is first stained with crystal violet, then treated with an iodine ...
gram-a·tom·ic mass (grămʹə-tŏmʹĭk) n. The mass of one mole of atoms of an element. Also called gram-atomic weight. * * *
gram-molecular weight.
See gram molecule. Abbr.: GMW [1900-05] * * *
gram-mo·lec·u·lar weight (grăm'mə-lĕkʹyə-lər) n. Abbr. GMW See mole5. * * *
/gram"neg"euh tiv/, adj. (often l.c.) (of bacteria) not retaining the violet dye when stained by Gram's method. [1905-10; see GRAM'S METHOD] * * *
/gram"poz"i tiv/, adj. (often l.c.) (of bacteria) retaining the violet dye when stained by Gram's method. [1905-10; see GRAM'S METHOD] * * *
Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization
/gram"shmit"/, Math. a process for constructing an orthogonal basis for a Euclidean space, given any basis for the space. [named after Jörgen Pedersen Gram (1850-1916), Danish ...
/gram"vair"ee euh beuhl/, adj. (often l.c.) of or pertaining to bacteria that stain irregularly with Gram's stain, being neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative. [1955-60; see ...
1. grammar. 2. grammarian. 3. grammatical. * * *
/grah"meuh/, n. any grass of the genus Bouteloua, of South America and western North America, as B. gracilis (blue grama). Also, gramma. Also called grama grass. [1820-30, Amer.; ...
grama grass
▪ plant genus  (genus Bouteloua), any of about 50 species of annual or perennial forage grasses constituting a group within the family Poaceae, and native mostly to North ...
/grah mah"dahn, grah'mah dahn", grahm dahn"/, n. the practice advocated by followers of Mahatma Gandhi in which village landowners in India transfer the title to and the ...
Folk deities widely worshiped in rural India. Often female figures, they may have originated as agricultural deities, and they are offered animal sacrifices to ward off disease, ...
/gram"euh ree/, n. occult learning; magic. Also, gramary. [1275-1325; ME gramary < OF gramaire, lit., GRAMMAR] * * *
gram atom n. One mole of atoms of an element. * * *
Grambling State University
▪ university, Grambling, Lousiana, United States       public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Grambling, Louisiana, U.S. A historically ...
gram calorie n. See calorie. * * *
Grameen Bank
▪ Bangladeshi bank       Bangladeshi bank founded by economist Muhammad Yunus (Yunus, Muhammad) as a means of providing small loans (credit) to poor individuals (see ...
gram equivalent n. The amount of a substance whose weight in grams is numerically equal to its equivalent weight. * * *
/greuh merr"see/, interj. 1. Archaic. (used as an exclamation expressing surprise or sudden strong feeling.) n. 2. Obs. thanks. [1300-50; ME gramerci, grantmerci < OF grand merci ...
/gram'euh suyd"n/, n. Pharm. a crystalline, water-insoluble antibiotic obtained from tyrothrycin by extraction, used chiefly in treating local infections caused by Gram-positive ...
—gramineousness, n. /greuh min"ee euhs/, adj. 1. grasslike. 2. belonging to the Gramineae family of plants. Cf. grass family. [1650-60; < L gramineus pertaining to grass, ...
/gram'euh niv"euhr euhs/, adj. feeding or subsisting on grass: a graminivorous bird. [1730-40; < L gramin- (s. of gramen) grass + -I- + -VOROUS] * * *
I. gram·ma1 (grămʹə) n. Informal A grandmother.   [Alteration of grandma.]   II. gram·ma2 (gräʹmə, grămʹə) n. Variant of grama. * * *
/gram"euh lawg', -log'/, n. a word symbolized by a sign or letter. [ < Gk grámma letter + -LOGUE] * * *
—grammarless, adj. /gram"euhr/, n. 1. the study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed; morphology and syntax. 2. these features or constructions themselves: ...
grammar school
1. an elementary school. 2. Brit. a secondary school corresponding to a U.S. high school. 3. (formerly) a secondary school in which Latin and Greek are among the principal ...
grammar-translation method
/gram"euhr trans lay"sheuhn, -tranz-/ a traditional technique of foreign-language teaching based on explicit instruction in the grammatical analysis of the target language and ...
/greuh mair"ee euhn/, n. 1. a specialist or expert in grammar. 2. a person who claims to establish or is reputed to have established standards of usage in a language. [1350-1400; ...
grammar school n. 1. See elementary school. 2. Chiefly British. A secondary or preparatory school. 3. A school stressing the study of classical languages. * * *
—grammatically, adv. /greuh mat"i keuhl/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to grammar: grammatical analysis. 2. conforming to standard usage: grammatical speech. [1520-30; < L ...
grammatical gender
Gram. gender based on arbitrary assignment, without regard to the referent of a noun, as in French le livre (masculine), "the book," and German das Mädchen (neuter), "the girl." ...
grammatical meaning
the meaning of an inflectional morpheme or of some other syntactic device, as word order. Cf. lexical meaning. [1760-70] * * *
/greuh mat'i kal"i tee/, n. the state or quality of being grammatical. Also, grammaticalness /greuh mat"i keuhl nis/. [1960-65; GRAMMATICAL + -ITY] * * *
See grammaticalize. * * *
—grammaticalization, n. /greuh mat"i keuh luyz'/, v.t., grammaticalized, grammaticalizing. Ling. 1. to convert (a content word or part of one) into a functor, as in using OE ...
See grammaticality. * * *
/greuh mat"euh siz'euhm/, n. Rare. 1. a point or principle of grammar. 2. a grammatical definition. [1600-10; GRAMMATIC(AL) + -ISM] * * *
See grammatology. * * *
See grammatologic. * * *
See grammatologic. * * *
/gram'euh tol"euh jee/, n. the scientific study of systems of writing. [ < Gk grammat-, s. of grámma letter + -O- + -LOGY] * * *
/gram/, n. Chiefly Brit. gram1. * * *
Gramme, Zénobe-Théophile
▪ Belgian scientist born April 4, 1826, Jehay-Bodegnée, Belg. died Jan. 20, 1901, Bois-Colombes, France       Belgian-born electrical engineer who invented (1869) the ...
Grammer, Kelsey
▪ 2003       As the 2001–02 television season drew to a close, American actor Kelsey Grammer finished his 18th straight year of playing pompous, acerbic, but somehow ...
gram molecule n. See mole5. * * *
/gram"ee/, n., pl. Grammys, Grammies. one of a group of statuettes awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences for outstanding achievement in various ...
Grammy Award
▪ American music award       any of a series of awards presented annually in the United States by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (NARAS; commonly ...
Grammy Awards
Annual awards given by the Recording Academy (officially the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences). The first Grammies (the name is a dimunitive of "gramophone") were ...
/grddann mawonn"/, n. Philibert /fee lee berdd"/, Comte de, 1621-1707, French courtier, soldier, and adventurer. * * *
Gramont, Antoine-Agénor-Alfred, duc de
▪ French statesman (duke of) born Aug. 14, 1819, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Fr. died June 18, 1880, Paris       French diplomat and statesman whose belligerent attitudes ...
—gramophonic /gram'euh fon"ik/, gramophonical, adj. —gramophonically, adv. /gram"euh fohn'/, n. a phonograph. [1887; orig. a trademark; appar. inversion of phonogram now obs. ...
gramp (grămp) or gramps (grămps) n. Informal A grandfather.   [Short for grampa.] * * *
gram·pa (grămʹpə) n. Informal A grandfather.   [Alteration of grandpa.] * * *
/gram"pee euhn/, n. a region in E Scotland. 448,772; 3361 sq. mi. (8704 sq. km). * * *
Grampian Mountains
Grampian Mountains mountain range across central & N Scotland, dividing the Highlands from the Lowlands: highest peak, Ben Nevis: also Grampian Hills or Grampians * * * ➡ ...
Gram·pi·an Mountains (grămʹpē-ən) A mountain range of central Scotland extending northeast to southwest and forming a natural barrier between the Highlands and the ...
/gram"pee euhnz/, n. The, (used with a pl. v.) a range of low mountains in central Scotland, separating the Highlands from the Lowlands. Highest peak, Ben Nevis, 4406 ft. (1343 ...
Grampians, the
Mountain range, western Victoria, Australia. Composed mainly of hard sandstone, the range is noted for deep gorges, weathered rock formations, and wildflowers. The highest peak, ...
/gramps/, n. Informal. grandfather. Also, gramp. [1860-65; see GRANDPA, -S4] * * *
/gram"peuhs/, n., pl. grampuses. 1. a cetacean, Grampus griseus, of the dolphin family, widely distributed in northern seas. 2. any of various related cetaceans, as the killer ...
grams (grămz) n. Informal A grandmother.   [Alteration of gram3.] * * *
Gramsci [gräm′shē] Antonio [än tō̂′nyō̂] 1891-1937; It. Communist leader & Marxist theoretician * * *
Gramsci, Antonio
born Jan. 23, 1891, Ales, Sardinia died April 27, 1937, Rome, Italy Italian intellectual and politician. After entering the University of Turin, he joined the Italian Socialist ...
Gram·sci (grämʹshē), Antonio. 1891-1937. Italian political leader and theorist who helped establish the Italian Communist party in 1921. Mussolini later outlawed the party ...
/gran/, n. Informal. grandmother. [1860-65; by shortening] * * * (as used in expressions) Gran Chaco Gran Colombia Gran Paradiso National Park Las Palmas de Gran Canaria * * *
Gran Canaria
/grddahn" kah nah"rddyah/ one of the Canary Islands, in the central part. 519,606; 650 sq. mi. (1685 sq. km). Cap.: Las Palmas. Also, Grand Canary. * * * ▪ island, Canary ...
Gran Chaco
/grddahn chah"kaw/ an extensive subtropical region in central South America, in Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. 300,000 sq. mi. (777,000 sq. km). Also called Chaco. * * ...
Gran Colombia
Former South American republic (1822–30). Formerly the Viceroyalty of New Granada, it included roughly the modern nations of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Gran ...
Gran Paradiso
▪ mountain, Italy       highest mountain, 13,323 ft (4,061 m), entirely within Italy and the culminating point of the Graian Alps (q.v.). The peak lies within a popular ...
Gran Paradiso National Park
Park, northwestern Italy. Established in 1836 as a hunting zone, in 1856 it became the Royal Hunting Reserve of the Gran Paradiso, and in 1947 it received national park status. ...
Gran Sasso d'Italia
▪ mountains, Italy English  Great Rock of Italy        mountain group, Abruzzi geographic region, central Italy, extending for about 22 mi (35 km) in a ...
Gran Turismo
➡ PlayStation * * *
Gran Turismo Omologato
/grahn" too riz"moh euh moh'leuh gay"toh, -gah"toh/; It. /grddahn" tooh ree"zmaw aw maw'law gah"taw/ (of an automobile) certified as conforming to the specifications, as fuel ...
/gray"neuh/, n. (in prescriptions) pl. of granum. [1890-95; < L] * * *
/greuh nah"deuh/; Sp. /grddah nah"dhah/, n. 1. a medieval kingdom along the Mediterranean coast of S Spain. See map under Castile. 2. a city in S Spain: the capital of this ...
/gran'euh dil"euh/, n. 1. the edible fruit of any of several species of passionflower, esp. Passiflora edulis (purple granadilla) or P. quadrangularis (giant granadilla). 2. any ...
/grddah nah"dhaws/, n. Enrique /en rddee"ke/, 1867-1916, Spanish pianist and composer. * * *
Granados (y Campiña), Enrique
born July 27, 1867, Lérida, Spain died March 24, 1916, at sea Spanish composer. He studied composition with Felipe Pedrell and concertized as a pianist. From 1901 he taught at ...
Granados, Enrique
▪ Spanish composer born July 27, 1867, Lérida, Spain died March 24, 1916, at sea  pianist and composer, a leader of the movement toward nationalism in late 19th-century ...
Gra·na·dos (grə-näʹdōs, grä-näʹthōs), Enrique. 1867-1916. Spanish pianist and composer noted for his nationalistic music, such as Goyescas (1912-1914), piano works ...
/gray"neuh ree, gran"euh-/, n., pl. granaries. 1. a storehouse or repository for grain, esp. after it has been threshed or husked. 2. a region that produces great quantities of ...
granary weevil
a reddish-brown weevil, Sitophilus granarius, that infests stored grain. [1840-50, Amer.] * * *
/gran"bee/, n. a city in S Quebec, in E Canada. 38,069. * * * ▪ Quebec, Canada       city, Montérégie region, southern Quebec province, Canada, on the Yamaska Nord ...
Granby, John Manners, Marquess of
▪ British army officer born Aug. 2, 1721 died Oct. 18, 1770, Scarborough, Yorkshire, Eng.       British army officer, a popular British hero of the Seven Years' War ...
Gran Cha·co (grän' chäʹkō) A lowland plain of central South America divided among Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The arid plain is largely uninhabited. * * *
—grandly, adv. —grandness, n. /grand/, adj., grander, grandest, n., pl. grands for 13, grand for 14. adj. 1. impressive in size, appearance, or general effect: grand mountain ...
Grand Alliance, War of the
(1689–97) Third major war of Louis XIV of France, in which his expansionist plans were blocked by an alliance led by Britain, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the ...
Grand Army of the Republic
an organization, founded in 1866, composed of men who served in the U.S. Army and Navy during the Civil War: its last member died in 1956. Abbr.: G.A.R. * * * ▪ American ...
Grand Bahama
an island in the NW Bahamas. 25,859; 430 sq. mi. (1115 sq. km). * * * ▪ island and district, The Bahamas  island, The Bahamas, lying just west of Great Abaco Island in the ...
Grand Bahama Island
▪ island and district, The Bahamas  island, The Bahamas (Bahamas, The), lying just west of Great Abaco Island in the Atlantic Ocean and 60 miles (100 km) east of West Palm ...
Grand Banks
an extensive shoal SE of Newfoundland: fishing grounds. 350 mi. (565 km) long; 40,000 sq. mi. (104,000 sq. km). Also, Grand Bank. * * * Portion of North American continental ...
Grand Canal
1. a canal in E China, extending S from Tientsin to Hangchow. 900 mi. (1450 km) long. 2. a canal in Venice, Italy, forming the main city thoroughfare. * * * Series of waterways ...
Grand Canal d'Alsace
▪ waterway, France English  Great Alsace Canal        waterway (canals and inland waterways) along the Rhine River, in eastern France, designed in 1922. The first ...
Grand Canary.
See Gran Canaria. * * *
Grand Canyon
a gorge of the Colorado River in N Arizona. over 200 mi. (320 km) long; 1 mi. (1.6 km) deep. * * * Gorge cut by the Colorado River, northwestern Arizona, U.S. Noted for its rock ...
Grand Canyon National Park
a national park in N Arizona, including part of the Grand Canyon and the area around it. 1009 sq. mi. (2615 sq. km). * * *
Grand Canyon series
Major division of rocks in northern Arizona dating from Precambrian time. The rocks of the series consist of about 10,600 ft (3,400 m) of quartz sandstones, shales, and thick ...
Grand Canyon State
Arizona (used as a nickname). * * *
Grand Cayman
the largest of the Cayman Islands, West Indies. 8932; 76 sq. mi. (197 sq. km). * * *
Grand Central Station
(also Grand Central Terminal) the best-known railway station in the US. It is on East 42nd Street in New York and was completed in 1913. The main area is very large, and the ...
Grand Central Terminal
➡ Grand Central Station * * *
grand chop
(in China and India trade) a customs clearance. * * *
Grand Circuit
▪ horse racing       oldest continuing harness horse-racing series in the United States. It was begun in 1871 by Colonel Billy Edwards, a businessman from Cleveland, ...
grand climacteric.
See under climacteric (def. 3). * * *

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