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Groener, Wilhelm
▪ German general and politician born Nov. 22, 1867, Ludwigsburg, Württemberg [Germany] died May 3, 1939, Bornstedt, near Potsdam, Ger.  German general and politician who ...
Du. /khrddooh"teuh/; Eng. /groht/, n. Gerhard Du. /khay"rddahrddt/; Eng. /gair"hahrt/. See Groote, Gerhard. * * *
/groh"fay, greuh fay"/, n. Ferde /ferr"dee/ (Ferdinand Rudolf von Grofé), 1892-1972, U.S. composer. * * *
Grofé, Ferde
▪ American composer byname of  Ferdinand Rudolph von Grofé  born March 27, 1892, New York, N.Y., U.S. died April 3, 1972, Santa Monica, Calif.  American composer and ...
/grog/, n. 1. a mixture of rum and water, often flavored with lemon, sugar, and spices and sometimes served hot. 2. any strong alcoholic drink. 3. fired and crushed ...
/grog"euhr, graw"geuhr/, n. grager. * * *
/grog"euh ree/, n., pl. groggeries. a slightly disreputable barroom. [1815-25, Amer.; GROG + -ERY] * * *
See groggy. * * *
See groggily. * * *
—groggily, adv. —grogginess, n. /grog"ee/, adj., groggier, groggiest. 1. staggering, as from exhaustion or blows: a boxer groggy from his opponent's hard left jab. 2. dazed ...
/grog"reuhm/, n. a coarse fabric of silk, of silk and mohair or wool, or of wool, formerly in use. [1555-65; < MF gros grain. See GROSGRAIN] * * *
/grog"shop'/, n. Brit. a saloon or barroom, esp. a cheap one. [1765-75; GROG + SHOP] * * *
/groyn/, n. 1. Anat. the fold or hollow on either side of the front of the body where the thigh joins the abdomen. 2. the general region of this fold or hollow. 3. Archit. the ...
/groy"ning/, n. 1. the intersection of two vaults. 2. the construction of groined vaults. [1645-55] * * *
groin vault n. See cross vault. * * *
/grok/, Slang. v.t. 1. to understand thoroughly and intuitively. v.i. 2. to communicate sympathetically. [coined by Robert A. Heinlein in the science-fiction novel Stranger in a ...
/groh"lee euhr/; Fr. /grddaw lyay"/, adj. pertaining to a decorative design (Grolier design) in bookbinding, consisting of bands interlaced in geometric forms. [1820-30; named ...
Grolier de Servières
/grddaw lyay deuh serdd vyerdd"/ Jean /zhahonn/, 1479-1565, French bibliophile. * * *
Grolier de Servières, Jean, vicomte d'Aguisy
▪ French bibliophile born 1489/90, Lyon, France died Oct. 22, 1565, Paris       French bibliophile and patron of bookbinders (bookbinding).       Grolier was ...
/groh"meuh/, n. (in ancient Roman surveying) an instrument having a cruciform wooden frame with a plumb line at the end of each arm, used for laying out lines at right angles to ...
/grom"it/, n. 1. Mach. a. any of various rings or eyelets of metal or the like. b. an insulated washer of rubber or plastic, inserted in a hole in a metal part to prevent ...
/grom"weuhl/, n. any of various often hairy plants of the genus Lithospermum, of the borage family, usually bearing white or yellowish flowers and smooth, white, stony ...
/groh mee"koh, greuh-/; Russ. /grddu mi"keuh/, n. Andrei Andreevich /un drddyay" un drddye"yi vyich/, 1909-89, Soviet diplomat: foreign minister 1957-85, president 1985-88. * * *
Gromyko, Andrey (Andreyevich)
born July 18, 1909, Starye Gromyki, Belorussia, Russian Empire died July 2, 1989, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R. Soviet foreign minister (1957–85) and president (1985–88) of the ...
Gromyko, Andrey Andreyevich
▪ president of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics born July 18 [July 5, Old Style], 1909, Starye Gromyki, Belorussia, Russian Empire [now in Belarus] died July 2, ...
Gromyko,Andrei Andreyevich
Gro·my·ko (grə-mēʹkō, grō-), Andrei Andreyevich. 1909-1989. Soviet political leader who served as ambassador to the United States (1943-1946) and the United Nations ...
/grong"kee/; It. /grddawn"kee/, n. Giovanni /jaw vahn"nee/, 1887-1978, Italian statesman: president 1955-62. * * *
Gronchi, Giovanni
▪ president of Italy born Sept. 10, 1887, Pontedera, Italy died Oct. 17, 1978, Rome       Christian Democrat politician who served as president of Italy from 1955 to ...
/groh"ning euhn/; Du. /khrddoh"ning euhn/, n. a city in the NE Netherlands. 162,952. * * * ▪ The Netherlands  gemeente (municipality), northern Netherlands, at the junction ...
—groomer, n. —groomish, adj. —groomishly, adv. /groohm, groom/, n. 1. a bridegroom. 2. a man or boy in charge of horses or the stable. 3. any of several officers of the ...
groom's cake
a fruit cake in layers of graduated size, served at a wedding. * * *
Groombridge, Stephen
▪ British astronomer born Jan. 7, 1755, Goudhurst, Kent, Eng. died March 30, 1832, London       English astronomer, compiler of a star catalog known by his ...
See groom. * * *
/groohmz"meuhn, groomz"-/, n., pl. groomsmen. a man who attends the bridegroom in a wedding ceremony. [1690-1700; GROOM + 'S1 + -MAN] * * *
Du. /khrddoht/; Eng. /groht/, n. 1. Huig Du. /hoykh/ de /deuh/ or van /vahn/. See Grotius, Hugo. 2. Gerhard. See Groote, Gerhard. * * *
Groot River
      (Afrikaans: Great River), any of a number of rivers in South Africa, especially the Orange River (q.v.). * * *
Du. /khrddoh"teuh/; Eng. /groht/, n. Gerhard Du. /khay"rddahrddt/; Eng. /gair"hahrt/, (Gerardus Magnus), 1340-84, Dutch religious reformer, educator, and author: founder of the ...
Groote Eylandt
▪ island, Northern Territory, Australia  island in the Gulf of Carpentaria, 25 mi (40 km) across Warwick Channel off the northeast coast of Northern Territory, Australia. It ...
Groote Schuur
▪ estate, South Africa       large estate—named for its original building, a “large barn”—established in 1657 on the slopes of Devil's Peak directly southeast of ...
Groote, Geert
▪ Dutch religious leader also called  Gerhard Groote, Gerard Groote, or Gerardus Magnus   born October 1340, Deventer, Lordship of Overijssel died Aug. 20, 1384, ...
Groote Ey·landt (gro͞otʹ īʹlənd) An island of northern Australia in the western part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Manganese is mined on the island. * * *
▪ Namibia       town, northeastern Namibia. The town lies 36 miles (60 km) southeast of the copper- and lead-mining centre of Tsumeb and 210 air miles northeast of ...
—grooveless, adj. —groovelike, adj. —groover, n. /groohv/, n., v., grooved, grooving. n. 1. a long, narrow cut or indentation in a surface, as the cut in a board to receive ...
/groohvd/, v. 1. pt. and pp. of groove. adj. 2. provided with a groove. [1785-95; GROOVE + -ED2] * * *
grooved fricative
Phonet. a fricative, as /s/, in which air is channeled through a groove along the center of the tongue. Also, groove fricative. Cf. slit fricative. * * *
See groovy. * * *
/grooh"vee/, adj., groovier, grooviest. 1. Slang. highly stimulating or attractive; excellent: groovy music; a groovy car. 2. inclined to follow a fixed routine. [1850-55; GROOVE ...
/grohp/, v., groped, groping, n. v.i. 1. to feel about with the hands; feel one's way: I had to grope around in the darkness before I found the light switch. 2. to search blindly ...
groper1 /groh"peuhr/, n. a person or thing that gropes. [1560-70; GROPE + -ER1] groper2 /groh"peuhr/, n. a large, purplish food fish, Achoerodus gouldii, inhabiting waters off ...
—gropingly, adv. /groh"ping/, adj. 1. moving or going about clumsily or hesitantly; stumbling. 2. showing or reflecting a desire to understand, esp. something that proves ...
See groper. * * *
/groh"pee euhs/; Ger. /grddoh"pee oos'/, n. Walter /wawl"teuhr/; Ger. /vahl"teuhrdd/, 1883-1969, German architect, in the U.S. from 1937. * * *
Gropius, Walter
▪ German-American architect Introduction in full  Walter Adolph Gropius  born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger. died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S.   German architect and ...
Gropius, Walter (Adolph)
born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger. died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S. German-U.S. architect and educator. The son of an architect, he studied in Munich and Berlin and in 1907 ...
Gropius,Walter Adolph
Gro·pi·us (grōʹpē-əs), Walter Adolph. 1883-1969. German-born American architect. Founder of the Bauhaus school of design, he exerted tremendous influence on modern ...
/grop"euhr/, n. William, 1897-1977, U.S. painter. * * *
Gropper, William
▪ American artist born Dec. 3, 1897, New York City died Jan. 6, 1977, Manhasset, N.Y., U.S.       editorial cartoonist, illustrator, and painter whose main concern was ...
/grddoh"/, n. Antoine Jean /ahonn twannn" zhahonn/, Baron, 1771-1835, French painter. * * * (as used in expressions) Gros Morne National Park Gros Ventres Gros Antoine Jean * * *
gros de Londres
/groh' deuh lawn"dreuh, lawnd"/; Fr. /grddoh deuh lawonn"drddeu/ a cross-ribbed, silk dress fabric with ribs alternating in color or between coarse and fine yarn. [ < F: lit., ...
gros de Tours
/groh' deuh toor"/; Fr. /grddoh deuh toohrdd"/ a ribbed silk fabric made with a two- or three-ply warp interlaced with organzine and tram filling. [1790-1800; < F: lit., Tours ...
Gros Morne National Park
National park, Newfoundland, Canada. Covering 458,000 acres (185,500 hectares) and established as a national park in 1973, it includes mountains of the Long Range and takes its ...
gros point
/groh" poynt'/, pl. gros points. 1. a large stitch used in embroidery. Cf. petit point (def. 1), tent stitch. 2. Venetian point lace with raised work and large designs. [1860-65; ...
Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre [grō′ vänt′] n. 〚Fr, lit., big belly〛 1. a member of a western group of the Arapaho, now living in Montana: also called Gros Ventre of the Prairie 2. ...
Gros Ventres
(French; "Big Bellies") North American Indian group living in north-central Montana, U.S. Known to the Blackfoot as Atsina, they call themselves Ah-ah-nee-nin, meaning "White ...
Gros, Antoine-Jean
born March 16, 1771, Paris, Fr. died June 26, 1835, Paris French painter. He was trained by his father, a painter of miniatures, and later byJacques-Louis David in Paris. In ...
Gros, Antoine-Jean, Baron
▪ French painter born March 16, 1771, Paris, France died June 26, 1835, Paris       French Romantic painter principally remembered for his historical pictures depicting ...
/grohs"beek'/, n. any of various finches having a thick, conical bill. [1670-80; < F grosbec, lit., large beak] * * * Any of several songbird species in the family Fringillidae ...
/groh"sheuhn/, n., pl. groschen. 1. a zinc or aluminum coin of Austria, the 100th part of a schilling. 2. a German 10-pfennig piece made of nickel. 3. any of the silver coins of ...
—grosgrained, adj. /groh"grayn'/, n. a heavy, corded ribbon or cloth of silk or rayon. [1865-70; < F gros grain large grain] * * *
—grossly, adv. —grossness, n. /grohs/, adj., grosser, grossest, n., pl. gross for 11, grosses for 12, 13; v. adj. 1. without deductions; total, as the amount of sales, ...
/grohs/, n. Chaim /khuym/, born 1904, U.S. sculptor and graphic artist, born in Austria. * * * (as used in expressions) gross domestic product Gross Michael Gross Samuel David * ...
gross anatomy
the branch of anatomy that deals with structures that can be seen with the naked eye. Cf. microanatomy, histology. [1885-90] * * *
gross domestic product
gross national product excluding payments on foreign investments. Abbr.: GDP * * * ▪ economics       total market value of the goods and services produced by a nation's ...
gross domestic product (GDP)
Total market value of the goods and services produced by a nation's economy during a specific period of time. GDP is customarily reported on an annual basis. It is defined to ...
gross income
Accounting. total revenue received before any deductions or allowances, as for rent, cost of goods sold, taxes, etc. Also called gross revenue. * * *
gross national product
the total monetary value of all final goods and services produced in a country during one year. Abbr.: GNP Cf. national income, net national product. [1945-50] * * * ▪ ...
gross profit
gross receipts less the cost of goods or production but before the deduction of such other costs as rent or salaries. * * *
gross ton
1. Chiefly Brit. a long ton. See under ton1 (def. 1). 2. Also called gross register ton. Naut. See under gross tonnage. * * *
gross tonnage
Naut. the total volume of a vessel, expressed in units of 100 cubic feet (gross ton), with certain open structures, deckhouses, tanks, etc., exempted. Also called gross register ...
gross weight
total weight without deduction for tare, tret, or waste. * * *
Gross, David J.
▪ American physicist in full  David Jonathan Gross  born February 19, 1941, Washington, D.C., U.S.    American physicist who, with H. David Politzer (Politzer, H. David) ...
Gross, Ludwig
▪ 2000       Austrian-born American physician and cancer researcher whose experiments with mice in the 1950s demonstrated that leukemia could have a viral cause; his ...
Gross, Michael
born June 17, 1964, Frankfurt am Main, W.Ger. German swimmer. With a height of 6 ft 7 in. (2 m), Gross acquired the nickname "the Albatross" because of his wide arm span. He ...
Gross, Samuel David
born July 8, 1805, Easton, Pa., U.S. died May 6, 1884, Philadelphia U.S. surgeon, teacher of medicine, and author. He was apprenticed to a local country doctor before receiving ...
/grohs"owt'/, n. Slang. something that is disgustingly offensive. [1970-75; n. use of v. phrase gross out] * * *
▪ concentration camp, Germany       small Nazi (Nazi Party) concentration camp established in August 1940 near the German town of Striegau in Lower Silesia (now ...
gross anatomy n. The study of the organs, parts, and structures of a body that are visible to the naked eye. Also called macroscopic anatomy. * * *
grossdomestic product
gross domestic product n. Abbr. GDP The total market value of all the goods and services produced within the borders of a nation during a specified period. * * *
Grosse Pointe
▪ residential communities, Michigan, United States       name applied to five exclusive northeastern residential suburbs of Detroit in Wayne and Macomb counties, ...
Grosse Pointe Farms
a city in SE Michigan, near Detroit. 10,551. * * *
Grosse Pointe Park
a city in SE Michigan, near Detroit. 13,639. * * *
Grosse Pointe Woods
a city in SE Michigan, near Detroit. 18,886. * * *
Grosse, Hans Werner
▪ German pilot born Nov. 28, 1922, Swinemünde, Ger.       West German glider pilot who on April 25, 1972, set the world record for straight-line distance soaring ...
/groh"seuhr/, n. Informal. a commercial production, as a motion picture or record, that generates a large amount of income. [1955-60; GROSS + -ER1] * * *
Grosses Schauspielhaus
▪ German theatre German“Great Playhouse”       theatre in Berlin designed by architect Hans Poelzig (Poelzig, Hans) in 1919 for the theatrical director Max ...
Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon
▪ German encyclopaedia       (German: “Great Complete Universal Lexicon”), large German encyclopaedia published from 1732 to 1750 by the Leipzig bookseller Johann ...
Grosseteste, Robert
born с 1175, Suffolk, Eng. died Oct. 9, 1253, Buckden, Buckinghamshire English bishop and scholar. He introduced Latin translations of Greek and Arabic writings in philosophy ...
▪ Italy       city, Toscana ( Tuscany) regione, central Italy. It lies on a low-lying coastal plain near the Ombrone River southwest of Siena. The plain, the Maremma, ...
Gross·glock·ner (grōsʹglŏkʹnər) A peak, 3,799.4 m (12,457 ft) high, of southern Austria in the Hohe Tauern range of the Alps. It is the highest elevation in the range ...
See grosser. * * *
two English brothers (1847–1912 and 1854–1919), best known for writing The Diary of a Nobody. Weedon also illustrated the book. * * *
Grossmith, George
▪ British comedian born Dec. 9, 1847, London, Eng. died March 1, 1912, Folkestone, Kent  English comedian and singer who created many of the chief characters in the original ...
grossnational product
gross national product n. Abbr. GNP The total market value of all the goods and services produced by a nation during a specified period. * * *
See grosser. * * *
▪ mineral also called  grossularite , or  gooseberry garnet (Latin grossularia, “gooseberry”)        a calcium aluminum garnet that sometimes resembles the ...
/gros"yeuh leuh ruyt'/, n. a mineral, calcium aluminum garnet, Ca3Al2Si3O12, occurring in gray-white to pinkish crystals. Also, grossular /gros"yeuh leuhr/. Also called ...
/grddohs'vahrdd duyn"/, n. German name of Oradea. * * *
/grohv"neuhr/, n. Gilbert Hovey, 1875-1966, U.S. geographer, writer, and editor. * * *
Grosvenor Square
a large square in central London, England. The US embassy is on one side of the square, and people have traditionally gone there to protest against US actions which they ...
Grosvenor, Gilbert H(ovey)
born Oct. 28, 1875, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire died Feb. 4, 1966, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Can. U.S. geographer, writer, and editor. Grosvenor attended Amherst ...
Grosvenor, Gilbert H.
▪ American editor in full  Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor   born Oct. 28, 1875, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] died Feb. 4, 1966, Cape Breton Island, Nova ...
Gros Ventre (grōʹ vänt') n. pl. Gros Ventre or Gros Ventres (vänt') 1. See Atsina. 2. See Hidatsa.   [French, big belly : gros, big + ventre, belly (from an indigenous ...
GrosVentre River
Gros Ventre River A river rising in the Wind River Range of Wyoming and flowing about 161 km (100 mi) westward to the Snake River. * * *
/grddawsh/, n., pl. groszy /grddaw"shee/. an aluminum coin of Poland, the 100th part of a zloty. [1945-50; < Pol < Czech groš; see GROSCHEN] * * *
/grohs/, n. George, 1893-1959, U.S. painter and graphic artist, born in Germany. * * *
Grosz, George
orig. Georg Grosz born July 26, 1893, Berlin, W.Ger. died July 6, 1959, West Berlin German-born U.S. painter, draftsman, and illustrator. After studying art in Dresden and ...
Grosz, Karoly
▪ 1997       Hungarian communist politician (b. Aug. 1, 1930, Miskolc, Hung.—d. Jan. 7, 1996, Godollo, Hung.), as prime minister (1987-88), initiated economic reforms ...
Grosz (grōs), George. 1893-1959. German-born American artist. Associated with the Berlin Dada movement, he is best known for his biting antimilitaristic caricatures of the ...
/grot/, n. Chiefly Literary. a grotto. [1500-10; < F grotte < It grotta; see GROTTO] * * *
/groht/, n. George, 1794-1871, English historian. * * *
Grote Winkler Prins
      Dutch encyclopaedia published in 1975, a thorough revision of the famous Winkler Prins Encyclopedie (q.v.). * * *
Grote, George
▪ British historian born Nov. 17, 1794, Clay Hill, near Beckenham, Kent, Eng. died June 18, 1871, London  English historian, noted for his works on ancient ...
Grotefend, Georg Friedrich
▪ German scholar born June 9, 1775, Münden, Hanover [Germany] died Dec. 15, 1853, Hannover, Hanover  German teacher and language scholar who made the first major ...
/groh tesk"/, n. (in Europe) gothic (def. 12). [var. of GROTESQUE] * * *
—grotesquely, adv. —grotesqueness, n. /groh tesk"/, adj. 1. odd or unnatural in shape, appearance, or character; fantastically ugly or absurd; bizarre. 2. fantastic in the ...
See grotesque. * * *
See grotesquely. * * *
grotesquerie or grotesquery [grō tes′kə rē] n. pl. grotesqueries 〚
/groh tes"keuh ree/, n., pl. grotesqueries. 1. grotesque character. 2. something grotesque. 3. grotesque ornamental work. Also, grotesquerie. [1555-65; < F grotesquerie. See ...
Groth, Klaus
▪ German poet born April 24, 1819, Heide, Holstein died June 1, 1899, Kiel, Ger.       German regional poet whose book Quickborn (1853) first revealed the poetic ...
Grothendieck, Alexandre
▪ French mathematician born March 28, 1928, Berlin, Germany       German French mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1966 for his work in algebraic ...
—Grotian /groh"sheuhn, -shee euhn/, adj. —Grotianism, n. /groh"shee euhs/, n. Hugo (Huig De Groot), 1583-1645, Dutch jurist and statesman. * * *
Grotius, Hugo
orig. Huigh de Groot born April 10, 1583, Delft, Neth. died Aug. 28, 1645, Rostock, Mecklinburg-Schwerin Dutch jurist, humanist, and poet. He enrolled at Leiden University at ...
Gro·ti·us (grōʹshē-əs, -shəs), Hugo. Originally Huig de Groot. 1583-1645. Dutch jurist, politician, and theologian whose major work Of the Law of War and Peace (1625) is ...
/grot"n/ a city in SE Connecticut. 10,086. * * * ▪ Connecticut, United States       city and town (township), New London county, southeastern Connecticut, U.S., on the ...
Grotowski, Jerzy
born Aug. 11, 1933, Rzeszów, Pol. died Jan. 14, 1999, Pontedera, Italy Polish-born U.S. stage director. He joined the Polish Laboratory Theatre of Wrocław in 1959 and founded ...
▪ Italy       town, Puglia (Apulia) region, southern Italy. The town's castle dates from the 14th century; the church of the Matrice has a facade of the same period and ...
See grotty. * * *
—grottoed, adj. —grottolike, adj. /grot"oh/, n., pl. grottoes, grottos. 1. a cave or cavern. 2. an artificial cavernlike recess or structure. [1610-20; < It grotta < VL ...
/grot"ee/, adj., grottier, grottiest. Slang. seedy; wretched; dirty. [perh. GROT(ESQUE) + -Y1, though senses do not correspond; appar. not akin to GRODY] * * *
/growch/, v.i. 1. to be sulky or morose; show discontent; complain, esp. in an irritable way. n. 2. a sulky, complaining, or morose person. 3. a sulky, irritable, or morose ...
See grouchy. * * *
See grouchily. * * *
—grouchily, adv. —grouchiness, n. /grow"chee/, adj., grouchier, grouchiest. sullenly discontented; sulky; morose; ill-tempered. [1890-95, Amer.; GROUCH + -Y1] * * *
/grddooh shee"/, n. Emmanuel /e mann nyuu el"/, Marquis de, 1766-1847, French general. * * *
Groulx, Lionel-Adolphe
▪ Canadian historian born Jan. 13, 1878, Chenaux, near Vaudreuil, Que., Can. died May 23, 1967, Vaudreuil       Canadian priest and historian who for 50 years strongly ...
ground1 —groundable, adj. —groundably, adv. —groundedly, adv. —groundedness, n. —groundward, groundwards, adv., adj. /grownd/, n. 1. the solid surface of the earth; ...
ground alert
Mil. 1. the state of waiting for orders in or near combat airplanes ready to take to the air at once. 2. the aircraft standing by during a ground alert. [1960-65] * * *
ground bait
chum2 (def. 1). [1645-55] * * *
ground ball
Baseball. a batted ball that rolls or bounces along the ground. Also called grounder. Cf. fly ball. [1830-40, in cricket; 1855-60, Amer. in baseball use] * * *
ground bass
/bays/, Music. a short fundamental bass part continually repeated throughout a movement. [1690-1700] * * * ▪ music also called  basso ostinato (Italian: “obstinate ...
ground beam
1. a reinforced concrete beam for supporting walls, joists, etc., at or near ground level, itself either resting directly upon the ground or supported at both ends by piers. 2. ...
ground beetle
any of numerous nocturnal, terrestrial beetles of the family Carabidae that feed chiefly on other insects. [1840-50] * * * ▪ insect       any member of over 30,000 ...
ground cable
Naut. a heavy chain for securing permanent floating moorings, as a number of mooring buoys. [1785-95] * * *
ground cedar
a ground pine, Lycopodium complanatum. [1830-40, Amer.] * * *
ground cherry
1. Also called husk tomato. any of several plants belonging to the genus Physalis, of the nightshade family, the several species bearing an edible berry enclosed in an enlarged ...
ground cloth
1. groundsheet. 2. a covering, usually of canvas, for the floor of a stage. [1915-20] * * *
ground color
1. Also called ground coat. a primary coat of paint; priming; base coat. 2. the background color, as of a painting or decoration. [1605-15] * * *
ground connection
Elect. the conductor used to establish a ground. Also called grounding connection. * * *
ground control
—ground controller. an airport facility that supervises the movement of aircraft and ground vehicles on ramps and taxiways. [1930-35] * * *
ground cover
1. the herbaceous plants and low shrubs in a forest, considered as a whole. 2. any of a variety of low-growing or trailing plants used to cover the ground in areas where grass is ...
ground crew
ground personnel responsible for the maintenance and repair of aircraft. [1930-35] * * *
ground cuckoo
▪ bird  any of about 15 species of birds constituting the subfamily Neomorphinae of the cuckoo family (Cuculidae), noted for terrestrial habits. Of the 11 New World species, ...
ground dove
any of several small terrestrial doves of the warmer parts of the Americas, esp. Columbina passerina. Also, ground-dove. [1720-30, Amer.] * * *
ground fault
—ground-fault, adj. the momentary, usually accidental, grounding of a conducting wire. * * *
ground fir
ground fir n. GROUND PINE * * *
ground fish.
See bottom fish. [1855-60] * * *
ground floor
1. the floor of a building at or nearest to ground level. 2. Informal. an advantageous position or opportunity in a business matter, esp. in a new enterprise: She took the job in ...
ground fog
1. a low, often dense fog, esp. one through which the sky and clouds above can be seen. 2. See radiation fog. * * *
ground glass
1. Optics. glass that has had its polished surface removed by fine grinding and that is used to diffuse light. 2. glass that has been ground into fine particles, esp. for use as ...
ground hemlock
a prostrate yew, Taxus canadensis, of eastern North America, having short, flat needles and red, berrylike fruit. [1825-35, Amer.] * * *
ground ice
ground ice n. ANCHOR ICE * * *
ground ice.
See anchor ice. [1685-95] * * *
ground itch
a disease of the skin of the feet, caused by penetration of hookworm larvae, characterized by a blisterlike eruption and itching. [1815-25, Amer.] * * *
ground ivy
a creeping, aromatic plant, Glechoma hederacea, of the mint family, having rounded leaves and whorling clusters of small blue flowers. Also called gill-over-the-ground. [1300-50; ...
ground landlord
Chiefly Brit. a landlord who receives ground rent. [1710-20] * * *
ground layer.
See surface boundary layer. * * *
ground level
Physics. See ground state. [1920-25] * * *
ground log
Naut. a lead weight attached to a line, cast overboard in shoal water and allowed to pay out freely to show the speed of a ship and the force of the current. * * *
ground loop
Aeron. a sharp horizontal loop performed, usually involuntarily, while touching the ground. [1920-25] * * *
ground meristem
Bot. an area of primary meristematic tissue, emerging from and immediately behind the apical meristem, that develops into the pith and the cortex. [1935-40] * * *
ground moraine
ground moraine n. MORAINE * * *
ground observer
a person stationed in a position on the ground to watch, follow, and report on flights of aircraft, esp. of enemy aircraft. * * *
ground owl
the burrowing owl. [1910-15, Amer.] * * *
ground pea
South Atlantic U.S. peanut. [1760-70] * * *
ground pearl
▪ insect       any of a group of scale insects in the family Margarodidae (order Homoptera) that have an iridescent globular body 2 to 4 mm (0.08 to 0.16 inch) in ...
ground pine
1. any of several species of club moss, esp. Lycopodium obscurum or L. complanatum. 2. a European herb, Ajuga chamaepitys, of the mint family, having a resinous odor. [1545-55] * ...
ground pink
a plant, Linanthus dianthiflorus, of southern California, having pink or white flowers. * * *
ground plan
1. Also called groundplot. the plan of a floor of a building. 2. first or fundamental plan. [1725-35] * * *
ground plane
1. (in perspective drawing) the theoretical horizontal plane receding from the picture plane to the horizon, beginning at the level of the base line. 2. Elect. a ground plate or ...
ground plate
1. Elect. a metal plate for making a ground connection to the earth. 2. Building Trades. groundsill. [1655-65] * * *
ground plum
1. a prostrate milk vetch, Astragalus crassicarpus, of the legume family, growing in the prairie regions of North America. 2. its plum-shaped fruit. [1855-60, Amer.] * * *
ground rent
the rent at which land is let to a tenant either for a long term or perpetually. [1660-70] * * *
ground robin
towhee. [1785-95, Amer.] * * *
ground rod
a metal rod embedded in the ground to make a ground connection to the earth. * * *
ground roller
▪ bird  any of five species of pigeon-sized birds that comprise the family Brachypteracidae (order Coraciiformes) known for their tumbling flight. They are found only in ...
ground row
a long, low piece of stage scenery, built to simulate part of a landscape, a building, a fence, or the like. [1785-95, Amer.] * * *
ground rule
1. Usually, ground rules. basic or governing principles of conduct in any situation or field of endeavor: the ground rules of press conferences. 2. Sports. any of certain rules ...
ground rule double
Baseball. a safe hit ruled for two bases according to the rules of a particular stadium, as when a fly ball bounces once in the outfield and then clears a fence. [1945-50, ...
ground shark
any of various requiem sharks, esp. of the genus Carcharhinus. [1810-20] * * *
ground sloth
any of various extinct large, edentate mammals from the Pleistocene Epoch of North and South America resembling modern sloths but living on the ground rather than in ...
ground sluice
—ground-sluicer, n. Mining. a trench, cut through a placer or through bedrock, through which a stream is diverted in order to dislodge and wash the gravel. [1865-70] * * *
ground squirrel
any of several terrestrial rodents of the squirrel family, as of the genus Citellus and chipmunks of the genus Tamias. [1680-90, Amer.] * * * Any of numerous relatively ...
ground state
Physics. the state of least energy of a particle, as an atom, or of a system of particles. Also called ground level. [1925-30] * * *
ground station.
See earth station. * * *
ground stroke
Tennis. a stroke made by hitting the ball after it has bounced from the ground. Cf. volley (def. 4b). [1890-95] * * *
ground substance
Biol. 1. Also called matrix. the homogeneous substance in which the fibers and cells of connective tissue are embedded. 2. Also called hyaloplasm. the clear portion of the cell ...
ground tackle
Naut. equipment, as anchors, chains, or windlasses, for mooring a vessel away from a pier or other fixed moorings. [1550-60] * * *
ground thrush
▪ bird       any of about 37 species of thrushes of the genus Zoothera (family Turdidae), including birds sometimes placed in the genera Geokichla, Ixoreus, Oreocincla, ...
ground track
the path on the earth's surface below an aircraft, missile, rocket, or spacecraft. [1975-80] * * *
ground water
the water beneath the surface of the ground, consisting largely of surface water that has seeped down: the source of water in springs and wells. Also, groundwater. [1885-90] * * *
ground wave
a radio wave that propagates on or near the earth's surface and is affected by the ground and the troposphere. [1925-30] * * *
ground ways
Shipbuilding. hardwood timbers laid end-to-end to form an inclined track on which the keel of a ship can slide during launching. [1705-15] * * *
ground wire
Elect. a lead from an electric apparatus to the earth or to a ground connection. [1890-95] * * *
ground zero
1. the point on the surface of the earth or water directly below, directly above, or at which an atomic or hydrogen bomb explodes. 2. Informal. the very beginning or most ...
☆ ground-cherry [ground′cher′ē ] n. any of a genus (Physalis) of plants of the nightshade family having small tomatolike fruits completely enclosed by a papery calyx * * *
ground-controlled approach
/grownd"keuhn trohld'/, Aeron. a system in which an observer interprets radar observations of the position of an aircraft and transmits continuous instructions to its pilot for ...
ground-con·trolled approach (groundʹkən-trōldʹ) n. Abbr. GCA A control mode in which an aircraft is talked down for landing through the use of surveillance and precision ...
ground-effect machine
/grownd"i fekt'/. See ACV (def. 2). [1965-70] * * *
ground-ef·fect machine (groundʹĭ-fĕkt') n. Abbr. GEM See air-cushion vehicle.   [From ground effect, a peculiarity of certain aircraft when landing, in which a cushion of ...
ground-fault interrupter
a circuit breaker that senses currents caused by ground faults and quickly shuts off power before damage can occur to generating equipment. * * *
/grownd"fish'/, v.i. bottom-fish. * * *
/grownd"tooh air"/, adj., adv. surface-to-air. [1915-20] * * *
/grownd"teuh grownd"/, adj., adv. surface-to-surface. [1915-20] * * *
/grown"dij/, n. Brit. a tax levied on ships that anchor in a port. [1400-50; late ME grondage. See GROUND1, -AGE] * * *
ground ball also ground·ball (groundʹbôl') n. Baseball A batted ball that rolls or bounces along the ground. * * *
ground bass (bās) n. 1. A musical line in the bass that is continually repeated throughout the composition. 2. A composition in which such a line appears. * * *
ground beetle n. See carabid. * * *
/grownd"bray'keuhr/, n. 1. a person who is an originator, innovator, or pioneer in a particular activity. 2. an original idea, product, or the like that leads to or makes ...
/grownd"bray'king/, n. 1. the act or ceremony of breaking ground for a new construction project. adj. 2. of or pertaining to such a ceremony. 3. originating or pioneering a new ...
ground cedar n. See ground pine. * * *
ground cherry n. Any of various chiefly New World plants of the genus Physalis, having small, globose, fleshy fruit enclosed in a papery, bladderlike, persistent calyx. Also ...
ground cloth n. In both senses also called ground sheet. 1. A waterproof cover used to protect an area of ground, such as a baseball field. 2. A waterproof sheet placed under ...
ground cover also ground·cov·er (groundʹkŭv'ər) n. 1. Small plants other than saplings, such as mosses, ferns, grasses, and undershrubs, growing on a forest floor; ...
ground crew n. A team of mechanics and technicians that maintain and service aircraft on the ground. * * *
grounded [groun′did] adj. 1. firmly established 2. practical or realistic 3. natural, sincere, etc. 4. stable, secure, etc. * * *
/grown"deuhr/, n. Baseball. See ground ball. [1865-70, Amer.; GROUND1 + -ER1] * * *
/grownd"fuyeur'/, n. small arms fire directed against aircraft from the ground. [GROUND1 + FIRE] * * *
groundfish [ground′fish΄] n. pl. groundfish or groundfishes (see FISH) a fish that feeds or lives near the bottom of a body of water, specif. one that is edible and lives in ...
ground floor n. 1. The floor of a building at or nearest ground level. 2. Informal. The beginning of a venture, especially regarded as a position of advantage: investors vying to ...
ground glass n. 1. Glass that has been ground or etched to create a roughened nontransparent surface. 2. Glass that has been ground into fine particles, as for use as an ...
ground hemlock n. A low-growing yew (Taxus canadensis) of northeast North America. * * *
/grownd"hog', -hawg/, n. woodchuck. Also, ground hog. [1650-60, Amer.; GROUND1 + HOG] * * *
Groundhog Day
February 2, in most parts of the U.S., the day on which, according to legend, the groundhog first emerges from hibernation. If it is a sunny day and the groundhog sees its ...
Ground·hog Day (groundʹhôg', -hŏg') n. February 2, on which according to popular legend the groundhog emerges from its burrow, prompting the prediction of an early spring if ...
grounding connection
Elect. See ground connection. * * *
ground ivy n. A creeping or trailing European aromatic plant (Glechoma hederacea), widely naturalized in North America and having rounded scalloped leaves and small purplish ...
/grownd"kee'peuhr/, n. groundskeeper. [1875-80; GROUND1 + KEEPER] * * *
—groundlessly, adv. —groundlessness, n. /grownd"lis/, adj. without rational basis: groundless fears. [bef. 900; ME: bottomless, unfathomable; OE grundleas. See GROUND1, ...
See groundless. * * *
See groundlessly. * * *
ground level n. See ground state. * * *
/grownd"ling/, n. 1. a plant or animal that lives on or close to the ground. 2. any of various fishes that live at the bottom of the water. 3. a spectator, reader, or other ...
ground loop n. A sharp horizontal turn made by an aircraft on the ground when taxiing, landing, or taking off. * * *
/grownd"mas'/, n. the crystalline, granular, or glassy base or matrix of a porphyritic or other igneous rock, in which the more prominent crystals are embedded. [1875-80; GROUND1 ...
ground meristem n. The primary meristem that differentiates into the pith and cortex. * * *
/grownd"nut'/, n. 1. Also called wild bean, potato bean. a twining, North American plant, Apios americana (or A. tuberosa), of the legume family, having clusters of fragrant ...
/grownd"owt'/, n. Baseball. a play in which a batter is put out at first base after hitting a ground ball to the infield. [1960-65; n. use of v. phrase ground out] * * *
ground pine n. A club moss, especially Lycopodium obscurum or L. complanatum or a similar species. Also called ground cedar. * * *
ground plan n. 1. A plan of a floor of a building drawn as if seen from overhead. 2. A preliminary plan or strategy: the ground plan for an invasion. * * *
/grownd"plot'/, n. 1. Aeron. a method for obtaining the position of an aircraft by multiplying its groundspeed by its time in flight and marking off the product with respect to ...
ground plum n. 1. A perennial plant (Astragalus crassicarpus) of the central and western United States, having compound leaves, purple or white flowers, and green, plumlike, ...
ground rent n. Chiefly British Rent paid for land to be used chiefly for building. * * *
ground robin n. See towhee. * * *
ground rule n. 1. Sports. A rule governing the playing of a game on a particular field, course, or court. 2. A basic rule of procedure or behavior. Often used in the plural. * * *

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