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Ireland, flag of
▪ Flag History       vertically striped green-white-orange national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.       A number of official and unofficial flags ...
Ireland, George
▪ 2002       American basketball coach (b. June 15, 1913, Madison, Wis.—d. Sept. 14, 2001, Addison, Ill.), served at Loyola University (Chicago) for 24 seasons ...
Ireland, John
▪ American archbishop born Sept. 11, 1838, Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ire. died Sept. 25, 1918, St. Paul, Minn., U.S.       first archbishop of St. Paul; head of the ...
Ireland, William Henry
▪ British forger born 1777 died April 17, 1835, London, England       English forger of Shakespearean works.       Ireland was the son (perhaps illegitimate) of ...
Ireland,Northern
Ireland, Northern See Northern Ireland. * * *
Irenaeus, Saint
born с 120/140, Asia Minor died с 200/203, probably Lyon; Western feast day June 28; Eastern feast day August 23 Bishop and theologian. Born of Greek parents, he was a ...
Irene
/uy ree"nee/ for 1; /uy reen"/ or, esp. Brit., /uy ree"nee/ for 2, n. 1. Class. Myth. one of the Horae, the personification of peace. 2. Also, Irena /uy ree"neuh, i ray"neuh/. A ...
Irene Ducas
▪ Byzantine empress [1066-1120] born c. 1066, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] died February 19, 1123 [or 1133], Constantinople  wife of the Byzantine ...
irenic
—irenically, adv. /uy ren"ik, uy ree"nik/, adj. tending to promote peace or reconciliation; peaceful or conciliatory. Also, irenical. [1860-65; < Gk eirenikós, equiv. to ...
irenically
See irenic. * * *
irenics
/uy ren"iks, uy ree"niks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of theology dealing with the promotion of peace and conciliation among Christian churches. Cf. polemics (def. ...
Irenidae
▪ bird family       songbird family, order Passeriformes, consisting of the leafbirds, ioras, and fairy bluebirds, about 14 species of small brightly coloured birds of ...
Ireton, Henry
born 1611, Attenborough, Nottinghamshire, Eng. died Nov. 28, 1651, Limerick, County Limerick, Ire. English politician, leader of the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil ...
Irgun
—Irgunist, n. /ir goohn"/, n. a militant Zionist underground group, active chiefly during the period (1917-48) of British control by mandate of Palestine. * * *
Irgun Zvai Leumi
(Hebrew; "National Military Organization") Jewish right-wing underground movement that advocated using force to establish a Jewish state on both sides of the Jordan River. It ...
Iri
▪ South Korea also called  Iksan        city, Chŏlla-pukto (North Chŏlla province), western South Korea. It is located 16 miles (26 km) east of the port city of ...
Irian
Irian [ir΄ē än′] Indonesian name for NEW GUINEA * * *
Irian Jaya
/ear"ee ahn' jah"yah/ the W part of the island of New Guinea, formerly a Dutch territory: a province of Indonesia since 1963. 957,000; ab. 159,000 sq. mi. (411,810 sq. km). Cap.: ...
IrianJaya
I·ri·an Ja·ya (îr'ē-änʹ jä'yə, jī'ə) A province of Indonesia occupying the western half of New Guinea and about 12 offshore islands. Before it was ceded to Indonesia ...
Iricism
/uy"reuh siz'euhm/, n. Irishism. * * *
Iricize
/uy"reuh suyz'/, v.t., Iricized, Iricizing. (sometimes l.c.) Also, esp. Brit., Iricise. Irishize. * * *
irid
/uy"rid/, n. any plant belonging to the Iridaceae, the iris family. [1865-70; < NL, L irid-, s. of iris IRIS] * * *
irid-
var. of irido- before a vowel: iridectomy. * * *
irid.
irid. abbr. iridescent. * * *
Iridaceae
▪ plant family  the iris family of flowering plants, belonging to the order Liliales. The family is known for ornamental genera such as Iris, Gladiolus, and Crocus (see ...
iridaceous
/ir'i day"sheuhs, uy'ri-/, adj. belonging to the Iridaceae family of plants. Cf. iris family. [1850-55; < NL Iridace(ae) (see IRID, -ACEAE) + -OUS] * * *
iridectome
/ir'i dek"tohm, uy'ri-/, n. Surg. a slender cutting instrument used in performing an iridectomy. [1850-55; IRID- + EC- + -TOME] * * *
iridectomize
/ir'i dek"teuh muyz', uy'ri-/, v.t., iridectomized, iridectomizing. Surg. to perform an iridectomy on. Also, esp. Brit., iridectomise. [1875-80; IRIDECTOM(Y) + -IZE] * * *
iridectomy
/ir'i dek"teuh mee, uy'ri-/, n., pl. iridectomies. Surg. excision of part of the iris. [1850-55; IRID- + -ECTOMY] * * *
irides
/ir"i deez', uy"ri-/, n. a pl. of iris. * * *
iridescence
/ir'i des"euhns/, n. iridescent quality; a play of lustrous, changing colors. [1795-1805; IRID- + -ESCENCE] * * *       interference of light either at the surface or in ...
iridescent
—iridescently, adv. /ir'i des"euhnt/, adj. 1. displaying a play of lustrous colors like those of the rainbow. n. 2. an iridescent cloth, material, or other substance: new fall ...
iridescent seaweed
a red alga, Irideae cordata, found on the Pacific coast of North America, having broad, leathery, iridescent blades. * * *
iridescently
See iridescent. * * *
iridic
/i rid"ik, uy rid"-/, adj. Chem. of or containing iridium, esp. in the tetravalent state. [1835-45; IRID- + -IC] * * *
iridium
/i rid"ee euhm, uy rid"-/, n. Chem. a precious metallic element resembling platinum: used in platinum alloys and for the points of gold pens. Symbol: Ir; at. wt.: 192.2; at. no.: ...
iridize
—iridization, n. /ir"i duyz', uy"ri-/, v.t., iridized, iridizing. to cover with iridium. Also, esp. Brit., iridise. [1860-65; IRID- + -IZE] * * *
irido-
a combining form of Latin origin used, with the meanings "rainbow," "iridescent," "iris (of the eye)," "Iris (the genus)," and "iridium," in the formation of compound words: ...
iridocapsulitis
/ir'i doh kap'seuh luy"tis, -kap'syoo-, uy'ri-/, n. Pathol. inflammation of the iris and the capsule of the lens. [IRIDO- + CAPSULE + -ITIS] * * *
iridochoroiditis
/ir'i doh kawr'oy duy"tis, -kohr'-, uy'ri-/, n. Pathol. inflammation of the iris and the choroid. [1870-75; < NL; see IRIDO-, CHOROID, -ITIS] * * *
iridologist
See iridology. * * *
iridology
—iridologist, n. /ir'i dol"euh jee, uy'ri-/, n., pl. iridologies. the inspection of the iris of the eye as an aid in determining a person's state of health or in diagnosing a ...
iridopupillary
/ir'i doh pyooh"peuh ler'ee, uy'ri-/, adj. Ophthalm. pertaining to the iris and the pupil. [IRIDO- + PUPILLARY2] * * *
iridosmine
/ir'i doz"min, -dos"-, uy'ri-/, n. a native alloy of iridium and osmium, usually containing some rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, etc., used esp. for the points of gold pens. Also, ...
iridotomy
/ir'i dot"euh mee, uy'ri-/, n., pl. iridotomies. Surg. incision of the iris, esp. for the formation of an artificial pupil by transverse division of fibers of the iris. [1850-55; ...
iridous
/ir"i deuhs, uy"ri-/, adj. Chem. containing trivalent iridium. [IRID- + -OUS] * * *
Iridum
/ir"i deuhm/, n. Sinus. See Sinus Iridum. * * *
Iriga
▪ Philippines       city, southeastern Luzon, Philippines. It is located in the central part of Bicol Peninsula, about 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Naga. Iriga is ...
Irigaray, Luce
born 1932?, Belgium French feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher. She examined the uses and misuses of language in relation to women in such works as Speculum of the Other ...
Irigoyen, Hipólito
or Hipólito Yrigoyen born July 12, 1852, Buenos Aires, Arg. died July 3, 1933, Buenos Aires Argentine statesman and president (1916–22, 1928–30). A lawyer, teacher, ...
Irina
/uy ree"neuh/, n. a female given name. * * *
iris
/uy"ris/, n., pl. irises, irides /ir"i deez', uy"ri-/, v. n. 1. Anat. the contractile, circular diaphragm forming the colored portion of the eye and containing a circular ...
Iris
/uy"ris/, n. a female given name. * * * ▪ Greek mythology       in Greek mythology, the personification of the rainbow and (in Homer's Iliad, for example) a messenger ...
iris diaphragm
Optics, Photog. a composite diaphragm with a central aperture readily adjustable for size, used to regulate the amount of light admitted to a lens or optical system. Also called ...
iris diaphragm shutter
Photog. See iris shutter. * * *
iris family
the plant family Iridaceae, characterized by herbaceous plants having bulbs, corms, or rhizomes, sword-shaped grasslike leaves, and usually showy flowers, and including the ...
Iris Murdoch
➡ Murdoch (I) * * *
iris shutter
a camera shutter having a group of overlapping blades that open and close at the center when exposing film. Also called between-the-lens shutter, diaphragm shutter, iris ...
iris-in
/uy"ris in"/, n. Motion Pictures, Television. the gradual appearance of an image or scene through an expanding circle. [1925-30] * * *
iris-out
/uy"ris owt"/, n. Motion Pictures, Television. the gradual disappearance of an image or scene through a contracting circle. [1925-30] * * *
irisation
/uy'ri say"sheuhn/, n. the effect or quality of being iridescent; iridescence. [1850-55; IRIS + -ATION] * * *
irisdiaphragm
iris diaphragm n. A circular device with a variable diameter, commonly used on cameras to regulate the amount of light admitted to a lens. * * *
Irish
—Irishly, adv. /uy"rish/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Ireland, its inhabitants, or their language. n. 2. the inhabitants of Ireland and their descendants ...
Irish boat
a small fishing boat used in the Boston area in the late 19th century, derived from an Irish model and having a cutter rig. * * *
Irish bridge
Brit. a paved ford. [1920-25] * * *
Irish bull
a paradoxical statement that appears at first to make sense. Example: He's the kind of guy who looks you right in the eye as he stabs you in the back. [1795-1805] * * *
Irish Christian Brother.
See Brother of the Christian Schools (def. 2). * * *
Irish coffee
a mixture of hot coffee and Irish whiskey, sweetened and topped with whipped cream. [1945-50] * * *
Irish dancing
➡ folk dancing * * *
Irish elk
an extinct deerlike mammal of the genus Megaceros (Megaloceros), of the Pleistocene Epoch, having in the male extremely large, broad antlers. [1815-25] * * * Any member of a ...
Irish English
the English language as spoken in Ireland; Hiberno-English. Also called Irish. * * *
Irish Free State
former name of the Republic of Ireland. Gaelic, Saorstat Eireann, Saorstat. * * *
Irish Gaelic
Irish (def. 4). [1890-95] * * *
Irish Guards
one of the Guards regiments of the British army, formed in 1901. The regiment served in the the war in Iraq. * * *
Irish harp
▪ musical instrument Irish  clairseach,  Scottish Gaelic  clarsach        traditional harp of medieval Ireland and Scotland, characterized by a huge soundbox carved ...
Irish language
or Gaelic language Celtic language of Ireland, written in the Latin alphabet introduced with Christianity in the 5th century. Irish is conventionally divided into three ...
Irish linen
a fine, high-count linen handmade in Ireland and used for tablecloths, handkerchiefs, doilies, and garment trimmings. * * *
Irish literary renaissance
Flowering of Irish literary talent in the late 19th and early 20th century. It was closely allied with a strong political nationalism and a revival of interest in Ireland's ...
Irish literature
Introduction       the body of written works produced by the Irish. This article discusses Irish literature written in English from about 1690; its history is closely ...
Irish lord
any of several marine sculpins of the genus Hemilepidotus, found from Alaska to northern California. * * *
Irish moss
a purplish-brown, cartilaginous seaweed, Chondrus crispus, of the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. Also called carrageen, carragheen. [1835-45] * * * ▪ algae also ...
Irish National Liberation Army
(abbr the INLA) an Irish terrorist organization which believes that Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic should be united under one government. It was formed in 1974 by former ...
Irish needle lace
 lace made with a needle in Ireland from the late 1840s, when the craft was introduced as a famine-relief measure. Technically and stylistically influenced by 17th-century ...
Irish Pale
pale2 (def. 6). * * *
Irish pennant
Naut. Slang (sometimes offensive). 1. an unwhipped rope end. 2. any strand or rope end left hanging untidily. [1880-85] * * *
Irish potato
potato (def. 1). [1675-85] * * *
Irish Potato Famine
(1845–49) Famine that occurred in Ireland when the potato crop failed in successive years. By the early 1840s almost half the Irish population, particularly the rural poor, ...
Irish Rebellion
▪ Irish history [1798]       (1798), an uprising of Irish Roman Catholics seeking parliamentary reform and complete Catholic emancipation.       During 1795 an ...
Irish Republican Army
an underground Irish nationalist organization founded to work for Irish independence from Great Britain: declared illegal by the Irish government in 1936, but continues activity ...
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Republican paramilitary organization, founded in 1919, seeking the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and the unification of the province with the republic of Ireland. The ...
Irish Sea
a part of the Atlantic between Ireland and England. * * * Arm of the North Atlantic Ocean that separates Ireland from Great Britain. Connected with the Atlantic by North ...
Irish setter
one of an Irish breed of setters having a golden-chestnut or mahogany-red coat. [1880-85] * * * ▪ breed of dog  breed of sporting dog renowned for its elegant build and its ...
Irish stew
a stew usually made of mutton, lamb, or beef, with potatoes, onions, etc. [1805-15] * * *
Irish Sweepstakes
▪ lottery in full  Irish Hospitals' Sweepstakes        one of the largest lotteries promoted internationally; it was authorized by the Irish government in 1930 to ...
Irish system
▪ penology       penal method originated in the early 1850s by Sir Walter Crofton; it emphasized training and performance as the instruments of reform. The Irish system ...
Irish terrier
one of an Irish breed of terriers having a dense, wiry, reddish coat. [1855-60] * * * Breed of terrier developed in Ireland, one of the oldest terrier breeds. It stands 16–18 ...
Irish tweed
1. a sturdy woolen fabric of light warp and dark filling, made in Ireland and used in suits and coats. 2. any tweed made in Ireland. [1890-95] * * *
Irish water spaniel
one of an Irish breed of large water spaniels having a thick, curly, liver-colored coat, a topknot of long, loose curls, and a thin, tapering tail covered with short hair. See ...
Irish whiskey
any whiskey made in Ireland, characteristically a product of barley. Also called Irish. [1790-1800] * * *
Irish wolfhound
one of an Irish breed of large, tall dogs having a rough, wiry coat ranging in color from white to brindle to black. [1660-70] * * * Tallest of all dog breeds, a keen-sighted ...
Irish yew
a variety of yew, Taxus baccata stricta, of Eurasia and northern Africa, having upright branches and dark green foliage with color variations. * * *       ornamental ...
Irishbull
Irish bull n. A statement containing an incongruity or a logical absurdity, usually unbeknown to the speaker. “With a pistol in each hand and a sword in the other” is an ...
Irishcoffee
Irish coffee n. A beverage of sweetened hot coffee and Irish whiskey, topped with whipped cream. * * *
Irishelk
Irish elk n. A large extinct European deer of the genus Megaceros of the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs, having very large palmate antlers. * * *
IrishEnglish
Irish English n. English as spoken by the Irish. Also called Anglo-Irish, Hiberno-English, Irish. * * *
IrishFree State
Irish Free State See Ireland2. * * *
IrishGaelic
Irish Gaelic n. The Goidelic language of Ireland. Also called Erse, Irish. * * *
Irishism
/uy"ri shiz'euhm/, n. a custom, manner, practice, idiom, etc., characteristic of the Irish. Also, Iricism. [1725-35; IRISH + -ISM] * * *
Irishize
/uy"ri shuyz'/, v.t., Irishized, Irishizing. (sometimes l.c.) to make Irish, as in character or custom; give an Irish character to. Also, Iricize; esp. Brit., Irishise. [1825-35; ...
Irishman
/uy"rish meuhn/, n., pl. Irishmen. 1. a man born in Ireland or of Irish ancestry. 2. a native or inhabitant of Ireland. [1175-1225; ME; see IRISH, -MAN] * * *
Irishmoss
Irish moss n. An edible North Atlantic seaweed (Chondrus crispus) that yields a mucilaginous substance used medicinally and in preparing jellies. Also called carrageen. * * *
Irishry
Irishry [ī′rish rē] n. pl. Irishry 1. a custom, characteristic, or folkway of the Irish people 2. a word, phrase, grammatical construction, or other feature originating in or ...
IrishSea
Irish Sea An arm of the northern Atlantic Ocean between Ireland and Great Britain. * * *
Irishsetter
Irish setter n. Any of a breed of setters having a silky reddish-brown or red and white coat. * * *
Irishstew
Irish stew n. A stew of meat and vegetables. * * *
Irishterrier
Irish terrier n. Any of a breed of terriers having a wiry reddish-brown coat. * * *
Irishwhiskey
Irish whiskey n. Whiskey made by the distillation of barley. * * *
Irishwolfhound
Irish wolfhound n. Any of an ancient breed of large powerful dogs having a rough, shaggy coat. * * *
Irishwoman
/uy"rish woom'euhn/, n., pl. Irishwomen. 1. a woman born in Ireland or of Irish ancestry. 2. a woman who is a native or inhabitant of Ireland. [1350-1400; ME; see IRISH, WOMAN] * ...
iritic
See iritis. * * *
iritis
—iritic /uy rit"ik/, adj. /uy ruy"tis/, n. Ophthalm. inflammation of the iris of the eye. [1810-20; IR(IS) + -ITIS] * * *
irk
/errk/, v.t. to irritate, annoy, or exasperate: It irked him to wait in line. [1300-50; ME irken to grow tired, tire < ON yrkja to work, c. OE wyrcan; see WORK] Syn. chafe, fret, ...
irksome
—irksomely, adv. —irksomeness, n. /errk"seuhm/, adj. 1. annoying; irritating; exasperating; tiresome: irksome restrictions. 2. Obs. causing weariness or disgust. [1400-50; ...
irksomely
See irksome. * * *
irksomeness
See irksomely. * * *
Irkutsk
/eerdd koohtsk"/, n. a city in the S Russian Federation in Asia, W of Lake Baikal. 550,000. * * * City (pop., 2001 est.: 587,200), east-central Russia. Located on the Angara ...
Irma
/err"meuh/, n. a female given name, form of Erma. * * *
Irminger Current
/err"ming geuhr/ a branch of the North Atlantic Current, flowing N past the W coast of Iceland and then W. * * * ▪ oceanography       branch of the warm North Atlantic ...
Irnerius
▪ Italian legal scholar also spelled  Guarnerius  or  Warnerius  born c. 1050, Bologna [Italy] died in or after 1125, Bologna       one of the scholars who revived ...
IRO
International Refugee Organization. * * *
iroko wood
      wood of the iroko tree (Chlorophora excelsa), native to the west coast of Africa. It is sometimes called African, or Nigerian, teak, but the iroko is unrelated to ...
iron
—ironless, adj. —ironlike, adj. /uy"euhrn/, n. 1. Chem. a ductile, malleable, silver-white metallic element, scarcely known in a pure condition, but much used in its crude or ...
Iron Act
(1750) Measure by the British Parliament to restrict the American colonial iron industry. Pig iron and iron bar could be exported to England duty-free to meet British needs. ...
Iron Age
1. the period in the history of humankind, following the Stone Age and the Bronze Age, marked by the use of implements and weapons made of iron. 2. (l.c.) Class. Myth. the ...
Iron Age Britain
At the end of the Bronze Age iron began to be used instead of bronze for making tools and weapons. Iron tools were harder and more efficient, and also cheaper. Bronze came to be ...
iron ammonium oxalate
Chem. See ferric ammonium oxalate. * * *
iron blue
any of the class of blue pigments having a high tinting strength and ranging in shade and in coloring properties from reddish blue to jet blue: used chiefly in the manufacture of ...
iron brick
Masonry. brick having a sprinkling of dark spots caused by the presence of iron salts. * * *
Iron Cross
1. a German medal awarded for outstanding bravery or service during wartime. 2. (l.c.) Gymnastics. an upright, crosslike position held between the rings, with the arms fully ...
Iron Crown of Lombardy
▪ holy relic       originally an armlet or perhaps a votive crown, as suggested by its small size, that was presented to the Cathedral of Monza, where it is preserved as ...
iron curtain
1. (sometimes caps.) a barrier to understanding and the exchange of information and ideas created by ideological, political, and military hostility of one country toward another, ...
iron deficiency anemia
       anemia that develops due to a lack of the mineral iron, the main function of which is in the formation of hemoglobin, the blood pigment that carries oxygen from ...
Iron Duke
epithet of the first Duke of Wellington. * * *
iron gang
Australian. See chain gang. [1830-40] * * *
Iron Gate
a gorge cut by the Danube through the Carpathian Mountains, between Yugoslavia and SW Rumania. 2 mi. (3.2 km) long. Also, Iron Gates. * * * ▪ gorge, Europe Romanian ...
iron gray
—iron-gray, adj. a medium shade of gray, like that of freshly broken iron. [bef. 1000; ME iren grei, OE isengraeg] * * *
Iron Guard
—Iron-Guard, adj. a Rumanian fascist party that was extremely nationalistic and anti-Semitic, eliminated after World War II. * * * ▪ Romanian organization Romanian  Garda ...
iron hand
strict or harsh control: The general governed the country with an iron hand. [1840-50] * * *
iron hat
Geol. gossan. * * *
iron horse
Older Use. a locomotive. [1825-35] * * *
Iron Knob
▪ South Australia, Australia       town, northeastern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, 247 miles (397 km) northwest of Adelaide by rail. It is the centre for one of the ...
Iron Lady
➡ Thatcher. * * *
iron law of wages
Econ. the doctrine or theory that wages tend toward a level sufficient only to maintain a subsistence standard of living. Also called brazen law of wages. [1895-1900] * * *
iron lung
a chamberlike respirator, formerly used in the treatment of poliomyelitis, that encloses the whole body except the head and in which alternate pulsations of high and low pressure ...
iron maiden
a medieval instrument of torture fashioned as a box in the shape of a woman, large enough to hold a human being, and studded with sharp spikes on the inside. Also called iron ...
iron man
1. a person, as a worker or athlete, of great physical endurance who can be depended upon to perform a given task or job tirelessly. 2. a machine that performs a job formerly ...
iron mask, the man in the
▪ French convict French  L'homme Au Masque De Fer,    political prisoner famous in French history and legend who died in the Bastille in 1703 during the reign of Louis XIV. ...
iron meteorite
 any meteorite consisting mainly of iron, usually combined with small amounts of nickel. When such meteorites, often called irons, fall through the atmosphere, they may ...
iron mold
a stain on cloth or the like made by rusty iron or by ink pigmented with an iron derivative. [1595-1605] * * *
iron monoxide
Chem. See ferrous oxide. * * *
Iron Mountain
▪ Michigan, United States       city, seat (1891) of Dickinson county, southwestern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S., about 50 miles (80 km) west of Escanaba. Settled ...
Iron ore
▪ Table Iron ore country mine production 2006 (metric tons)* % of world mine production demonstrated reserves 2006 (metric tons)*/** % of world demonstrated ...
iron oxide
Chem. See ferric oxide. * * *
iron perchloride
Chem. See ferric chloride. * * *
iron plant
aspidistra. * * *
iron processing
Introduction       use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned. Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining ...
iron putty
a compound of iron oxide and boiled linseed oil for caulking pipe joints. * * *
iron pyrites
1. pyrite; fool's gold. 2. marcasite. [1795-1805] * * *
iron rust
rust (def. 1). * * *
iron sodium oxalate
Chem. See ferric sodium oxalate. * * *
iron sponge
Metall. See sponge iron. [1875-80] * * *
iron sulfate.
See ferrous sulfate. [1875-80] * * *
iron trichloride
Chem. See ferric chloride. * * *
iron vitriol
Chem. See ferrous sulfate. * * *
iron-deficiency anemia
Most common type of anemia, which may develop in times of high iron loss and depletion of iron stores (e.g., rapid growth, pregnancy, menstruation) or in settings of low dietary ...
iron-fisted
iron-fisted [ī′ərn fis΄tid] adj. ruthlessly autocratic; despotic and brutal * * *
iron-hearted
—iron-heartedly, adv. —iron-heartedness, n. /uy"euhrn hahr"tid/, adj. cruel; heartless; unfeeling. [1610-20] * * *
iron-jawed
/uy"euhrn jawd"/, adj. 1. having a jaw of or like iron: an iron-jawed press; an iron-jawed fighter. 2. fiercely determined: an iron-jawed will. [1880-85] * * *
iron-on
/uy"euhrn on', -awn'/, adj. 1. designed to be applied with heat and pressure, as by an iron: an iron-on patch for pants. n. 2. a design, patch, or the like, applied by ironing ...
iron-pumper
—iron-pumping, adj., n. /uy"euhrn pum'peuhr/, n. Informal. a person who pumps iron; weightlifter. [1975-80] * * *
iron-sick
—iron sickness. /uy"euhrn sik'/, adj. Naut. noting a wooden hull, fastened with iron, in which chemical interaction between the iron and the wood has resulted in the decay of ...
IronAge
I·ron Age (īʹərn) n. The period in cultural development succeeding the Bronze Age in Asia, Europe, and Africa, characterized by the introduction of iron metallurgy. In ...
ironbark
/uy"euhrn bahrk'/, n. any of the various Australian eucalyptuses having a hard, solid bark. [1905-10; IRON + BARK2] * * *
ironblue
iron blue n. Any of various light-resistant and heat-resistant, semitransparent blue pigments of powerful tinctorial strength, used chiefly in permanent industrial finishes, ...
ironbound
/uy"euhrn bownd"/, adj. 1. bound with iron. 2. rock-bound; rugged. 3. hard; rigid; unyielding. [1350-1400; ME; see IRON, -BOUND1] * * *
Ironbridge
a town near Telford in Shropshire, England, which was an early centre of the Industrial Revolution. It has the first major iron bridge in the world (opened in 1779) and several ...
ironclad
adj. /uy"euhrn klad"/; n. /uy"euhrn klad'/, adj. 1. covered or cased with iron plates, as a ship for naval warfare; armor-plated. 2. very rigid or exacting; inflexible; ...
ironcurtain
iron curtain n. 1. often Iron Curtain The military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe from 1945 to 1990. 2. A barrier that ...
Irondequoit
/i ron"di kwoyt'/, n. a city in W New York. 57,648. * * *
irone
/uy rohn", uy"rohn/, n. Chem. a colorless liquid of isomeric, unsaturated ketones, C14H22O, obtained from orris root: used in perfumery for its odor of violets. [1890-95; IR(IS) ...
ironer
/uy"euhr neuhr/, n. a person or thing that irons. [1775-85; IRON + -ER] * * *
ironfist
iron fist n. Rigorous or despotic control: ruled the nation with an iron fist.   iʹron·fistʹed (īʹərn-fĭsʹtĭd) adj. * * *
ironfisted
/uy"euhrn fis"tid/, adj. 1. ruthless, harsh, and tyrannical: an ironfisted dictator. 2. stingy; tight-fisted. [1850-55; IRON + FISTED] * * *
IronGate
Iron Gate A narrow gorge of the Danube River on the border of Yugoslavia and Romania. Created by a gap between the Carpathian and Balkan mountains, the gorge is bypassed by a ...
irongray
iron gray n. A dark gray with a slightly greenish tinge. * * *
ironhand
iron hand n. Rigorous or despotic control.   iʹron·handʹed (īʹərn-hănʹdĭd) adj. iʹron·handʹed·ness n. * * *
ironhanded
—ironhandedly, adv. —ironhandedness, n. /uy"euhrn han"did/, adj. having or governing with an iron hand. [1760-70; IRON + HANDED] * * *
ironhandedness
See ironhanded. * * *
ironhearted
ironhearted [ī′ərn härt΄id] adj. unfeeling; cruel * * *
ironhorse
iron horse n. Informal A railroad locomotive. * * *
ironic
/uy ron"ik/, adj. 1. containing or exemplifying irony: an ironic novel; an ironic remark. 2. ironical. 3. coincidental; unexpected: It was ironic that I was seated next to my ...
ironical
—ironically, adv. —ironicalness, n. /uy ron"i keuhl/, adj. 1. pertaining to, of the nature of, exhibiting, or characterized by irony or mockery: an ironical compliment; an ...
ironically
See ironic. * * *
ironicalness
See ironically. * * *
ironing
/uy"euhr ning/, n. 1. the act or process of smoothing or pressing clothes, linens, etc., with a heated iron. 2. articles of clothing or the like that have been or are to be ...
ironing board
a flat, cloth-covered board or other surface, often foldable and having legs, on which clothing, linens, or similar articles are ironed. [1835-45] * * *
ironingboard
ironing board n. A long, narrow padded board, often with collapsible supporting legs, used as a working surface for ironing. * * *
ironist
/uy"reuh nist/, n. a person who uses irony habitually, esp. a writer. [1720-30; IRON(Y)1 + -IST] * * *
ironize
i·ron·ize (īʹrə-nīz') v. i·ron·ized, i·ron·iz·ing, i·ron·iz·es v. tr. To make ironic in effect: The actor ironized his performance of the speech. v. intr. To use ...
ironlung
iron lung n. An airtight metal tank that encloses all of the body except the head and forces the lungs to inhale and exhale through regulated changes in air pressure. * * *
ironmaiden
iron maiden n. A medieval instrument of torture consisting of an iron frame in the form of a person in which the victim was enclosed and impaled on interior spikes. * * *
ironman
ironman [ī′ərn man΄] n. pl. ironmen [ī′ərnmen΄] [often I-] a man having great physical strength and endurance * * * i·ron·man (īʹərn-măn') n. A male athlete of ...
ironmaster
/uy"euhrn mas'teuhr, -mah'steuhr/, n. Chiefly Brit. the master of a foundry or ironworks; a manufacturer of iron. [1665-75; IRON + MASTER] * * *
ironmonger
/uy"euhrn mung'geuhr, -mong'geuhr/, n. Chiefly Brit. a dealer in hardware. [1300-50; ME; see IRON, MONGER] * * *
ironmongery
/uy"euhrn mung'geuh ree, -mong'-/, n., pl. ironmongeries. Brit. 1. a hardware store or business. 2. the stock of a hardware store; hardware. [1705-15; IRONMONGER + -Y3] * * *
ironoxide
iron oxide n. Any of various oxides of iron, such as ferric oxide or ferrous oxide. * * *
ironpyrites
iron pyrites n. See pyrite. * * *
Irons
/uy"euhrnz/, n. Jeremy (John), born 1948, English actor. * * *
Irons, Jeremy
born Sept. 19, 1948, Cowes, Isle of Wight, Eng. British actor. He made his London stage debut in Godspell (1973) and appeared on Broadway in The Real Thing (1984, Tony Award). ...
ironside
/uy"euhrn suyd'/, n. 1. a strong person with great power of endurance or resistance. 2. (cap.) an epithet or nickname of Edmund II of England. 3. (cap.) Usually, Ironsides. a. ...
Ironsides
Ironsides [ī′ərn sīdz΄] n. 1. name for CROMWELL Oliver 2. a) the regiment that Cromwell led in the English Civil War b) his whole army * * *
ironsmith
/uy"euhrn smith'/, n. a worker in iron; blacksmith. [bef. 1150; ME irensmith, OE isensmith. See IRON, SMITH] * * *
ironstone
/uy"euhrn stohn'/, n. 1. any iron-bearing mineral or rock with siliceous impurities. 2. Also called ironstone china. a hard white stoneware. [1515-25; IRON + STONE] * * *
ironstone china
▪ pottery       type of stoneware introduced in England early in the 19th century by Staffordshire potters who sought to develop a porcelain substitute that could be ...
Ironton
/uy"euhrn teuhn/, n. a city in S Ohio, on the Ohio River. 14,290. * * *
ironware
/uy"euhrn wair'/, n. articles of iron, as pots, kettles, or tools; hardware. [1400-50; late ME; see IRON, WARE1] * * *
ironweed
/uy"euhrn weed'/, n. any of certain North American composite plants of the genus Vernonia, having tubular, chiefly purple or red disk flowers. [1810-20; IRON + WEED1] * * * Any ...
ironwoman
i·ron·wom·an (īʹərn-wo͝om'ən) n. A female athlete of remarkable endurance or durability. * * *
ironwood
/uy"euhrn wood'/, n. 1. any of various trees yielding a hard, heavy wood, as the American hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana, or Lyonothamnus floribundus, found on the islands off ...
ironwork
/uy"euhrn werrk'/, n. 1. work in iron. 2. objects or parts of objects made of iron: ornamental ironwork. [1375-1425; late ME; see IRON, WORK] * * *  architectural features of ...
ironworker
—ironworking, n. /uy"euhrn werr'keuhr/, n. 1. a worker in iron. 2. a person employed in an ironworks. 3. a person who works with structural steel. [1400-50; late ME; see IRON, ...
ironworks
/uy"euhrn werrks'/, n., pl. ironworks. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) an establishment where iron is smelted or where it is cast or wrought. [1575-85; IRON + WORKS] * * *
irony
irony1 /uy"reuh nee, uy"euhr-/, n., pl. ironies. 1. the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning: the irony of her reply, "How nice!" when I ...
Iroquoian
/ir'euh kwoy"euhn/, n. 1. a family of North American Indian languages that includes Cherokee, Seneca, Mohawk, and Oneida. adj. 2. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the ...
Iroquoian languages
Family of about 16 North American Indian languages aboriginally spoken around the eastern Great Lakes and in parts of the Middle Atlantic states and the South. Aside from the ...
Iroquois
/ir"euh kwoy', -kwoyz'/, n., pl. Iroquois, adj. n. 1. a member of a North American Indian confederacy, the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and ...
Iroquois Confederacy
➡ Iroquois League * * * or League of the Iroquois Confederation of five (later six) Indian tribes across upper New York that in the 17th–18th century played a strategic ...
Iroquois Falls
▪ Ontario, Canada       town, Cochrane district, east-central Ontario, Canada. It lies along the Abitibi River, just west of Lake Abitibi, 190 miles (300 km) ...
Iroquois League
(also the Iroquois Confederacy) a union of Native-American peoples established about 1570. The groups involved, all in north-eastern America, were the Cayuga, the Mohawk, the ...
Irra
/ear"ah/, n. the Akkadian god of pestilence. * * *
irradiance
/i ray"dee euhns/, n. Physics. incident flux of radiant energy per unit area. Also, irradiation. [1660-70; IR-1 + RADIANCE] * * *
irradiancy
See irradiance. * * *
irradiant
/i ray"dee euhnt/, adj. irradiating; radiant; shining. [1520-30; < L irradiant-, (s. of irradians), prp. of irradiare to shine upon. See IR-1, RADIANT] * * *
irradiate
—irradiatingly, adv. —irradiative, adj. —irradiator, n. v. /i ray"dee ayt'/; adj. /i ray"dee it, -ayt'/, v., irradiated, irradiating, adj. v.t. 1. to shed rays of light ...
irradiation
/i ray'dee ay"sheuhn/, n. 1. the act of irradiating. 2. the state of being irradiated. 3. intellectual or spiritual enlightenment. 4. a ray of light; beam. 5. Optics. the ...
irradiative
See irradiate. * * *
irradiator
See irradiative. * * *
irradicable
—irradicably, adv. /i rad"i keuh beuhl/, adj. ineradicable. [1720-30; IR-2 + L radic(ari) to grow roots, take root (taken incorrectly as "to root up") + -ABLE. See ...
irradicably
See irradicable. * * *
irrational
—irrationally, adv. —irrationalness, n. /i rash"euh nl/, adj. 1. without the faculty of reason; deprived of reason. 2. without or deprived of normal mental clarity or sound ...
irrational number
Math. a number that cannot be exactly expressed as a ratio of two integers. [1545-55] * * * Among the real numbers, any of those that cannot be represented as quotients of ...
irrationalism
—irrationalist, adj., n. —irrationalistic, adj. /i rash"euh nl iz'euhm/, n. 1. irrationality in thought or action. 2. an attitude or belief having a nonrational basis. 3. a ...
irrationality
/i rash'euh nal"i tee/, n., pl. irrationalities for 2. 1. the quality or condition of being irrational. 2. an irrational, illogical, or absurd action, thought, etc. [1560-70; ...
irrationalize
/i rash"euh nl uyz'/, v.t., irrationalized, irrationalizing. to make or cause to be irrational. Also, esp. Brit., irrationalise. [1890-95; IRRATIONAL + -IZE] * * *
irrationally
See irrational. * * *
irrationalness
See irrationally. * * *
irrationalnumber
irrational number n. Any real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio between two integers. * * *
Irrawaddy
/ir'euh wod"ee, -waw"dee/, n. a river flowing S through Burma (Myanmar) to the Bay of Bengal. 1250 mi. (2015 km) long. * * *
Irrawaddy River
River, Myanmar (Burma). It flows 1,350 mi (2,170 km) across the centre of the country and empties into the Bay of Bengal. The country's most important commercial waterway, it is ...
irreal
—irreality /ir'ee al"i tee/, n. /i ree"euhl, i reel"/, adj. unreal. [1940-45; IR-2 + REAL1] * * *
irreality
See irreal. * * *
irrebuttable
/ir'i but"euh beuhl/, adj. not rebuttable; incapable of being rebutted or refuted. [1825-35; IR-2 + REBUTTABLE] * * *
irreclaimability
See irreclaimable. * * *
irreclaimable
—irreclaimability, irreclaimableness, n. —irreclaimably, adv. /ir'i klay"meuh beuhl/, adj. not reclaimable; incapable of being reclaimed or rehabilitated: an irreclaimable ...
irreclaimableness
See irreclaimability. * * *


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