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Italian Liberal Party (PLI)
Moderately conservative political party that dominated Italian politics in the decades after unification (1861) and was a minor party after World War II. It was formed as a ...
Italian literature
Introduction       the body of written works produced in the Italian language that had its beginnings in the 13th century. Until that time nearly all literary work ...
Italian Peninsula
▪ peninsula, Europe  one of the three great peninsulas of southern Europe, the other two being the Balkan (to the east) and the Iberian (to the west). The Italian Peninsula ...
Italian pointer.
See Spinoni Italiani. * * *
Italian Popular Party
▪ political party, Italy Italian  Partito Popolare Italiano (PPI) , formerly (until 1994)  Christian Democratic Party , Italian  Partito della Democrazia Cristiana ...
Italian Popular Party (PPI)
formerly (until 1993) Christian Democratic Party Centrist political party whose several factions are united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocate programs ...
Italian provincial
Italian provincial n. designating or of a style of rural, Italian furniture of the 18th and 19th cent., with straight lines and simple decoration, usually of fruitwood or ...
Italian Republican Party
▪ political party, Italy Italian  Partito Repubblicano Italiano (PRI)        anticlerical social-reform party. Although it had only a small following in the years ...
Italian rye grass
a European grass, Lolium multiflorum, naturalized in North America, having flowering spikes and used as a winter turf. Also called Australian rye grass. [1855-60] * * *
Italian Socialist Party
▪ political party, Italy Italian  Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI)        former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and ...
Italian Socialist Party (PSI)
since 1998 Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) Italian political party founded in 1893 by trade unions and socialists. In the early 20th century the left wing of the party ...
Italian Somaliland
a former Italian colony and trust territory in E Africa: now part of the Democratic Somali Republic. * * * Former Italian colony, eastern Africa. It extended south from Cape ...
Italian sonnet
Italian sonnet n. PETRARCHAN SONNET * * *
Italian sonnet.
See Petrarchan sonnet. [1875-80] * * *
Italian turnip.
See broccoli rabe. * * *
Italian Wars
(1494–1559) Series of violent wars for control of Italy. Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating ...
Italianate
—Italianately, adv. —Italianation, n. adj. /i tal"yeuh nayt', -nit/; v. /i tal"yeuh nayt'/, adj., v., Italianated, Italianating. adj. 1. Italianized; conforming to the ...
Italianate painters
▪ Dutch painting  group of 17th-century northern European painters, principally Dutch, who traveled in Italy and, consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that ...
Italianbread
Italian bread n. An oval or oblong loaf of bread with a crisp crust. * * *
ItalianEast Africa
Italian East Africa A former federation of Italian-held territories in eastern Africa, including Ethiopia, Eritrea, and part of present-day Somalia. It was formed in 1936 and ...
Italianism
/i tal"yeuh niz'euhm/, n. 1. an Italian practice, trait, or idiom. 2. Italian quality or spirit. [1585-95; ITALIAN + -ISM] * * *
Italianist
/i tal"yeuh nist/, n. a person who specializes in the study of Italy, the Italian people, or the Italian language. [1850-55; ITALIAN + -IST] * * *
Italianization
See Italianize. * * *
Italianize
—Italianization, n. /i tal"yeuh nuyz'/, v., Italianized, Italianizing. v.i. 1. to become Italian in manner, character, etc. 2. to speak Italian. v.t. 3. to make Italian, esp. ...
Italianizer
/i tal"yeuh nuy'zeuhr/, n. a person or thing that Italianizes: In matters of food and dress, he is an Italianizer. [1840-50; ITALIANIZE + -ER1] * * *
Italiansandwich
Italian sandwich n. Chiefly Maine See submarine. * * *
ItalianSomaliland
Italian Somaliland A former Italian colony of eastern Africa comprising the eastern and southern portions of present-day Somalia. In 1960 Italian Somaliland was combined with ...
Italiansonnet
Italian sonnet n. See Petrarchan sonnet. * * *
italic
/i tal"ik, uy tal"-/, adj. 1. designating or pertaining to a style of printing types in which the letters usually slope to the right, patterned upon a compact manuscript hand, ...
Italic languages
Indo-European languages spoken in the Apennine Peninsula (Italy) during the 1st millennium BC, after which only Latin survived. Traditionally thought to be a subfamily of ...
italic script
▪ calligraphy       in calligraphy, script developed by the Italian humanists about 1400 from antique Latin texts and inscriptions. The humanists called the Carolingian ...
Italicism
/i tal"euh siz'euhm/, n. Italianism, esp. an idiom or a characteristic of the Italian language. [1765-75; ITALIC + -ISM] * * *
italicization
See italicize. * * *
italicize
—italicization, n. /i tal"euh suyz', uy tal"-/, v., italicized, italicizing. v.t. 1. to print in italic type. 2. to underscore with a single line, as in indicating ...
Italo
(as used in expressions) Balbo Italo Calvino Italo Italo Turkish War Svevo Italo * * *
Italo-
Italo- [it′ə lō, i tal′ō] combining form Italian, Italian and [Italo-American] * * *
Italo-Albanian Church
▪ Catholicism also called  Italo-greek Church, or Italo-greek-albanian Church,         an Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic communion, comprising the ...
Italo-Ethiopian War
▪ 1935–36       (1935–36), an armed conflict that resulted in Ethiopia's subjection to Italian rule. Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for ...
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) War undertaken by Italy to gain colonies in North Africa by conquering the Turkish provinces of Tripolitana and Cyrenaica (modern Libya). The conflict upset the ...
Italophile
/i tal"euh fuyl', it"l euh-/, n. 1. a person who admires Italian customs, traditions, etc. adj. 2. Also, Italophil /i tal"euh fil, it"l euh-/. favoring Italian customs, manners, ...
Italophilia
See Italophile. * * *
Italus, John
▪ Byzantine philosopher flourished 11th century       Byzantine philosopher, skilled dialectician, and imputed heretic who, at the imperial court, established a school ...
Italy
/it"l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870-1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. ...
Italy, flag of
▪ Flag History       vertically striped green-white-red national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.       A rich history of flags and coats of arms ...
Itami
▪ Japan       city, Hyōgo ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Fukuchiyama railway line, 9 miles (14 km) northwest of Ōsaka. Itami was a castle town ...
Itami, Juzo
orig. Yoshihiro Ikeuchi born May 15, 1933, Kyoto, Japan died Dec. 20, 1997, Tokyo Japanese film director and screenwriter. He had a successful 20-year career as an actor in ...
Itanagar
Capital (pop. 2001 prelim.: 34,970) of Arunachal Pradesh state, northeastern India, situated west of the Brahmaputra River. The state government has established an industrial ...
Itapetininga
/ee'teuh pe'tee neeonn"geuh/, n. a city in E Brazil. 56,437. * * * ▪ Brazil       city, in the highlands of east-central São Paulo estado (state), Brazil. It lies at ...
Itapicuru River
▪ river, Brazil       river, Maranhão estado (“state”), northeastern Brazil. The river rises in several headstreams in the Itapicuru mountain range. It arches ...
ITAR-TASS
formerly TASS in full Telegrafnoe Agentsvo Sovetskovo Soyuza (Russian: "Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union") As TASS, the official news agency of the Soviet Union from 1925 to ...
Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard
▪ French physician born April 24, 1774, Oraison, France died July 5, 1838, Paris       French physician noted for his work with deaf-mutes, especially the “wild boy ...
Itarsi
▪ India       town, central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. A major rail junction connected with Bhopal (northwest), Gwalior (north), and Indore (west), Itarsi ...
Itasca
/uy tas"keuh/, n. Lake, a lake in N Minnesota: one of the sources of the Mississippi River. * * *
Itasca, Lake
Lake, northwestern Minnesota, U.S. Occupying an area of 1. 8 sq mi (4.7 sq km), it is located 1,475 ft (450 m) above sea level. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's theory that Lake Itasca ...
Itata and Baltimore incidents
▪ United States-Chilean history       (1891), two serious occurrences involving the United States and Chile, the first taking place during and the second shortly after ...
Itaya Hazan
▪ Japanese potter born 1872, Shimodate, Japan died 1963, Shimodate       Japanese potter known for his depiction of noble figures and his skill as a ...
Itbāy
▪ region, Africa also called  ʿatbāy,         mountainous region of southeastern Egypt and the northeastern part of The Sudan, paralleling the Red Sea. It lies ...
ITC
investment tax credit. * * *
itch
/ich/, v.i. 1. to have or feel a peculiar tingling or uneasy irritation of the skin that causes a desire to scratch the part affected: My nose itches. 2. to cause such a feeling: ...
itch mite
a parasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, causing itch or scabies in humans and a form of mange in animals. [1825-35] * * *
itchiness
See itchy. * * *
itching
—itchingly, adv. /ich"ing/, adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or characterized by an irritating sensation of the skin. 2. of, pertaining to, or having a longing or desire to do or ...
itchmite
itch mite n. A parasitic mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) that burrows into the skin and causes scabies. * * *
itchy
—itchiness, n. /ich"ee/, adj., itchier, itchiest. 1. having or causing an itching sensation. 2. characterized by itching. [1520-30; ITCH, + -Y1; cf. OE giccig (rare) purulent, ...
itea
/it"ee euh, uy"tee euh/, n. any tree or shrub belonging to the genus Itea, of the saxifrage family, having simple, alternate leaves and clusters of small, greenish-white flowers, ...
Itelmen
/ee'tel men"/, n. 1. a member of a small group of Paleo-Asiatic people inhabiting the Kamchatka peninsula in eastern Siberia. 2. the Chukotian language of the Itelmen people. ...
item
n., v. /uy"teuhm/; adv. /uy"tem/, n. 1. a separate article or particular: 50 items on the list. 2. a separate piece of information or news, as a short piece in a newspaper or ...
item veto
See line-item veto. * * *
itemization
See itemize. * * *
itemize
—itemization, n. —itemizer, n. /uy"teuh muyz'/, v., itemized, itemizing. v.t. 1. to state by items; give the particulars of; list the individual units or parts of: to itemize ...
itemizer
See itemization. * * *
itemveto
item veto n. See line-item veto. * * *
Iténez
Iténez [ē tā′nes] Bolivian name for GUAPORÉ * * *
iter
/it"air, uy"tair/, n. Anat. a canal or passage. [1590-1600; < L: journey, route, passage in the body, akin to ire to go, Hittite itar way, road] * * *
iterance
/it"euhr euhns/, n. iteration. [1595-1605; ITER(ANT) + -ANCE] * * *
iterant
/it"euhr euhnt/, adj. characterized by repetition; repeating. [1620-30; < L iterant- (s. of iterans), prp. of iterare to repeat. See ITERATE, -ANT] * * *
iterate
/it"euh rayt'/, v., iterated, iterating. v.t. 1. to utter again or repeatedly. 2. to do (something) over again or repeatedly. v.i. 3. to operate or be applied repeatedly, as a ...
iterated integral
Math. 1. a double integral that is evaluated by first integrating the integrand with respect to one variable with the second variable being held constant and then integrating the ...
iteration
/it'euh ray"sheuhn/, n. 1. the act of repeating; a repetition. 2. Math. a. a problem-solving or computational method in which a succession of approximations, each building on the ...
iterative
—iteratively, adv. —iterativeness, n. /it"euh ray'tiv, -euhr euh tiv/, adj. 1. repeating; making repetition; repetitious. 2. Gram. frequentative. [1480-90; < LL iterativus. ...
Ithaca
—Ithacan, adj., n. /ith"euh keuh/, n. 1. one of the Ionian Islands, off the W coast of Greece: legendary home of Ulysses. 4156; 37 sq. mi. (96 sq. km). 2. a city in S New York ...
Ithaca College
▪ college, Ithaca, New York, United States       private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Ithaca, New York, U.S. It comprises the Roy H. Park School of ...
Itháki
I·thá·ki (ē-thäʹkē) also Ith·a·ca (ĭthʹə-kə) An island of western Greece in the Ionian Islands. According to tradition, it was the home of Odysseus, the hero of ...
ither
—itherness, n. /idh"euhr/, adj., pron., adv. Brit. Dial. other. * * *
Ithnā {ʽ}Ashariyyah
or Imāmīs English Twelvers The largest school of Shīite Islam, believing in a succession of 12 imams beginning with Alī ibn Abū Ṭālib, the fourth caliph and the ...
Ithnā ʿAsharīyah
▪ Islamic sect also called  Imāmīs , English  Twelvers        an important sect of the Shīʿah (one of the major branches of Islām), believing in a succession ...
Ithome
/i thoh"mee/, n. 1. Mount, a mountain in SW Greece, in SW Peloponnesus. 2630 ft. (802 m). 2. in ancient geography, a fortress of Messenia on Mount Ithome. * * *
Ithunn
/ee"dhoon/, n. Idun. Also, Ithun. * * *
ithyphallic
/ith'euh fal"ik/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to the phallus carried in ancient festivals of Bacchus. 2. grossly indecent; obscene. 3. Class. Pros. noting or pertaining to any of ...
itinerancy
/uy tin"euhr euhn see, i tin"-/, n. 1. the act of traveling from place to place. 2. a going around from place to place in the discharge of duty or the conducting of business. 3. ...
itinerant
—itinerantly, adv. /uy tin"euhr euhnt, i tin"-/, adj. 1. traveling from place to place, esp. on a circuit, as a minister, judge, or sales representative; itinerating; ...
itinerantly
See itinerant. * * *
itinerarium
/uy tin'euh rair"ee euhm, i tin'-/, n., pl. itineraria /-euh rair"ee euh/, itinerariums. Rom. Cath. Ch. a prayer in the breviary, used by a priest about to begin a ...
itinerary
/uy tin"euh rer"ee, i tin"-/, n., pl. itineraries, adj. n. 1. a detailed plan for a journey, esp. a list of places to visit; plan of travel. 2. a line of travel; route. 3. an ...
itinerate
—itineration, n. /uy tin"euh rayt', i tin"-/, v.i., itinerated, itinerating. to go from place to place, esp. in a regular circuit, as a preacher or judge. [1590-1600; < LL ...
itineration
See itinerate. * * *
Ito
/ee"taw"/, n. Prince Hirobumi /hee"rddaw booh"mee/, 1841-1909, Japanese statesman. * * * ▪ Japan       city, Shizuoka ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It ...
ITO
International Trade Organization. * * * ▪ Japan       city, Shizuoka ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It is located on the east coast of the Izu Peninsula ...
Itō Hirobumi
born Oct. 14, 1841, Suō province, Japan died Oct. 26, 1909, Harbin, Manchuria, China Japanese statesman, prime minister, and writer of the Meiji Constitution. He played a ...
Itō Jakuchū
▪ Japanese painter also called  Jokin   born March 2, 1716, Kyōto, Japan died Oct. 27, 1800, Kyōto       Japanese painter of the mid-Tokugawa period (1603–1867) ...
Itō Jinsai
born Aug. 30, 1627, Kyōto, Japan died April 4, 1795, Kyōto Japanese Confucian scholar. The son of a lumberman, he devoted himself to scholarship. He opposed the authoritarian ...
Ito, Kiyoshi
▪ 2009       Japanese mathematician born Sept. 7, 1915, Hokusei-cho, Mie prefecture, Japan died Nov. 10, 2008, Kyoto, Japan was a major contributor to the theory of ...
Ito,Prince Hirobumi
I·to (ēʹtō'), Prince Hirobumi. 1841-1909. Japanese politician who helped draft the constitution of 1889 and served as prime minister (1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, and ...
itraconazole
it·ra·con·a·zole (ĭt'rə-kŏnʹĭ-zōl) n. A broad-spectrum antifungal agent administered orally to treat a variety of fungal infections.   [itra-(shortening and ...
its
/its/, pron. the possessive form of it (used as an attributive adjective): The book has lost its jacket. I'm sorry about its being so late. [1590-1600; earlier it's, equiv. to ...
Itsekiri
▪ people also called  Jekri,  Isekiri , or  Ishekiri        ethnic group inhabiting the westernmost part of the Niger River delta of extreme southern Nigeria. ...
itself
/it self"/, pron. 1. a reflexive form of it: The battery recharges itself. 2. an emphatic appositive of it, which, that, this, or a noun: which itself is also true; Even without ...
Itsuku Island
▪ island, Japan also called  Miya Island , English  Shrine Island   offshore island, Hiroshima ken (prefecture), Japan, in the Inland Sea. The small island, one of ...
Itsukushima
I·tsu·ku·shi·ma (ĭt'so͞o-ko͞oʹshĭ-mə) An island of southwest Japan in the Inland Sea southwest of Hiroshima. It is noted for its ancient Shinto shrine and scenic ...
ITT Corporation
▪ American company also called (until 1983)  International Telephone And Telegraph Corporation        , former American telecommunications company that grew into a ...
itty-bitty
/it"ee bit"ee/, adj. Informal. very small; tiny. Also, itsy-bitsy /it"see bit"see/. [1890-95; rhyming compound based on little bit; cf. -SY, -Y1] * * *
ITU
International Telecommunication Union. * * *
iTunes
a website run by Apple which allows people to download music onto their computer in a digital form legally by paying an amount per song. It is particularly aimed at people who ...
Ituraea
It·u·rae·a (ĭch'ə-rēʹə) An ancient country of northeast Palestine. The area was first inhabited by Arabians and later passed to Judea and Rome.   It'u·raeʹan adj. & ...
Ituraean
See Ituraea. * * *
Iturbi
/i terr"bee, i toor"-/; Sp. /ee toohrdd"vee/, n. José, 1895-1980, U.S. pianist, conductor, and composer; born in Spain. * * *
Itúrbide
/ee toohrdd"vee dhe/, n. Agustín de /ah'goohs teen" de/, 1783-1824, Mexican soldier and revolutionary: as Agustín I, emperor of Mexico 1822-23. * * *
Iturbide, Agustín de
or Agustín I born Sept. 27, 1783, Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain died July 19, 1824, Padilla, Mex. Leader of the conservative factions in the Mexican independence ...
Iturbide, Agustínde
I·tur·bi·de (ē'to͞or-bēʹdā), Agustín de. 1783-1824. Mexican revolutionary leader who established Mexican independence from Spain (1821) and served as emperor of Mexico ...
Ituri Forest
▪ forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo Introduction French  Forêt de L'Ituri    dense tropical rainforest lying on the northeastern lip of the Congo River basin in the ...
ITV
instructional television. * * *
ITV news
a digital television (= the system of broadcasting television using digital signals) channel in Britain which broadcasts news 24 hours a day and is owned by ITV plc. It makes ...
ITV plc
➡ ITV * * *
ITV2
a digital television channel in Britain which started in 1998 and is owned by ITV plc. It makes money by showing advertisements. * * *
Itzamná
▪ Mayan deity Mayan“Iguana House”  principal pre-Columbian Mayan deity, ruler of heaven, day, and night. He frequently appeared as four gods called Itzamnás, who encased ...
It’s a Long Way to Tipperary
the title and first line of a music-hall(1) song popular with British soldiers during World War I. Tipperary is a town in southern Ireland, and the singer, an Irishman, wants to ...
It’s a Wonderful Life
a US film (1946) about a man who wishes he had never been born, and the wish becomes real. Frank Capra directed it, and the star was James Stewart, who later chose it as his ...
IU
1. immunizing unit. 2. Also, I.U. international unit. * * *
IUD
See intrauterine device. [1960-65] * * * abbreviation  of Intrauterine Device,         plastic or metal object that is implanted in the uterus to prevent conception. ...
IUPAC names of unbranched alkanes
▪ Table IUPAC names of unbranched alkanes alkane formula name alkane ...
IUS
Rocketry. See inertial upper stage. * * *
IV
/uy"vee"/, n., pl. IVs, IV's. an intravenous device for delivering electrolyte solutions, medicines, and nutrients. [1950-55] 1. intravenous. 2. intravenous drip. 3. intravenous ...
iva
/uy"veuh, ee"veuh/, n. any composite plant of the genus Iva, characterized by usually opposite leaves and inconspicuous greenish-yellow flowers. [ < NL (Linnaeus); of uncert. ...
ivan
/ee"vahn/, n. iwan. * * * (as used in expressions) Albright Ivan Le Lorraine Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Ivan Asen II Ivan III Ivan the Great Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible Ivan ...
Ivan
/uy"veuhn/; Russ. /ee vahn"/, n. a male given name, Russian form of John. * * * (as used in expressions) Albright Ivan Le Lorraine Bunin Ivan Alekseyevich Ivan Asen II Ivan ...
Ivan Asen I
▪ tsar of Bulgaria also called  Asen I   died 1196       tsar of the Second Bulgarian empire from 1186 to 1196, during one of the most brilliant periods of the ...
Ivan Asen II
died 1241 Tsar of the Second Bulgarian empire (1218–41). He took the throne after overthrowing and blinding his cousin Boril. A good soldier and administrator, Ivan restored ...
Ivan I
▪ Russian prince in full  Ivan Danilovich,  byname  Ivan Moneybag,  Russian  Ivan Kalita  born 1304? died March 31, 1340, Moscow       grand prince of Moscow ...
Ivan II
▪ Russian prince in full  Ivan Ivanovich,  byname  Ivan The Red,  Russian  Ivan Krasny  born March 30, 1326 died Nov. 13, 1359       grand prince of Moscow and ...
Ivan III
("Ivan the Great") 1440-1505, grand duke of Muscovy 1462-1505. * * * known as Ivan the Great born Jan. 22, 1440, Moscow died Oct. 27, 1505, Moscow Grand prince of Moscow ...
Ivan IV
("Ivan the Terrible") 1530-84, first czar of Russia 1547-84. * * * Russian Ivan Vasilyevich known as Ivan the Terrible born Aug. 25, 1530, Kolomenskoye, near Moscow died March ...
Ivan V
Russian Ivan Alekseyevich born Sept. 6, 1666, Moscow, Russia died Feb. 8, 1696, Moscow Nominal tsar of Russia (1682–96). When his brother Tsar Fyodor III died, Ivan, a ...
Ivan VI
Russian Ivan Antonovich born Aug. 23, 1740, St. Petersburg, Russia died July 16, 1764, Shlisselburg Fortress, near St. Petersburg Infant emperor of Russia (1740–41). The ...
Ivanhoe
/uy"veuhn hoh'/, n. a novel (1819) by Sir Walter Scott. * * *
IvanIII Vasilievich
I·van III Va·sil·ie·vich (īʹvən, ē-vänʹ; və-sĭlʹyə-vĭch'), Known as “Ivan the Great.” 1440-1505. Grand duke of Muscovy (1462-1505). His victories against the ...
IvanIV Vasilievich
Ivan IV Vasilievich, Known as “Ivan the Terrible.” 1530-1584. The first czar of Russia (1547-1584). He conducted unsuccessful wars against Sweden and Livonia and terrorized ...
Ivano-Frankivs'k
I·va·no-Fran·kivs'k (ĭ-vä'nō-fräng-kĭvskʹ, ē-vä'nō-fräng-kēwskʹ) or I·va·no-Fran·kovsk (-kôvskʹ, -kôfskʹ) A city of southwest Ukraine southwest of Kiev. ...
Ivano-Frankivsk
▪ Ukraine Russian  Ivano-Frankovsk , formerly  Stanisławów,  Stanyslaviv , or  Stanislav        city, western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just ...
Ivano-Frankovsk
/ee vah"neuh frddun kawfsk"/; Eng. /i vah"noh frahng kawfsk", -kofsk"/, n. a city in W Ukraine, S of Lvov. 150,000. Formerly, Stanislav. Polish, Stanislawów. * * *
Ivanov
/ee vah"neuhf/, n. Vsevolod Vyacheslavovich /fsye"veuh leuht vyi chyi slah"veuh vyich/, 1895-1963, Russian playwright. * * *
Ivanov, Georgy
▪ Bulgarian cosmonaut original name  Georgy Kakalov  born Feb. 7, 1940, Lovech, Bulg.       Bulgarian cosmonaut (astronaut) who became the first Bulgarian in ...
Ivanov, Ilya Ivanovich
▪ Soviet biologist born Aug. 1, 1870, Shigry, Kursk guberniya [province], Russia died March 20, 1932, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]       Soviet ...
Ivanov, Lev
▪ Russian dancer born Feb. 18 [Feb. 6, old style], 1834, Moscow died Dec. 24 [Dec. 11, O.S.], 1901, St. Petersburg, Russia       Russian ballet dancer who was ...
Ivanov, Lev (Ivanovich)
born Feb. 18, 1834, Moscow, Russia died Dec. 24, 1901, St. Petersburg Russian dancer and choreographer. He joined the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg in 1852 and became lead ...
Ivanov, Vsevolod Vyacheslavovich
▪ Soviet writer born Feb. 24 [Feb. 12, old style], 1895, Lebyazhye, Russia died Aug. 15, 1963, Moscow       Soviet prose writer noted for his vivid naturalistic ...
Ivanov, Vyacheslav
▪ Soviet athlete born July 30, 1938, Moscow, U.S.S.R.       Soviet rower who became the first three-time Olympic gold medalist in the prestigious single scull ...
Ivanov, Vyacheslav Ivanovich
born Feb. 28, 1866, Moscow died July 16, 1949, Rome Russian philosopher, scholar, and poet. He studied in Berlin and spent much of his life abroad, especially in Italy, where ...
Ivanovich
(as used in expressions) Alferov Zhores Ivanovich Bukharin Nikolay Ivanovich Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Denikin Anton Ivanovich Fyodor Ivanovich Glinka ...
Ivanovo
/ee vah"neuh veuh/, n. a city in the W Russian Federation in Europe, NE of Moscow. 465,000. Formerly, Ivanovo Voznesensk /voz'neuh sensk"/; Russ. /veuh znyi syensk"/. * * * ▪ ...
Ivanovsky, Dmitry Iosifovich
▪ Russian microbiologist born November 9 [October 28, Old Style], 1864, Nizy, Russia died June 20, 1920, Rostov-na-Donu, Russian S.S.R.       Russian microbiologist ...
Iványi Grünwald, Béla
▪ Hungarian painter Hungarian form  Iványi Grünwald Béla  born May 6, 1867, Somogysom, Hung. died Sept. 24, 1940, Budapest       Hungarian painter, one of the ...
Ivar
/uy"veuhr, ee"veuhr/, n. a male or female given name. * * *
Ive, Jonathan
▪ 2004       The man who liberated the personal computer from its gray or beige box, British designer Jonathan Ive, was named the 2003 Designer of the Year by the Design ...
Ivens, Joris
▪ Dutch director byname of  Georg Henri Anton Ivens   born Nov. 18, 1898, Nijmegen, Neth. died June 28, 1989, Paris, France       Dutch motion-picture director who ...
Iverson, Allen
▪ 2002       With his remarkable play during the 2000–01 National Basketball Association (NBA) regular season and a gritty, determined performance during the ...
Iverson, Kenneth Eugene
▪ 2005       Canadian-born mathematician and computer scientist (b. Dec. 17, 1920, Camrose, Alta.—d. Oct. 19, 2004, Toronto, Ont.), pioneered a very compact high-level ...
Ives
/uyvz/, n. 1. Burl (Icle Ivanhoe) /berrl ik"euhl/, born 1909, U.S. actor and folk singer. 2. Charles Edward, 1874-1954, U.S. composer. 3. Frederic Eugene, 1856-1937, U.S. ...
Ives, Burl
orig. Charles Icle Ivanhoe Ives born June 14, 1909, Jasper county, Ill., U.S. died April 14, 1995, Anacortes, Wash. U.S. singer and actor. Ives began performing at age four ...
Ives, Burl Icle Ivanhoe
▪ 1996       U.S. singer and actor (b. June 14, 1909, Hunt, Ill.—d. April 14, 1995, Anacortes, Wash.), was the portly, goateed entertainer whose mellifluous renditions ...
Ives, Charles
▪ American composer born Oct. 20, 1874, Danbury, Conn., U.S. died May 19, 1954, New York City       significant American composer who is known for a number of ...
Ives, Charles E(dward)
born Oct. 20, 1874, Danbury, Conn., U.S. died May 19, 1954, New York, N.Y. U.S. composer. Ives claimed to be the product of training by his father, George, a highly imaginative ...
Ives, Frederic Eugene
▪ American photographer and inventor born Feb. 17, 1856, Litchfield, Conn., U.S. died May 27, 1937, Philadelphia       American photographer and ...
Ives,Charles Edward
Ives (īvz), Charles Edward. 1874-1954. American composer whose works anticipated those of later 20th-century musicians in their abandonment of conventional tonality. His Third ...
Ives,James Merritt
Ives, James Merritt. 1824-1895. American lithographer who with his partner Nathaniel Currier produced more than 7,000 popular prints depicting scenes from American life. * * *
IVF
in vitro fertilization. * * *
ivied
/uy"veed/, adj. covered or overgrown with ivy: ivied walls. [1765-75; IVY + -ED3] * * *
Ivins, Molly
▪ 2008 Mary Tyler Ivins  American political satirist born Aug. 30, 1944 , Monterey, Calif. died Jan. 31, 2007 , Austin, Texas wrote a newspaper column from a staunchly ...
Ivittuut
▪ Greenland formerly  Ivigtût,         town in southwestern Greenland, on the 20-miles- (32-km-) long Arsuk Fjord, southeast of Paamiut (Frederikshåb). Nearby is a ...
Iviza
/ee vee"sah/, n. Ibiza. * * *
Ivo of Chartres, Saint
▪ French bishop French  Saint Yves de Chartres   born c. 1040, near Beauvais, France died Dec. 23, 1116, Chartres; canonization date unknown; feast day May ...
Ivoirian
See Ivorian. * * *
Ivor
/uy"veuhr, ee"veuhr/, n. a male given name. * * *
Ivor Armstrong Richards
➡ Richards (II) * * *
Ivor Novello
➡ Novello * * *
Ivorian
See Côte d'Ivoire. * * *
ivory
—ivorylike, adj. /uy"veuh ree, uy"vree/, n., pl. ivories, adj. n. 1. the hard white substance, a variety of dentin, composing the main part of the tusks of the elephant, ...
ivory black
a fine black pigment made by calcining ivory. [1625-35] * * *
ivory carving
Carving of ivory into decorative or utilitarian objects. It has flourished since prehistoric times. Most Stone Age carvings have been found in southern France, in the forms of ...
Ivory Coast
—Ivorian /uy vawr"ee euhn, uy vohr"-/, adj., n. a republic in W Africa: formerly part of French West Africa; gained independence 1960. 14,986,218; 127,520 sq. mi. (330,275 sq. ...
ivory gull
a white, arctic gull, Pagophila eburnea. [1915-20] * * *
ivory nut
1. the seed of a low, South American palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa, yielding vegetable ivory. 2. a similar seed from other palms. [1915-20] * * *
ivory palm
the palm bearing the common ivory nut. [1835-45] * * *
Ivory soap
a popular US soap that floats, made by Procter & Gamble since 1879. It is advertised as being ‘99 and 44/100ths percent pure’ and ‘so pure it floats’. Ivory has bubbles ...
ivory tower
—ivory-towered, ivory-towerish, adj. —ivory-towerism, ivorytowerishness, n. —ivory-towerist, ivory-towerite, n. 1. a place or situation remote from worldly or practical ...
Ivory, James (Francis)
born June 7, 1928, Berkeley, Calif., U.S. U.S. film director. While directing a documentary on India in the 1960s, he met a local producer, Ismail N. Merchant (b. 1936), ...
ivory-billed woodpecker
/uy"veuh ree bild', uy"vree-/ a large, nearly extinct, black and white woodpecker, Campephilus principalis, of the southern U.S. and Cuba, having an ivory-colored bill. [1805-15, ...
ivory-billedwoodpecker
i·vo·ry-billed woodpecker (īʹvə-rē-bĭld', īvʹrē-) n. A large extinct woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) of the southern United States and Cuba, having black plumage, ...
ivory-nutpalm
i·vor·y-nut palm (īʹvə-rē-nŭt', īvʹrē-) n. An ivory palm. * * *
ivory-white
/uy"veuh ree hwuyt", -wuyt", uy"vree-/, adj. of a creamy or yellowish white in color. [1585-95] * * *
ivorybill
i·vo·ry·bill (īʹvə-rē-bĭl', īvʹrē-) n. See ivory-billed woodpecker. * * *
ivoryblack
ivory black n. A black pigment prepared from charred ivory. * * *
IvoryCoast
I·vo·ry Coast (īʹvə-rē, īvʹrē) 1. See Côte d'Ivoire. 2. A section of coastal western Africa along the Gulf of Guinea roughly corresponding to present-day Côte ...
ivorynut
ivory nut n. The seed of the ivory palm, having bony endosperm that is used as a substitute for true ivory. * * *
ivorypalm
ivory palm n. A stemless, unarmed dioecious palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa) native to Brazil and Peru and having hard seeds that yield an ivorylike substance. * * *
ivorytower
ivory tower n. A place or attitude of retreat, especially preoccupation with lofty, remote, or intellectual considerations rather than practical everyday life.   [Translation of ...
ivorytype
/uy"veuh ree tuyp', uy"vree-/, n. Photog. an antiquated photoprinting technique in which two prints are made of the same image, and the weaker one, made transparent with varnish ...
Ivrea
▪ Italy Latin  Eporedia,         town and episcopal see, Piemonte ( Piedmont) region, northwestern Italy, on the Dora Baltea River, north of Turin. The importance of ...
Ivry-sur-Seine
▪ France       industrial suburb southeast of Paris, in Val-de-Marne département, Paris région, France. It is bounded on the northwest by the city limits of Paris ...
ivy
—ivylike, adj. /uy"vee/, n., pl. ivies, adj. n. 1. Also called English ivy. a climbing vine, Hedera helix, having smooth, shiny, evergreen leaves, small, yellowish flowers, and ...
Ivy
/uy"vee/, n. a female given name. * * * I Any of about five species of evergreen woody vines (rarely shrubs) that make up the genus Hedera in the ginseng family, commonly grown ...
ivy geranium
a trailing geranium, Pelargonium peltatum, of southern Africa, having a fleshy stem that becomes woody with age, glossy, ivy-shaped leaves, and clusters of flowers ranging from ...
Ivy League
—Ivy Leaguer. 1. a group of colleges and universities in the northeastern U.S., consisting of Yale, Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, Dartmouth, Cornell, the University of ...
ivy vine.
See Virginia creeper. [1865-70] * * *
IvyLeague
Ivy League n. An association of eight universities and colleges in the northeast United States, comprising Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, the University ...
IvyLeaguer
See Ivy League. * * *
IW
IW abbr. 1. index word. 2. isotopic weight. * * *
Iwaki
/ee wah"kee/, n. a city on NE Honshu, in Japan. 342,076. Formerly, Taira. * * * ▪ Japan       city, Fukushima ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, facing the Pacific ...
Iwaki, Hiroyuki
▪ 2007       Japanese conductor (b. Sept. 6, 1932, Tokyo, Japan—d. June 13, 2006, Tokyo), was the energetic chief conductor (1974–89) of the Melbourne Symphony ...
Iwakuni
▪ Japan       city, Yamaguchi ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It is situated in the delta of the Nishiki River, facing Hiroshima Bay. A castle town founded in 1603 by ...
Iwakura Tomomi
▪ Japanese statesman born Oct. 26, 1825, Kyōto, Japan died July 20, 1883, Tokyo  one of Japan's most influential statesmen of the 19th century.       He was born to ...
Iwamizawa
▪ Japan       city, central Hokkaido, Japan. It lies along the levee of the Ikushunbetsu River, northeast of Sapporo. It developed around the railway station built on ...
iwan
/ee"wahn/, n. a vaulted portal opening onto a courtyard: used often in Iranian mosque architecture. Also, ivan, liwan. [ < Pers iwan] * * *
Iwasa Matabei
▪ Japanese painter original name  Araki Katsumochi   born 1578, Japan died July 20, 1650, Edo [now Tokyo]       Japanese painter of the early Tokugawa period ...
Iwasaki Yatarō
▪ Japanese industrialist born Jan. 9, 1835, Tosa province, Japan died Feb. 7, 1885, Tokyo  industrial entrepreneur who founded the Mitsubishi (Mitsubishi Group) zaibatsu, the ...
Iwaszkiewicz, Jarosław
▪ Polish poet born February 20, 1894, Kalnik, Russian Empire [now in Ukraine] died March 2, 1980, Stawisko, near Warsaw, Poland       Polish poet, novelist, playwright, ...
Iwate
▪ prefecture, Japan  ken (prefecture), northeastern Honshu, Japan, bordering the Pacific Ocean (east). The greater part of its area is mountainous, and the climate is cold. ...
IWC
International Whaling Commission. * * *
iwis
/i wis"/, adv. Obs. certainly. Also, ywis. [bef. 900; ME, adv. use of neut. of OE gewiss (adj.) certain; c. D gewis, G gewiss certain, certainly; akin to WIT2; see Y-] * * *
Iwo
/ee"woh/, n. a city in SW Nigeria. 191,684. * * * ▪ Nigeria       town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies 6 miles (10 km) north of the Iwo station on the ...
Iwo Jima
/ee"weuh jee"meuh, ee"woh/; Japn. /ee"waw jee"mah/ one of the Volcano Islands, in the N Pacific, S of Japan: under U.S. administration after 1945; returned to Japan 1968. * * ...
IwoJima
I·wo Ji·ma (ē'wə jēʹmə, ēʹwō) The largest of the Volcano Islands of Japan in the northwest Pacific Ocean east of Taiwan. The island was the scene of severe fighting ...
IWW
☆ IWW abbrev. Industrial Workers of the World * * * IWW abbr. Industrial Workers of the World. * * * (in full the Industrial Workers of the World) a US trade union of 43 ...
IX
(as used in expressions) Rama IX Charles IX Christian IX Constantine IX Monomachus Gregory IX Leo IX Saint Louis IX Pius IX * * *
Ixcatec
▪ people       Middle American Indians living in a single town, Santa María Ixcatlán, in northern Oaxaca, Mex. There were perhaps 10,000 Ixcatec before the Spanish ...
Ixelles
/eek sel"/, n. a city in central Belgium, near Brussels. 86,450. Flemish, Elsene. * * * ▪ Belgium Flemish  Elsene        municipality, Brussels-Capital Region, ...
ixia
/ik"see euh/, n. any of various southern African plants of the genus Ixia, of the iris family, having sword-shaped leaves and showy, ornamental flowers. [ < NL (Linnaeus) < Gk ...
Ixion
/ik suy"euhn, ik"see on'/, n. Class. Myth. a king who was punished by Zeus for his love for Hera by being bound on an eternally revolving wheel in Tartarus. * * * ▪ Greek ...
ixodid
/ik sod"id, -soh"did, ik"seuh did/, n. 1. any of numerous ticks of the family Ixodidae, comprising the hard ticks. adj. 2. belonging or pertaining to the family ...
ixora
/ik"seuhr euh/, n. any of numerous tropical shrubs or trees belonging to the genus Ixora, of the madder family, having glossy leaves and clusters of showy flowers in a variety of ...
Ixtaccihuatl
/ees'tahk see"waht'l/, n. Iztaccihuatl. Also, Ixtacihuatl /ees'tah see"waht'l/. * * *
Ixtacihuatl
Ixtacihuatl [ēs΄tä sē′wät'l] volcanic mountain in central Mexico, southeast of Mexico City: 17,343 ft (5,286 m) also sp. Ixtaccihuatl or Iztaccihuatl * * *
ixtle
/iks"tlee, ist"lee/, n. istle. * * *
Ixtlilxóchitl
▪ Aztec chieftain flourished 1500–1550       Aztec chieftain, the chief of Texcoco who supported the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués ...
Iyar
/ee yahr", ee"yahr/, n. the eighth month of the Jewish calendar. Also, Iyyar. Cf. Jewish calendar. [1730-40; < Heb iyyar] * * *
Iyengar, B.K.S.
▪ 1999       In 1998 B.K.S. Iyengar, unlike most octogenarians, celebrated his 80th birthday year at the height of his fame and in outstanding physical and mental ...
Iyer, Raghavan Narasimhan
▪ 1996       Indian-born political philosopher, Hindu scholar, and founder of the Institute of World Culture, Santa Barbara, Calif. (b. March 10, 1930—d. June 20, ...
Iyeyasu
/ee"ye yah"sooh/, n. Tokugawa /taw"kooh gah"wah/, 1542-1616, Japanese general and public servant. Also, Ieyasu. * * *
Izabal
/ee'sah vahl"/; Eng. /ee'zeuh bahl", -seuh-/, n. Lake, a lake in E Guatemala: the largest in the country. ab. 450 sq. mi. (1165 sq. km). Also called Dulce Gulf. * * *
Izabal, Lake
Lake, Guatemala. The country's largest lake, it occupies the lowlands in northeastern Guatemala. Fed by the Polochic River, it drains through the Dulce River into the Caribbean ...
Izalco
I·zal·co (ĭ-zălʹkō, ē-sälʹ-) A volcano, about 2,388 m (7,828 ft) high, of western El Salvador. Having erupted some 50 times between 1770 and 1966, it is sometimes ...
Izalco Volcano
▪ volcano, El Salvador Spanish  Volcán Izalco        volcano in western El Salvador on the southern slope of Santa Ana. It is the most active volcano in Central ...
Izanagi
/ee"zah nah"gee/, n. the Japanese god who fathered the islands and gods of Japan by a union with his sister Izanami. * * *
Izanagi and Izanami
Brother and sister gods in the Japanese creation myth. They created the first land mass, and their sexual union produced many islands and deities. In giving birth to the fire ...
Izanami
/ee"zah nah"mee/, n. a Japanese goddess, the sister of Izanagi. * * *
izar
/i zahr"/, n. a long, usually white cotton dress that covers the body completely, worn by women of North Africa and the Middle East. [1830-40; < Ar izar] * * *
izard
/iz"euhrd/, n. a chamois that inhabits the Pyrenees. [1785-95; < F, var. of isard < dial. (Gascon) isart] * * *
Izard
/iz"euhrd/, n. Ralph, 1742-1804, U.S. diplomat and politician. * * *
izba
/iz bah"/, n. the traditional log house of rural Russia, with an unheated entrance room and a single living and sleeping room heated by a clay or brick stove. Also, ...
Izetbegovic, Alija
I·zet·beg·o·vić (ĭ'zĕt-bĕgʹə-vĭch), Alija. Born 1925. Bosnian lawyer and politician who was elected president of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1990. * * * ▪ ...
Izetbegović,Alija
I·zet·beg·o·vić (ĭ'zĕt-bĕgʹə-vĭch), Alija. Born 1925. Bosnian lawyer and politician who was elected president of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1990. * * *
Izhevsk
/ee"zhifsk"/, n. a city in and the capital of the Udmurt Autonomous Republic, in the Russian Federation in Europe. 549,000. * * * ▪ Russia also spelled ...
Izmayil
▪ Ukraine also spelled  Izmail        city, southern Ukraine. It lies on the north bank of the main Danube distributary some 50 miles (80 km) from the Black Sea. In ...
Izmir
/iz"mear/, n. 1. Formerly, Smyrna. a seaport in W Turkey on the Gulf of Izmir: important city of Asia Minor from ancient times. 636,078. 2. Gulf of. Formerly, Gulf of Smyrna. an ...
Izmit
/iz mit"/, n. a city in NW Turkey, on the E coast of the Sea of Marmara. 141,681. Also, Kocaeli. * * * ▪ Turkey also called  Kocaeli        city, northwestern ...
İzmit earthquake of 1999
also called  Kocaeli earthquake  or  Gölcük earthquake        devastating earthquake that struck near the city of İzmit in northwestern Turkey on Aug. 17, 1999. ...


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