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Japan clover n. An annual plant (Lespedeza striata) native to China and Japan, having compound leaves with many leaflets and small pink axillary flowers. Cultivated as a forage ...
Japan Current n. A warm ocean current flowing northeast from the Philippine Sea past southeast Japan to the North Pacific. Also called Kuroshio Current. * * *
/jap'euh neez", -nees"/, adj., n., pl. Japanese. adj. 1. of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Japan, its people, or their language. n. 2. a native or inhabitant of Japan. 3. a ...
Japanese Alps
▪ mountains, Japan Japanese  Nihon (or Nippon) Arupusu        mountains, central Honshu, Japan. The term Japanese Alps was first applied to the Hida Range in the ...
Japanese andromeda
an Asian evergreen shrub, Pieris japonica, of the heath family, having broad, glossy leaves and drooping clusters of whitish blossoms. Also called andromeda. [1945-50] * * *
Japanese anemone
an eastern Asian plant, Anemone hupehensis, of the buttercup family, having purplish or reddish flowers and grown widely in gardens. [1880-85] * * *
Japanese arborvitae
a Japanese evergreen tree, Thuja standishii, having spreading branches with bright-green leaves. * * *
Japanese artichoke.
See Chinese artichoke. [1900-05] * * *
Japanese barberry
a thorny barberry, Berberis thunbergii, of Japan, having yellow flowers and bearing bright-red fruit, grown as a hedge plant. * * *
Japanese baseball leagues
▪ baseball, Japan       professional baseball leagues in Japan. Baseball was introduced to Japan in the 1870s by teachers from the United States, and, by the end of the ...
Japanese beetle
a small beetle, Popillia japonica, of the scarab family, introduced into the eastern U.S. from Japan, the adult of which feeds on the foliage of fruit and other trees, and the ...
Japanese black pine
a pine, Pinus thunbergiana, of Japan, grown as a seaside ornamental in the U.S. * * *
Japanese bobtail
Japanese bobtail n. any of a breed of domestic cat, originating in Japan, with a very short, fluffy tail, and a soft, silky coat often in three colors, white, black, and red * * *
Japanese cedar
▪ tree also called  Japanese redwood , or  peacock pine (species Cryptomeria japonica)        a coniferous evergreen timber tree and only species of the genus ...
Japanese cedar.
See Japan cedar. [1875-80] * * *
Japanese chestnut.
See under chestnut (def. 1). * * *
Japanese Chin
/chin/ one of a Japanese breed of toy dogs having a long, silky, black and white or red and white coat and a tail carried over the back. * * *
Japanese Civil Code
▪ Japanese law Japanese  Mimpō,         body of private law adopted in 1896 that, with post-World War II modifications, remains in effect in present-day Japan. The ...
Japanese clematis
a Japanese woody vine, Clematis paniculata, of the buttercup family, having dense clusters of fragrant, white flowers and plumed fruit. * * *
Japanese deer
      hoofed mammal, a subspecies of sika (q.v.). * * *
Japanese flowering cherry
any of various ornamental hybrid cherry trees developed in Japan, having white or pink blossoms and inedible fruit. Also called Japanese cherry. * * *
Japanese gelatin
agar (def. 1). Also called Japanese isinglass. * * *
Japanese holly
an evergreen shrub, Ilex crenata, of Japan, having black fruit and box-shaped foliage, widely grown as an ornamental. * * *
Japanese honeysuckle
a climbing honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica, introduced into the eastern U.S. from Asia, having fragrant, white flowers that fade to yellow. * * *
Japanese in Latin America
▪ 1997       by Sarah Cameron       Beginning in the late 1880s, millions of immigrants went to Latin America seeking freedom, land, and economic opportunities. ...
Japanese iris
a plant, Iris kaempferi, native to Japan, having broad, showy flowers in a variety of colors. [1880-85] * * *
Japanese ivy
Japanese ivy n. BOSTON IVY * * *
Japanese ivy.
See Boston ivy. * * *
Japanese knotweed.
See Mexican bamboo. * * *
Japanese lacquer
lacquer (def. 2). [1895-1900] * * *
Japanese language
Language spoken by about 125 million people on the islands of Japan, including the Ryukyus. The only other language of the Japanese archipelago is Ainu (see Ainu), now spoken by ...
Japanese lantern
Japanese lantern n. CHINESE LANTERN * * *
Japanese lantern.
See Chinese lantern. [1890-95] * * *
Japanese larch
a tree, Larix kaempferi, of Japan, having bluish-green leaves and egg-shaped cones. [1860-65] * * *
Japanese laurel
an eastern Asian evergreen shrub, Aucuba japonica, of the dogwood family, having dark-green, glossy leaves and scarlet berries. * * *
Japanese law
Law as it has developed in Japan as a consequence of the combination of two cultural and legal traditions, one indigenous Japanese, the other Western. In the 8th century Japan ...
Japanese lawn grass.
See Korean lawn grass. * * *
Japanese literature
Introduction       the body of written works produced by Japanese authors in Japanese or, in its earliest beginnings, at a time when Japan had no written language, in the ...
Japanese maple
a small, graceful maple tree, Acer palmatum, of Korea and Japan, having small, purple flowers, the foliage turning bright red in autumn. Also called full-moon ...
Japanese mink
1. a dark-brown arboreal marten, Martes melampus, native to Japan, having a long body and bushy tail. 2. a pale-brown northern Asian weasel, Mustela siberica. * * *
Japanese mythology
      body of stories compiled from oral traditions concerning the legends, gods, ceremonies, customs, practices, and historical accounts of the Japanese ...
Japanese Orthodox church
      autonomous body of the Eastern Orthodox church, in canonical relation with the patriarchate of Moscow, which confirms the election of the metropolitan of Tokyo. The ...
Japanese oyster
a commercial oyster, Ostrea gigas, of the Pacific coast of North America, introduced from Japan. * * *
Japanese pagoda tree.
See pagoda tree. [1920-25] * * *
Japanese paper
paper of a high rag content, used for woodcuts, engravings, etc. [1720-30] * * *
Japanese pear
a tree, Pyrus pyrifolia, of China, having bristly toothed leaves and apple-shaped, brownish, hard-fleshed fruit. Also called sand pear. * * *
Japanese persimmon
1. the soft, orange or reddish, edible fruit of an Asian tree, Diospyros kaki. 2. the tree itself. [1905-10] * * *
Japanese philosophy
Conceptual expression of Japanese culture since early 6th century AD. Japanese philosophy is not generally indigenous; Japanese thinkers have always skillfully assimilated alien ...
Japanese plum
1. a small tree, Prunus salicina, native to China, bearing edible yellowish fruit. 2. a related shrub, P. japonica, native to China and Korea, having pink flowers and edible red ...
Japanese quail.
See under coturnix. * * *
Japanese quince
a flowering quince, Chaenomeles speciosa, of Japan, having scarlet flowers and pear-shaped fruit. [1895-1900] * * *
Japanese Red Army
▪ militant organization in full  United Red Army  Japanese  Rengo Sekigun        militant Japanese organization that was formed in 1969 in the merger of two ...
Japanese river fever.
See scrub typhus. * * *
Japanese silk
raw silk of usually high quality produced in Japan, used in the manufacture of such fabrics as shantung and habutai. [1870-75] * * *
Japanese spaniel
former name of Japanese Chin. [1875-80] * * * ▪ breed of dog also called  Japanese Chin    breed of toy dog that originated in China and was introduced to Japan, where it ...
Japanese spurge
a low Japanese plant, Pachysandra terminalis, having evergreen leaves and spikes of white flowers, grown as a ground cover. [1920-25] * * *
Japanese torreya
▪ plant also called  nut-bearing torreya , or  Kaya (Torreya nucifera)   an ornamental evergreen timber tree of the yew family (Taxaceae), native to the southern islands ...
Japanese wisteria
a wisteria, Wisteria floribunda, of Japan, having violet, violet-blue, pink, red, or white flowers, grown in the U.S. as an ornamental. * * *
Japanese wolf
a wolf, Canis lupus hodophylax, of Japan. [1875-80] * * *
Japanese writing system
System of modified Chinese characters used for writing the Japanese language. The Japanese developed a mixed system, partly logographic (based on the Chinese writing system) and ...
Japanese yew
a yew, Taxus cuspidata, of Japan, grown as an ornamental. * * * ▪ plant also called  spreading yew (Taxus cuspidata)   an ornamental evergreen shrub or tree of the yew ...
Japanese andromeda n. An ornamental shrub (Pieris japonica) native to Japan and having small, early-blooming white flowers. * * *
Japanese beetle n. A metallic-green and brown beetle (Popillia japonica) native to eastern Asia, the larvae and adults of which feed on and damage various crop plants in North ...
Japanese cedar n. An eastern Asian coniferous evergreen tree (Cryptomeria japonica) having curved, spirally arranged leaves and cultivated as an ornamental and timber tree. Also ...
Japanese clover n. See Japan clover. * * *
Japanese iris n. A Japanese ornamental plant (Iris kaempferi) widely grown for its numerous cultivars, which have large, variously colored, showy flowers. * * *
Japanese ivy n. See Boston ivy. * * *
Japanese maple n. An eastern Asian shrub or small tree (Acer palmatum) widely cultivated for its decorative, deeply and palmately lobed, often reddish foliage. * * *
Japanese persimmon n. See kaki. * * *
Japanese quail n. See coturnix. * * *
Japanese quince n. A Chinese ornamental shrub (Chaenomeles speciosa) having spiny branches, sharply serrate leaves, and red or white flowers. * * *
Japanese radish n. See daikon. * * *
Japaneseriver fever
Japanese river fever n. See scrub typhus. * * *
Japanese spurge n. See pachysandra. * * *
/jap'euh nesk"/, adj. having a Japanese style. [1880-85; JAPAN + -ESQUE] * * *
/jeuh pan"iz euhm/, n. 1. a custom, trait, or other feature peculiar to or characteristic of Japan or its people. 2. devotion to or preference for Japan and its ...
See Japanize. * * *
Jap·a·nize (jăpʹə-nīz') tr. & intr.v. Jap·a·nized, Jap·a·niz·ing, Jap·a·niz·es To make or become Japanese in form, idiom, style, or ...
▪ decorative art  in the decorative arts, process popular in 18th-century Europe for finishing and ornamenting wood, leather, tin, and papier-mâché in imitation of the ...
Japan Trench A depression in the floor of the northern Pacific Ocean off northeast Japan. It extends from the Bonin to the Kuril islands and reaches depths of more than 9,000 m ...
Japan wax n. A pale yellow solid wax obtained from the berries of certain plant species of the genus Rhus and used in wax matches, soaps, and food packaging and as a substitute ...
—japer, n. —japery, n. —japingly, adv. /jayp/, v., japed, japing, n. v.i. 1. to jest; joke; gibe. v.t. 2. to mock or make fun of. n. 3. a joke; jest; quip. 4. a trick or ...
See jape. * * *
See japer. * * *
/jay"fith/, n. a son of Noah. Gen. 5:32. [ < LL < Gk Iapheth < Heb Yepheth] * * *
/jeuh fet"ik/, adj. 1. of or pertaining to Japheth. 2. of or pertaining to a hypothesized group of languages of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and southern Europe, ...
/jap"lish/, n. 1. Japanese spoken or written with a large admixture of English words and expressions. 2. English spoken or written with features characteristic of ...
1. Japan. 2. Japanese. Also, Japn. * * *
/jap'euh nez'euh ree", -nez"euh ree/; Fr. /zhann paw nezeu rddee"/, n. 1. stylistic characteristics, as in art, decor, or film, influenced by or reflective of Japanese culture ...
/jeuh pon"i keuh/, n. the camellia, Camellia japonica, having waxy flowers in a variety of colors. [1810-20; < NL, equiv. to Japon(ia) JAPAN + -ica, fem. of -icus -IC] * * *
Jap·o·nism (jăpʹə-nĭz'əm) n. 1. Something characteristically Japanese. 2. The influence of Japan on European art, especially in impressionism.   [French japonisme, from ...
Port. /zhah'poo rddah"/, n. a river flowing E from the Andes in SW Colombia through NW Brazil to the Amazon. 1750 mi. (2820 km) long. * * *
Japurá River
River, northwestern South America. It rises as the Caquetá River in the Cordillera Central of the Andes Mountains in southwestern Colombia. Afterward it flows through ...
/jeuh pij"id/, n. any eyeless, wingless, primitive insect of the family Japygidae, having a pair of pincers at the rear of its abdomen. [ < NL Japygidae, equiv. to Japyg-, s. of ...
—Jaquesian /jeuh kwee"zee euhn/, adj. /jay"kweez, -kwiz, jayks/, n. a disillusioned and satirical observer of life, in Shakespeare's As You Like It. * * *
Jaques, Elliott
▪ 2004       Canadian-born psychologist and social analyst (b. Jan. 18, 1917, Toronto, Ont.—d. March 8, 2003, Gloucester, Mass.), developed the concept of corporate ...
Fr. /zhahk"dannl krddohz"/, n. Émile Fr. /ay meel"/ 1865-1950, Swiss composer and teacher: created eurythmics. * * *
Jaques-Dalcroze, Émile
born July 6, 1865, Vienna, Austria died July 1, 1950, Geneva, Switz. Swiss music educator and composer. He studied composition with Anton Bruckner, Gabriel Fauré, and Léo ...
jar1 —jarless, adj. /jahr/, n. 1. a broad-mouthed container, usually cylindrical and of glass or earthenware: a cookie jar. 2. the quantity such a container can or does ...
▪ Mexican dance  folk dance for couples, popular in central and southern Mexico, notably in Jalisco state. Derived in colonial times from Spanish popular music and such ...
jarabe tapatío
Sp. /hah rddah"ve tah'pah tee"aw/ a dance of Mexican origin, performed by a couple and consisting of nine figures and melodies, in which the partners often dance facing each ...
/jar"ahsh/, n. Jerash. * * *
jardin anglais
/zhannrdd daonn nahonn gle"/, pl. jardins anglais /zhannrdd daonn zahonn gle"/. French. a landscape garden having winding paths and irregular planting. [lit., English garden] * * ...
Jardin des Plantes
▪ garden and museum, Paris, France officially  Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle , English  Botanical Garden , or  National Museum of Natural ...
/jahr'dn ear", zhahr'dn yair"/, n. 1. an ornamental receptacle or stand for holding plants, flowers, etc. 2. various vegetables diced and boiled or glazed, used for garnishing ...
/jar"id/, n. 1. (in the Book of Mormon) the eponymous ancestor of the Jaredites. 2. a male given name. * * *
/jar"i duyt'/, n. (in Mormon belief) a member of a tribe of people who settled America after the dispersal at Babel. [JARED + -ITE1] * * *
/jahr"fool/, n., pl. jarfuls. the amount that a jar can hold. [1865-70; JAR1 + -FUL] Usage. See -ful. * * *
jargon1 —jargony, jargonistic, adj. —jargonist, jargoneer, n. /jahr"geuhn, -gon/, n. 1. the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or ...
See jargonist. * * *
See jargon. * * *
See jargonist. * * *
—jargonization, n. /jahr"geuh nuyz'/, v., jargonized, jargonizing. v.i. 1. to talk jargon or a jargon. v.t. 2. to translate into jargon. Also, esp. Brit., ...
/jahr"hed'/, n. Slang (disparaging). a U.S. Marine. [JAR1 + HEAD] * * *
Jari River
or Jary River River, northern Brazil. It flows southeast for about 350 mi (560 km) to join the Amazon River at Bôca do Jari. The Jari forms the border between Pará and Amapá ...
Jarid, Chott El-
▪ lake, Tunisia also spelled  Shaṭṭ Al-Jarīd        large saline lake in southwestern Tunisia, occupying a salt-flat basin of about 1,900 square miles (4,900 ...
▪ Arab poet in full  Jarīr ibn ʿAṭīyah ibn al-Khaṭafā   born c. 650, Uthayfīyah, Yamāmah region, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia] died c. 729, ...
—jarldom, n. /yahrl/, n. Scand. Hist. a chieftain; earl. [1810-20; < ON jarl; see EARL] * * *
/yahrlz"berrg/, Trademark. a Norwegian hard cheese, similar to Swiss cheese, with a buttery flavor and large holes. * * *
(1942–94) an English film director, artist and writer who was also known as a campaigner for gay rights. His best-known films include the punk film Jubilee (1978), Sebastiane ...
Jarman, Derek
▪ 1995       British filmmaker (b. Jan. 31, 1942, Northwood, Middlesex, England—d. Feb. 19, 1994, London, England), crafted highly personal avant-garde motion pictures ...
/jahr"moh/, n. a Neolithic village site in northeastern Iraq, dated c6500 B.C. and noted as one of the world's earliest food-producing settlements. * * * ▪ archaeological ...
/jahr"moh uyt'/, n. Archaeol. a member of the prehistoric people of northeastern Iraq in and around the settlement at Jarmo. [JARMO + -ITE1] * * *
Jarnach, Philipp
▪ German composer born July 26, 1892, Noisy, Fr. died Dec. 17, 1982, Börnsen, W.Ger.       German composer who was a follower of the pianist-composer Ferruccio ...
Järnefelt, Armas
▪ Finnish composer in full  Edvard Armas Järnefelt   born Aug. 14, 1869, Viipuri, Fin. [now Vyborg, Russia] died June 23, 1958, Stockholm, Swed.       composer and ...
Jarnés, Benjamín
▪ Spanish author in full  Benjamín Jarnés Y Millán   born Oct. 7, 1888, Codo, Spain died Aug. 11, 1949, Madrid       Spanish novelist and ...
/jar"euh suyt', jeuh roh"suyt/, n. a yellowish or brownish mineral, a hydrous sulfate of potassium and iron, KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, occurring in small crystals or large ...
—jarovization, n. /yahr"euh vuyz'/, v.t., jarovized, jarovizing. to vernalize. Also, iarovize, yarovize. Also esp. Brit., jarovise. [back formation from jarovization < Russ ...
/jar"euh/, n. 1. a hardwood tree, Eucalyptus marginata, of western Australia. 2. the heavy, often attractively grained wood of this tree. [1865-70; < Nyungar jaril] * * *
Jarratt, Devereux
▪ American clergyman born Jan. 17, 1733, Kent county, Va. [U.S.] died Jan. 29, 1801, Dinwiddie county, Va., U.S.       American Anglican clergyman and preacher who ...
/jar"euhl, jeuh rel"/, n. Randall, 1914-65, U.S. poet and critic. * * *
Jarrell, Randall
born May 6, 1914, Nashville, Tenn., U.S. died Oct. 14, 1965, Chapel Hill, N.C. U.S. poet and critic. He taught at the University of North Carolina (Greensboro) from 1947 until ...
Jar·rell (jə-rĕlʹ), Randall. 1914-1965. American poet and critic. His poems, published in collections such as Little Friend, Little Friend (1945), concern war, loneliness, ...
Jarrett, Keith
born May 8, 1945, Allentown, Pa., U.S. U.S. jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader. He played with Art Blakey (1965–66) and with Miles Davis's jazz-rock group (1970–71) ...
Jarrett, Valerie
▪ American lawyer, businesswoman, and politician née  Valerie Bowman  born Nov. 14, 1956, Shīrāz, Iran    American lawyer, businesswoman, and politician who was a ...
Jar·rett (jărʹĭt), Keith. Born 1945. American pianist and composer best known for his solo jazz improvisations, especially The Köln Concert (1975), but also noted for his ...
Jarrico, Paul
▪ 1998       American screenwriter who was blacklisted in the 1950s after being labeled "subversive" by the House Committee on Un-American Activities; his credits ...
See jar2. * * *
/jar"oh/, n. a seaport in Tyne and Wear, in NE England, near the mouth of the Tyne River. 28,779. * * * ▪ England, United Kingdom       North Sea port town, South ...
/zhann rddee"/, n. Alfred /annl frdded"/, 1873-1907, French poet and playwright. * * *
Jarry, Alfred
born Sept. 8, 1873, Laval, France died Nov. 1, 1907, Paris French writer. He went to Paris to live on his inheritance at age 18; after exhausting it, he led a life of ...
Jars, Plain of
▪ region, Laos French  Plain des Jarres , Laotian  Thông Haihin        dissected inner region of the Xiangkhoang Plateau in north-central Laos. Drained principally ...
Järta, Hans
▪ Swedish politician original name  Hans Hierta   born Feb. 11, 1774, Husby, Sweden died April 6, 1847, Uppsala       Swedish political activist, administrator, and ...
/yah'rddooh zel"skee/, n. Wojciech (Witold) /voy"chekh vee"tawld/, born 1923, Polish general and political leader: prime minister 1981-85; president 1989-90. * * *
Jaruzelski, Wojciech (Witold)
born July 6, 1923, Kurow, Pol. Polish army general and chief of state (1981–89) and president (1989–90) of Poland. He rose through the ranks of the army and the Communist ...
Jaruzelski, Wojciech Witold
▪ Polish general born July 6, 1923, Kurow, Pol.       army general and communist leader of Poland, chief of state from 1981 to 1989 and president from 1989 to ...
/jahr"vee/, n., pl. jarveys. Irish Eng. 1. a hackney coachman. 2. a hackney coach. [1790-1800; special use of Jarvey, var. of Jarvis proper name] * * *
/jahr"vik sev"euhn/, Med., Trademark. a four-valved artificial heart for implantation in the human body, replacing the natural heart's ventricles and attaching to its atria: air ...
Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island Introduction Jarvis Island Background: First discovered by the British in 1821, the uninhabited island was annexed by the US ...
Jarvis, John Wesley
▪ American painter born 1781, South Shields, Durham, England died January 14, 1840, New York, New York, U.S.       American painter considered his era's leading ...
Jas abbrev. 1. James 2. Bible (The Letter of) James * * *
Bible. James. * * *
/yah"sheuh/, n. a male given name, Russian form of Jacob or James. * * *
—jaseyed, adj. /jay"zee/, n., pl. jaseys. Brit. Informal. a wig, esp. one made of worsted. [1770-80; perh. var. of JERSEY] * * *
Jashar, Book of
▪ collection of poems       ancient Israelite collection of poems quoted in various books of the Old Testament. Of uncertain etymology, Jashar may mean “victorious” ...
Jashpur Pats
▪ region, India       physiographic region of eastern Chhattisgarh state, central India, extending over Jashpur Tahsil and forming part of the Chota Nagpur plateau ...
Jasmin, Jacques
▪ French poet pseudonym of  Jacques Boé   born March 6, 1798, Agen, Fr. died Oct 4, 1864, Agen  French dialect poet who achieved popular fame for his touching verse ...
—jasmined, adj. —jasminelike, adj. /jaz"min, jas"-/, n. 1. any of numerous shrubs or vines belonging to the genus Jasminum, of the olive family, having fragrant flowers and ...
/jaz"min, jas"-/, n. a female given name. Also, Jasmin, Jasmina /jaz"meuh neuh, jas"-/. * * * Any of about 300 tropical and subtropical species of fragrant, flowering, woody, ...
jasmine tea
tea scented with jasmine blossoms. * * *
jasmine rice n. A fragrant long-grain rice from Thailand. * * *
/jay"seuhn/, n. 1. Class. Myth. a hero, the leader of the Argonauts, who at the request of his uncle Pelias retrieved the Golden Fleece from King Aeëtes of Colchis with the help ...
Jaspar, Henri
▪ Belgian statesman born July 28, 1870, Schaerbeek, Belg. died Feb. 15, 1939, Brussels  Belgian statesman and one of his country's chief negotiators in the peace conferences ...
/ja spay"/; Fr. /zhann spay"/, adj. given a veined and spotted appearance imitating jasper. [1850-55; < F: ptp. of jasper to mottle, deriv. of jaspe JASPER1] * * *
jasper1 /jas"peuhr/, n. 1. a compact, opaque, cryptocrystalline variety of quartz, usually colored red: often used in decorative carvings. 2. Also called cameo ware, jasperware. ...
/jas"peuhr/, n. 1. a city in NW Alabama. 11,894. 2. a resort town in SW Alberta, in SW Canada, on the Athabaska River: headquarters for Jasper National Park. 3060. 3. a male ...
Jasper Johns
➡ Johns * * *
Jasper National Park
a national park in the Canadian Rockies in W Alberta, in SW Canada. * * * National park, western Alberta, Can. Located on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, it was ...
/yahs"peuhrs/, n. Karl /kahrl/, 1883-1969, German philosopher. * * *
Jaspers, Karl
▪ German philosopher Introduction in full  Karl Theodor Jaspers  born Feb. 23, 1883, Oldenburg, Ger. died Feb. 26, 1969, Basel, Switz.  German philosopher, one of the most ...
Jaspers, Karl (Theodor)
born Feb. 23, 1883, Oldenburg, Ger. died Feb. 26, 1969, Basel, Switz. German-Swiss philosopher and psychiatrist. As a research psychiatrist, he helped establish psychopathology ...
Jaspers,Karl Theodor
Jas·pers (yäsʹpərs), Karl Theodor. 1883-1969. German psychiatrist, philosopher, and theologian. A founder of modern existentialism, he was concerned with human reactions to ...
jasper ware or jas·per·ware (jăsʹpər-wâr') n. A fine white stoneware originally produced by Josiah Wedgwood, often colored by metallic oxides with raised designs remaining ...
/jas"peuh ree/, adj. 1. containing or composed of jasper. 2. resembling jasper. [1825-35; JASPER1 + -Y1] * * *
jaspilite [jas′pə līt΄] n. 〚< Gr iaspis,JASPER + -LITE〛 a metamorphic rock consisting primarily of alternating bands of red jasper and hematite * * *
/yahs/, n. 1. a card game for two persons that is played with a 36-card pack made by removing all cards below the sixes from a regular 52-card pack, in which point values are ...
/jas"id/, n. leafhopper. [1890-95; < NL Jassidae, equiv. to Jass(us) a genus (appar. L Jasus a town on the coast of Caria < Gk Iasós) + -idae -IDAE; see -ID2] * * *
/yah"see/; Rum. /yahsh/, n. a city in NE Rumania. 262,493. Also, Yassy. Rumanian, Iasi. * * *
Jassy, Treaty of
(Jan. 9, 1792) Pact signed at Jassy in Moldavia (modern Iaşi, Rom.), at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish Wars. The treaty confirmed Russian dominance in the Black Sea by ...
Jastrow, Robert
▪ 2009       American astrophysicist born Sept. 7, 1925, New York, N.Y. died Feb. 8, 2008, Arlington, Va. popularized space science as a commentator on dozens of ...
Jastrun, Mieczysław
▪ Polish author and poet born October 29, 1903, Korolówka, Austria-Hungary [now in Ukraine] died February 23, 1983, Warsaw, Poland       Polish lyric poet and essayist ...
Jastrzębie Zdrój
▪ Poland       city, Śląskie województwo (province), southern Poland. Joined by the cities of Racibórz and Rybnik, Jastrzębie Zdrój forms a secondary industrial ...
▪ county, Hungary       megye (county), east-central Hungary. It is bounded by the counties of Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén to the north, Hajdú-Bihar and ...
Jászai, Mari
▪ Hungarian actress Hungarian form  Jászai Mari , original name  Mária Krippel  born Feb. 24, 1850, Ászár, Hung. died Oct. 5, 1926, Budapest       Hungarian ...
/jaht, jawt/, n. a member of an Indo-Aryan people living mainly in northwestern India. In early times they offered vigorous resistance to the Muslim invaders of India. * * ...
▪ Brazil       town, southwestern Goiás estado (“state”), south-central Brazil. It lies at the confluence of the Claro and São Pedro rivers at 2,323 feet (708 m) ...
/jah"teuh keuh/, n. Buddhism. a collection of fables, many concerning former lives of the Buddha. * * * ▪ Buddhist literature (Pāli and Sanskrit:“Birth”),  any of the ...
/jah"tee/, n. Hinduism. caste (def. 2). Cf. varna. [ < Skt jati] * * * ▪ Hindu caste also spelled  jat,         caste, in Hindu society. The term is derived from the ...
/jay"toh/, n., pl. jatos. a jet-assisted takeoff, esp. one using auxiliary rocket motors that are jettisoned at the completion of the takeoff. [1940-45; Amer.; j(et) a(ssisted) ...
▪ plant  (genus Jatropha), member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), native in both New World and Old World tropics and containing about 175 species of milky-juiced herbs, ...
▪ Brazil       city, central São Paulo estado (state), Brazil, on the Jaú River, a tributary of the Tietê River, at an elevation of 1,775 feet (541 m) above sea ...
Jaufré Rudel, Seigneur de Blaye
▪ French troubadour (lord of Blaye) flourished 1130, –50       second to Guilhem VII, count of Poitiers on the ordinary list of great troubadours (troubadour), wrote ...
/jahk, jawk/, v.i. Scot. to dally; dawdle. [1560-70; orig. uncert.] * * *
/jawn"dis, jahn"-/, n., v., jaundiced, jaundicing. n. 1. Also called icterus. Pathol. yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, etc., due to an increase of bile ...
/jawn"dist, jahn"-/, adj. 1. affected with or colored by or as if by jaundice: jaundiced skin. 2. affected with or exhibiting prejudice, as from envy or resentment: a jaundiced ...
▪ India  city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It straddles the Gomati River northwest of Varanasi (Benares). Jaunpur probably was originally founded in ...
—jauntingly, adv. /jawnt, jahnt/, n. 1. a short journey, esp. one taken for pleasure. v.i. 2. to make a short journey. [1560-70; orig. uncert.] * * *
See jaunty. * * *
See jauntily. * * *
jaunting car
a light, two-wheeled, one-horse cart, once common in Ireland, having two seats set back to back, with a perch in front for the driver. [1795-1805] * * * ▪ carriage also ...
—jauntily, adv. —jauntiness, n. /jawn"tee, jahn"-/, adj., jauntier, jauntiest. 1. easy and sprightly in manner or bearing: to walk with a jaunty step. 2. smartly trim, as ...
/jawp, jahp/, n. Scot. and North Eng. 1. a splash, spurt, or drop of water. 2. a spot or stain, as from a splash of water or mud. Also, jawp. [1505-15; perh. akin to JAW2] * * *
/zhaw rddes"/, n. Jean Léon /zhahonn lay awonn"/, 1859-1914, French socialist and writer. * * *
Jaurès, (Auguste-Marie-Joseph-) Jean
born Sept. 3, 1859, Castres, France died July 31, 1914, Paris French socialist leader. He served in the Chamber of Deputies (1885–89, 1893–98, 1902–14) and at first ...
Jaurès, Jean
▪ French politician born Sept. 3, 1859, Castres, Fr. died July 31, 1914, Paris  French socialist leader, cofounder of the newspaper L'Humanité, and member of the French ...
Jau·rès (zhô-rĕsʹ), Jean. 1859-1914. French journalist and leader of the French Socialist Party before World War I. In 1914 he argued for arbitration rather than armed ...
Jav abbrev. 1. Java 2. Javanese * * *
Javanese. * * *
/jah"veuh/ or, esp. for 2, /jav"euh/, n. 1. the main island of Indonesia. 76,100,000 (with Madura); 51,032 sq. mi. (132,173 sq. km). 2. (usually l.c.) Slang. coffee: a cup of ...
Java black rot
Plant Pathol. a disease of stored sweet potatoes, characterized by dry rot of and black protuberances on the tubers, caused by a fungus, Diplodia tubericola. * * *
Java cotton
kapok. * * *
Java fig.
See weeping fig. * * *
Java finch.
See Java sparrow. * * *
Java man
the fossil remains of Homo erectus found in Java. [1930-35] * * * Common name of fossilized Homo erectus remains found in 1891 at Trinil, Java. The remains, a skullcap and ...
Java Sea
a sea between Java and Borneo. * * * Part of the western Pacific Ocean between Java and Borneo islands. Measuring 900 mi (1,450 km) long by 260 mi (420 km) wide, it occupies a ...
Java sparrow
a finchlike weaverbird, Padda oryzivora, of southeastern Asia, having gray plumage tinged with pink on the belly, often kept as a cage bird. Also called Java finch. [1860-65] * * ...
Java Trench
a trench in the Indian Ocean, S of Java: deepest known part of Indian Ocean. 25,344 ft. (7725 m) deep. Formerly, Java Trough. * * * ▪ Indian Ocean also called  Sunda Double ...
Javadi Hills
▪ hills, India       range of hills, one of the larger of the Eastern Ghats, in northern Tamil Nadu (Tamil Nādu) state, southeastern India. About 50 miles (80 km) ...
Java man n. Pithecanthropus. * * *
/jav'euh neez", -nees", jah'veuh-/, adj., n., pl. Javanese. adj. 1. of or pertaining to the island of Java, its people, or their language. n. 2. a member of the native Malayan ...
Javanese language
      member of the Western, or Indonesian, branch of the Austronesian (Austronesian languages) (Malayo-Polynesian) language family, spoken as a native language by more ...
      original genus name assigned to Solo man, now widely considered a subspecies of Homo erectus. See Solo man. * * *
/zhah'veuh ree"/, n. a river in E South America, flowing NE from Peru to the upper Amazon, forming part of the boundary between Peru and Brazil. 650 mi. (1045 km) long. Also, ...
Javari River
▪ river, South America Portuguese  Rio Javari,  Spanish  Río Yavarí,         river that rises on the border between Amazonas state, Brazil, and Loreto department, ...
Computer programming language developed by Netscape in 1995 for use in HTML pages. JavaScript is a scripting language (or interpreted language), which is not as fast as compiled ...
Java sparrow n. A small grayish bird (Padda oryzivora) native to tropical Asia and often kept as a cage bird. * * *
Javel water
/zheuh vel", zha-/ sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, dissolved in water, used as a bleach, antiseptic, etc. Also, Javelle water. [1870-75; trans. of F eau de Javel, after Javel former ...
/jav"lin, jav"euh-/, n. 1. a light spear, usually thrown by hand. 2. Track. a. a spearlike shaft about 81/2 ft. (2.7 m) long and usually made of wood, used in throwing for ...
javelin throw
Track-and-field sport of throwing a wooden or metal spear for distance. It is hurled after a short run and must land point-first. The men's javelin is 8.5 ft (260 cm) long, the ...
/hah'veuh lee"neuh/, n. See under peccary. [1815-25, Amer. < AmerSp jabalina, Sp: fem of jabalín wild boar, dial. var. of JABALÍ < Ar (khinzir) jabali mountain (boar)] * * *
Javelle water
Javelle water or Javel water [zhə vel′] n. 〚after Javel, former Fr village (now part of Paris), where it was made〛 a solution of sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, in water, used ...
Ja·velle water also Ja·vel water (zhə-vĕlʹ) n. An aqueous solution of potassium or sodium hypochlorite, used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.   [Translation of ...
/jav"its/, n. Jacob K(oppel) /koh pel"/, 1904-86, U.S. politician: senator 1957-81. * * *
▪ mountains, Europe       mountain range on the western fringe of the Carpathian Mountains that forms the northern segment of the boundary between Moravia (Czech ...
jaw1 —jawless, adj. /jaw/, n. 1. either of two bones, the mandible or maxilla, forming the framework of the mouth. 2. the part of the face covering these bones, the mouth, or ...
jaw harp
jaw harp n. JEW'S-HARP: also jaw's harp or jaws' harp * * *
/jawz"hahrp'/, n. jew's-harp. * * *
Jawa [jä′və] Indonesian name for JAVA2 * * *
Jawa Barat
▪ province, Indonesia English  West Java   propinsi (province), western Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by Jawa Tengah (Central Java) province to the east, the Indian ...
Jawa Tengah
▪ province, Indonesia English  Central Java        provinsi (province), central Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by Jawa Barat (West Java) province on the west, the ...
Jawa Timur
▪ province, Indonesia English  East Java        provinsi (province), eastern Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by the province of Jawa Tengah (Central Java) on the west, ...
Jawahiri, Muhammad Mahdi al-
▪ 1998       Iraqi poet considered one of the Arab world's all-time finest poets and said to be the last neoclassic Arab bard (b. July 26, 1899?—d. July 27, 1997). * ...
/jeuh wahn"/, n. a soldier in the Indian army. [1830-40; < Urdu javan] * * *
Jawara, Sir Dawda Kairaba
▪ president of The Gambia born May 16, 1924, Barajally, MacCarthy Island, The Gambia       politician and veterinarian who was The Gambia's prime minister from 1962 to ...
—jawboning, n., adj. /jaw"bohn'/, n., v., jawboned, jawboning, adj. n. 1. a bone of either jaw; a maxilla or mandible. 2. the bone of the lower jaw; mandible. v.t., v.i. 3. ...
See jawbone. * * *
See jawboner. * * *
—jawbreaking, adj. —jawbreakingly, adv. /jaw"bray'keuhr/, n. 1. Informal. a word that is hard to pronounce. 2. a very hard, usually round, candy. 3. Also called jaw crusher. ...
See jawbreaker. * * *
See jawbreaking. * * *
/jawd/, adj. having a jaw or jaws, esp. of a specified kind (often used in combination): heavy-jawed; square-jawed. [1520-30; JAW1 + -ED3] * * *
Jawf, Al-
▪ Saudi Arabia       town and oasis, northern Saudi Arabia. It lies at the northern edge of an-Nafūd (Nafūd, An-) desert near the source of the Wadi as-Sirḥān. ...
/jaw"fish'/, n., pl. (esp. collectively) jawfish, (esp. referring to two or more kinds or species) jawfishes. any of several large-mouthed fishes of the family Opisthognathidae, ...
/yow len"skee/, n. Alexej von /ah'le ksay" feuhn/, 1864?-1941, German painter, born in Russia. * * *
Jawlensky, Alexey
orig. Aleksei Iavlenskii born March 13, 1864, Torzhok, Russia died March 15, 1941, Wiesbaden, Ger. Russian-born German painter. He gave up a military career to study painting, ...
Jawlensky, Alexey von
▪ Russian painter born March 13, 1864, Torzhok, Russia died March 15, 1941, Wiesbaden, Ger.       Russian painter noted for his Expressionistic portraits and the ...
See jaw. * * *
jawless fish
cyclostome. [1965-70; JAW1 + -LESS] * * *       any of numerous primitive, fishlike, jawless vertebrates comprising the class Agnatha, which includes the lampreys, ...
jawless fish n. Any of several eellike marine and freshwater fishes lacking a jaw and paired appendages that constitute the subphylum Agnatha. The only present-day jawless fish ...
/jaw"luyk'/, adj. resembling a jaw or pair of jaws. [JAW1 + -LIKE] * * *
Jaworski, Leon
▪ American lawyer born Sept. 19, 1905, Waco, Texas, U.S. died Dec. 9, 1982, Wimberly, Texas       American lawyer who rose to national prominence on Nov. 5, 1973, when ...
▪ Poland       city, Śląskie województwo (province), south-central Poland. It was founded in the 18th century when rich deposits of zinc and lead ore and beds of coal ...
/jawp, jahp/, n. Scot. and North Eng. jaup. * * *
/jaw"rohp'/, n. Naut. a rope tied across the jaw of a gaff to hold it to the mast. [1825-35; JAW1 + ROPE] * * *
a very successful film (1975) about a large shark (= dangerous fish) that attacks people. The film was directed by Stephen Spielberg and was based on a novel of the same name by ...

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